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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Frankfort on the Main 03: Third Reich, Holocaust and after

Boycott, dismissals, aryanizations, terror, concentration camps - Nazi reforms - over 50% emigration - deportations - little community after 1945

from: Frankfort on the Main; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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<Holocaust Period.

[Boycott day - dismissals from jobs - aryanizations and anti-Jewish terror - Jewish organizations - detentions to concentration camps - forced unification forming the Jewish Community]

Nazi action against the Jews began on April 1, 1933, with a boycott of Jewish businesses and professionals,

[[there was a boycott day, but the worldwide Jewish organizations organized a big counter boycott against Germany all the time from 1933-1945. Many Germans followed the boycott day but went to make their purchases the day after]]

followed on April 7 by the dismissal of Jewish white-collar workers, university teachers, actors, and musicians. State and party pressure subsequently resulted in the closing or "aryanization" of almost all Jewish-owned firms,

[[the Hitler regime gave the enterprises to his political "friends" in Germany and abroad, also in "neutral" Switzerland]]

while local S.A. units and Nazi students terrorized Jewish citizens. Though originally prohibited, these arbitrary actions were in later years legalized by the Reich government which helped to organize and coordinate them. The Jewish community reacted by expanding existing services, establishing new agencies for economic aid, reemployment, occupational training, schooling, adult education, and emigration. All institutions were under strict surveillance by the Gestapo.

On Nov. 10-11, 1938, the big synagogues of the two Jewish communities, situated at Friedberger Anlage [[Friedberg Park]], Dominikanerplatz (formerly Boerneplatz), Am Grossen Wohlgraben (formerly Boernestrasse), and Freiherr-von-Stein-Strasse were burned down. Community building, Jewish homes, and stores were stormed and looted by the S.A., the S.S., and mobs they had incited.

Hundreds of Jewish men were arrested and sent to *Buchenwald and *Dachau concentration camps. Members of the Orthodox Religionsgesellschaft [[Orthodox Religious Association]] were compelled to combine with the general community to form a single community organization which the Nazis named Juedische Gemeinde [[Jewish Community]].

[Reichsvereinigung - transferring of property and organizations - emigration and recruitment under Officer Holland - over 50% emigration until 1941 - deportations]

In 1939 this autonomous community was forcibly merged into the state-supervised Reichsvereinigung Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland [[RVE, Reich's Federation of the Jews in Germany)]]. Jewish leaders were compelled to enter into Judenvertraege [[Jewish contracts]], transferring communal property to municipal ownership. Welfare foundations taken over by the municipal authorities in December 1938 were placed under direct Gestapo control in May 1940. Gestapo Officer Holland, who was also a city official, supervised Jewish welfare and emigration, later organizing labor recruitment and "orderly proceedings" before deportation. (col. 90)

The Frankfort community decreased by emigration from 26,158 in 1933, to 10,803 in June 1941, although there was an influx of Jewish families from the countryside. Deportations to Lodz began on October 19, 1941, and were followed by deportations to *Minsk, *Riga, *Theresienstadt, and other camps. In September 1943, after large-scale deportations stopped, the Jewish population in Frankfort totaled 602, including half-Jews.

[E.S-O.]

[[Not mentioned are:
-- Jewish hiding within Christian families
-- change of names or religion
-- arbitrary flight movements]].

After World War II.

After the war, a new community was organized, consisting of those who had outlived the war in Frankfort, survivors from concentration camps, and displaced persons, totaling 1,104 in 1952. They were joined by a number of pensioners and Israelis, and the community in creased to 2,566 by 1959 and 4,350 by 1970, to become the largest in West Germany (excepting that of Berlin); the average age of its members was 45.4, and two thirds were aged over 40. One of the large synagogues was rebuilt, and by 1970 five prayer rooms were also in use.

The first postwar Jewish elementary school in Germany was opened there in 1965, and a communal periodical Frankfurter juedisches Gemeindeblatt [[Frankfort Jewish Communal]] commenced publication in March 1968. The Frankfort municipal library contains the largest collection of Judaica in Germany (about 25,000 volumes and 325 Mss.). The ancient *Memorbuch of the community was presented to the Jewish National Library in Jerusalem in 1965.

[H.W.]> (col. 91)

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Bibliography

HISTORY

-- I. Kracauer: Geschichte der Juden in Frankfurt a. M. [[History of the Jews in Frankfort on the Main]]; 2 vols. (1925-27)
-- A. Freimann and F. Kracauer: Frankfort (Eng., 1929)
-- H. Schwab: Memories of Frankfort (1955)
-- M. Horovitz: Frankfurter Rabbinen [[Frankfort Rabbis]]; 4 vols. (1882-85)
-- J. Rosenheim: Zikhronot (1955), 9-111
-- T. Oelsner, in: YIVO Bleter, 20 (1942), 223-42
-- N.N. Glatzer, in: YLBI, 1 (1956), 105-22
-- A. Galliner, ibid., 3 (1958), 169-86
-- Wiener Library, London: German Jewry (1958), index
-- E. Mayer: Frankfurter Juden [[Frankfort Jews]] (1966)
-- Germ Jud, index
-- D. Andernacht and E. Sterling (eds.): Dokumente zur Geschichte der Frankfurter Juden [[Historical documents of the Frankfort Jews]] (1963)
-- D. Andernacht (ed.): Das Philanthropin zur Frankfurt am Main [[The Philanthropic of Frankfort on the Main]] (1964)
-- HJ, 10 (1948), 99-146
-- J. Katz: Freemasons and Jews (1970), index
-- M. Eliav: Ha-Hinnukh ha-Yehudi be-Germanyah bi-Ymei ha-Haskalah ve-ha-Emanzipazyah (1960)

HOLOCAUST
-- PK Germanyah
-- P. Friedman (ed.): Bibliografyah shel ha-Sefarim ha-Ivriyyim al ha-Sho'ah ve-al ha-Gevurah (1960), index
-- N. Bentwich; in: AJR Information, 25 (Aug. 1970), 8

PRINTING
-- B. Friedberg: Ha-Defus ha-Ivri be-Merkaz Eiropah... (1935); 62 ff.

MUSIC
-- I.M. Japhet: Schirei Jeschurun (1922)
-- S.Z. Geiger: Divrei Kehillot (1862)
-- S. Scheuermann: Die gottesdienstlichen Gesaenge der Israeliten fuer das ganze Jahr [[The Israeli holy chants of the year]] (1912)
-- F. Ogutsch: Der Frankfurter Kantor [[The Frankfort Cantor]] (1930).> (col. 92)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Frankfort
                          on the Main, vol. 7, col. 89-90
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Frankfort on the Main, vol. 7, col. 89-90
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Frankfort
                          on the Main, vol. 7, col. 91-92
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Frankfort on the Main, vol. 7, col. 91-92


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