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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Hanover

Jewish community - Black Death expulsions - Jewish community - badge - expulsion orders without expulsion - destroyed synagogue in 1613 - schooling - emigration wave - Holocaust - post-war times

from: Hanover; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol. 7,
                    col. 1278. The Hanover synagogue, opened in 1870,
                    enlarged in 1900, and destroyed by the Nazis
                    [[probably S.A. pogrom "Chrystal Night"]]
                    in 1938. Courtesy Hanover Municipality. Photo
                    Hermann Friedrich.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol. 7, col. 1278. The Hanover synagogue, opened in 1870, enlarged in 1900, and destroyed by the Nazis [[probably S.A. pogrom "Chrystal Night"]] in 1938. Courtesy Hanover Municipality. Photo Hermann Friedrich.

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<HANOVER, (Ger. Hannover), city in W. Germany.

[Jewish community - Black Death expulsions - community - badge since 1451 - expulsion orders - destroyed synagogue in 1613]

Sources dating from 1292 note the presence of Jews in Hanover's "old city" (Altstadt). The period was one of significant expansion for the city and, therefore, Jewish moneylenders were welcomed and promised protection by the city council.

A municipal law of 1303 prohibited anyone from molesting the Jews "by word or deed". The Jewish community grew significantly, and by 1340 ritual slaughter was permitted in the city.

During the *Black Death persecutions the Jews were driven from the city. In 1369-71 only one Jew lived in Hanover until he, too, was expelled by the council, with the permission of the duke.

In 1375 the dukes yielded to the city the privilege of admitting Jews and retaining their taxes. Shortly thereafter historical records again attest to the presence of Jews in the city. By 1500 several Jews also lived [[... one line is missing ...]] (col. 1277)

maintained a synagogue and a rabbi. In 1451 the bishop of Muenden forced the Jews of Hanover to wear the distinguishing *badge, and in 1553 the Jews were compelled to listen to the court preacher Urbanus Rhegius in the synagogue. Between 1553 and 1601 the dukes issued six orders of expulsion against the Jews, but they were either canceled or not carried out. Apparently the Jews who were under the protection of the city were not affected by these orders. In 1588 the council forbade all business connections with Jews, and for a long time Jews did not live in the "old city".

In 1608 the residence of six Jewish families in the "new city" is mentioned, but when they opened a synagogue it was destroyed by the burghers (1613). In the 17th century the dukes permitted the settlement of several wealthy Jews in the "new city". At the request of the Court Jew Leffmann *Behrens, a resident of Hanover, a rabbinate was founded for the Duchy of Hanover. In 1704 a synagogue was established in Behrens' home. In 1710 only seven Jewish families lived in the city, but subsequently their number increased considerably, reaching 537 in 1833.

[Schooling]

Hanover became an important center of Jewish learning and increasingly the residence of important Jewish figures in the financial world. A larger synagogue was built in 1870 and expanded in 1900. From 1848 to a880 Solomon *Frensdorff, the masoretic scholar, headed a teachers seminary. Hebrew printing took place in Hanover during the 18th and 19th centuries. Among the more significant works produced was Jacob b. Asher's commentary on the Pentateuch (1838). Prominent rabbis of Hanover include Nathan *Adler (1831-45) and Selig Gronemann (1844-1918).

[Numbers - emigration wave]

The Jewish population numbered 1,120 in 1861 (1.9% of the total population), 3,450 in 1880 (2.8%), 5,130 in 1910 (1.7%), 4,839 in 1933 (1.1%), and 2,271 in 1939 (0.5%).

[[As it seems between 1933 and 1939 there was a big emigration wave and more than 50% of the Jews left Hanover]].

[Holocaust]

On the eve of World War II Hanover had one of the ten largest Jewish communities in Germany, with over 20 cultural and welfare institutions. Despite the many overt anti-Semitic acts directed against Hanover Jewry from the beginning of [[... one line is missing ...]] (col. 1278)

intensifying its Jewish educational system, particularly its youth organizations, and preparing its residents for emigration. The destruction of the community began in earnest in 1938 when the synagogues were destroyed and Jews terrorized.

[[Jews from the countryside were driven to Hanover]].

Some 2,900 Jews from Hanover were deported to the concentration camps between 1941 and 1945.

[[Hideouts, changing name or religion, flight and resistance of Jews or Germans are missing in this article]].

[Post-war times]

After the war 66 survivors of the prewar community returned.

[[Surviving by changing name or religion is not mentioned in this article]].

In 1963 a new synagogue was opened; in 1966 there were 450 Jews in Hanover (0.03% of the total population). (col. 1279)

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol. 7,
                    col. 1279. The new synagogue of Hanover, opened in
                    1963. Courtesy Hanover Municipality. Photo Hermann
                    Friedrich.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol. 7, col. 1279. The new synagogue of Hanover,
opened in 1963. Courtesy Hanover Municipality. Photo Hermann Friedrich.


[State of Hanover]

Former German State.

The Duchy of Hanover was formed out of the former territories of *Brunswick and Lueneburg in the 17th century. Duke Ernst August (1679-98) obtained the title of elector through the services of Leffmann Behrens, whose descendants continued in the service of the crown till the middle of the 19th century. Other prominent families of Court Jews were David, Cohen, and Gans. The dukes established their rights of taxation and guardianship over the Jews, expressed in the *Judenordnung [[Jewish law]] of 1723, in force until 1842, which severely restricted the number of Jews there. In 1808 the Jews of Hanover received civil rights either through annexation of the territory to France or its incorporation in the newly created Kingdom of Westphalia. These rights were abolished in 1815, and the basic 1842 legislation concerning the Jews confirmed discrimination against them by expressly excluding Jews from state posts. The Jewish oath was rescinded only in 1850. The Jews finally achieved emancipation three years after Hanover passed to Prussia (1966) [[and the State of Hanover was abolished]].


Bibliography

-- H. Bodemeyer: Die Juden: ein Beitrag zur Hannoverschen Rechtsgeschichte [[The Jews: History of Justice in Hannover]] (1855)
-- Wiener, in: Jahrbuch fuer die Geschichte der Juden und des Judenthums [[Year Book about the History of the Jews and of Jewry]], 1 (1860), 167-216
-- idem, in: MGWJ, 10 (1861), 121-36, 161-75, 241-58, 281-97; 13 (1864), 161-84
-- M. Zuckerman: Dokumente zur Geschichte der Juden in Hannover [[Documents about the History of the Jews in Hanover]] (1908)
-- S. Gronemann: Genealogische Studien ueber die alten juedischen Familien Hannovers [[Genealogical Studies about the old Jewish Families of Hannover]] (1913)
-- Blau, in: Zeitschrift fuer Demographie und Statistik der Juden [[Review for Demography and Statistics of the Jews]], 8 (1912), 70-75; 10 (1914), 110-6
-- S. stern: The Court Jew (1950), index
-- Leben und Schicksal: zur Einweihung der Synagoge in Hannover [[Life and Faith: opening of the Hanover Synagogue]] (1963)
-- Germ Jud, 2 (1968), 337-40
-- A. Loeb: Die Rechtsverhaeltnisse der Juden im ... Hannover [[The Justice Circumstances of the Jews in ... Hanover]] (1908)
-- Pinkas ha-Kehillot (1963)
-- S. Freund: Ein Vierteljahrtausend Hannoversches Landrabbinat 1687-1937 [[250 Years of Hanover Rabbinate in the Countryside 1687-1937]] (1937)
-- H. Schnee: Die Hoffinanz und der moderne Staat [[The Court Finance and the Modern State]], 2 (1954), 11-85
-- BJCE.

[Z.AV.]> (col. 1279)
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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol.
                      7, col. 1277-1278
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol. 7, col. 1277-1278
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol.
                      7, col. 1279
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hanover, vol. 7, col. 1279


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