Jews in Bordeaux
Jews since 4th century - English rule 1154-1453 with Jewish taxes - French rule - "Portuguese" and "Avignonese" community - charitable institution "Sedaca", later "Nation" - equality since 1791 - Holocaust deportations - influx of African Jews
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Bordeaux, vol. 4, col. 1246. Beginning of the diary of the Bordeaux Jewish deputation to the French National Assembly, December 30, 1789-January 1, 1790. Jerusalem, C.A.H.J.P.
from: Bordeaux; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 4
presented by Michael Palomino (2008)
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<BORDEAUX, city in the department of Gironde, S.E. France; in the Middle Ages, capital of the duchy of Guienne.
[First Jews settling in Bordeaux - archeology and reports - Jewish cemeteries and Jewish streets]
The first written evidence of the presence of Jews in Bordeaux dates to the second half of the sixth century, when it is related that a Jew derided a priest who expected a saint to cure him of his illness. A golden signet ring, dating from the beginning of the fourth century, was found in Bordeaux in 1854 bearing three menorot [[lights, lamps]] and the inscription "Aster" (=Asterius).
Prudence of Troyes relates that the Jews behaved treacherously during the capture of Bordeaux by the Normans in 848. Although based on malice, this anecdote confirms the presence of Jews in the city.
From 1072 reference is made to a Mont-Judaique, outside the walls between the present Rues Dauphine and Mériadec, where the Jewish cemetery was located. The Jewish street, called Arrua Judega in 1247 (now Rue Cheverus) lay at the foot of this hill (now leveled off). The present Porte Dijeaux (= Dijeus, de Giu) is referred to as Porta Judaea from 1075.
[English rule 1154-1453: no expulsions, but Jewish taxes - pogrom of 1320 by the Pastoureaux]
While Bordeaux was under English sovereignty (1154-1453), the Jews were spared the edicts of expulsion issued by the kings of France, though they were nominally expelled in 1284, 1305, and 1310-11. The anti-Jewish measured introduced by the English kings were undoubtedly aimed at extorting money, since the Jews continued to reside in Bordeaux and pursue their activities. In 1275 and 1281 Edward I intervened on behalf of the Jews of Bordeaux who were being overtaxed by nobles. However, Edward II issued a further ineffective edict of expulsion in 1313, and in 1320 the Jews were savagely attacked by the *Pastoureaux. Their residence was authorized by Edward III in 1342, when they had to pay an annual due of eight pounds of pepper to the archbishop.
The Jews in Bordeaux were organized into the Communitas Judeorum Vasconie ("Community of the Jews of Gascony"). It is not certain whether or when they were (col. 1243)
formally expelled after Bordeaux was incorporated into France in 1453.
[French rule: Influx of Jewish Marranos ("Portuguese merchants") from Spain and Portugal since 1492 - settlements St. Eulalie and St. Eloy - cultural life with cemeteries, marriages, communal institutions and charitable institution "Sedaca"]
At the end of the 15th century, Marranos began to arrive in Bordeaux, first coming from Spain and later from Portugal. The Marranos were appreciated for their commercial activities, and in 1550 obtained letters-patent from Henry II authorizing "the merchants and other Portuguese called 'New Christians' " to reside in the towns and localities of their choice. They outwardly practiced Catholicism, and although the general populace suspected them the authorities closed their eyes to possible Judaizing. A more liberal attitude was evinced when in 1604 and in 1612 Maréchal d'Ornano, lieutenant-général of Guienne, issued an ordinance forbidding persons to "speak ill of or do evil to the Portuguese merchants".
Since they lived mainly in the two parishes of St. Eulalie and St. Eloy, Marranos claimed burial in the cemeteries of the parishes of St. Projet and St. Michel, and in the cemeteries of the Augustine, Carmelite, Franciscan, and St. Francis of Paola monasteries. In 1710 a portion of the Catholic cemetery was reserved especially for them.
Their marriages were performed by Catholic priests, and all the formalities, including application for papal dispensation in cases of consanguinity, were duly observed. A change of attitude can be noted in 1710 when the Marranos began to profess Judaism more openly. If the priests continued to register their marriages, they added a note to the effect that the marriage had been or would be performed "in accordance with the customary rites of the Portuguese nation".
At the beginning of the 18th century, a communal institution was established, ostensibly to serve as a charitable organization, named Sedaca. Out of its funds, which were derived from regular contributions paid by its members according to their ability, the organization paid for the maintenance of the Sephardi communities of the "four holy cities" of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel), for the local poor, and for needy travelers. Subsequently, the Sedaca undertook to provide for the cost of a physician for the poor, as well as to pay for certain officeholders in the community, the teachers of the talmud torah [[Talmud Torah school]] (established before 1710), and a rabbi. The first to hold this office was Joseph Falcon (from 1719), followed by Jacob Hayyim (Ḥayyim) Athias and the latter's son David. [[...]]
[Influx of Jews from Avignon and Comtat-Venaissin - official reference as "Jews" since 1723 - Jewish settlement in Bordeaux itself - "Portuguese" and "Avignonese" Jews - "protection tax" - 7 prayer rooms and public defamation]
At the turn of the century, Jews who declared themselves as such more openly had arrived from Avignon and Comtat-Venaissin to settle in Bordeaux. In 1722 they numbered 22 families. For reasons of respectability and other considerations, the "Portuguese" deliberately kept apart from the newcomers. (col. 1244)
At the beginning of the 18th century, the Portuguese Jews in Bordeaux numbered 327 families (1,422 persons), while the "Avignonese" Jews numbered 81 families (348 persons). (col. 1245)
It was only in new letter-patent obtained in 1723 (the previous ones had been granted by Louis XIV in 1656) that the "Portuguese merchants" were for the first time officially referred to as Jews. [[...]]
In 1731 the municipal administrator objected to the regulation whereby the "Portuguese" Jews of Bordeaux had to pay protection tax like the Jews of *Metz. Nevertheless in 1734 this official reminded the Jews of Bordeaux that the practice of the Jewish religion in public was forbidden. A report of 1753 mentions as a "scandal" that the Jewish religion was being practiced in seven synagogues; in fact these were prayer rooms in private dwellings.
[Portuguese "Sedaca" is renamed "Nation" - more charitable tasks and more associations (Yesibot) - and an Avignonese "Nation"]
Meanwhile, the communal organization of the Portuguese, the Sedaca, had taken the name "Nation".
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Bordeaux, vol. 4, col. 1243. Title page of the registerof resolutions
of the Bordeaux Porguguese "Nation", recording proceedings from 1710 to 1787.
Bordeaux, Archives Departmentales de la Gironde.
Apart from providing funds for religious and charitable requirements, it also supplied the funds necessary for registering letters-patent, for the salary of a representative in Paris, and other purposes. The "Nation" assumed the capacities of an internal police, in particular expelling paupers or vagrants from Bordeaux.
Strictly charitable functions were henceforth discharged by specialized (col. 1244)
associations, the Yesibot, which included the Hebra or Hermandad [[Brotherhood]] for circumcisions and wedding ceremonies, and also attended to visits to the sick and funerals; the Guemilout Hazadim, the association of gravediggers; and the Yesiba Bikour Holim and Misenet Holim, for the care of and visits to the sick (see also *Hevrah (Ḥevrah)).
From 1728, the "Nation" had its own cemetery (today Cours St. Jean no. 105), acquired by David Gradis in 1724. Burials took place there from 1725 until the French Revolution (this cemetery was closed in 1911), and from 1764 in a second cemetery (now Cours de l'Yser no. 176), which subsequently served the entire Jewish community of Bordeaux.
The "Avignonese" owned a cemetery from 1728 on land purchased by David Petit (now Rue Sauteyron no. 49); this cemetery was used until 1805. The status of the "Nation" of the "Portuguese" community was approved by Louis XV on Dec. 14, 1769. The "Avignonese" constituted themselves a "Nation" in 1759, but had, in fact, been an organic body for a long while.
The "Portuguese" engaged in financial activities and the supply of marine equipment, the "Avignonese" engaged almost exclusively in the textile and clothing trades, new or secondhand.
[Expulsion decree of 1734 without expulsion - expulsion decrees 1740 and 1748]
In 1734 a decree was issued expelling the "Avignonese, Tudesque, or German" Jews from Bordeaux. This, however, they managed to evade by obtaining permission to prolong their stay under various pretexts. New decrees of expulsion were issued in 1740 and 1748. [[There is no indication if there was any expulsion]].
In 1759 six Avignonese Jewish families at last obtained letters-patent similar to those of the "Portuguese".
[Preparations for the French Revolution - equal rights declared in 1790]
On the eve of the French Revolution, while the *Malesherbes Commission was engaged in its task of studying the reforms to be applied to the condition of the French Jews, the "Portuguese Nation" of Bordeaux appointed two representatives to attend it in April 1788, S. Lopès-Dubec and Abraham *Furtado. These proposed that clauses be included in the constitution planned for the Jews of France to ensure the maintenance of ancient privileges relating to freedom of residence, economic activities, property, etc. They also envisaged the possibility of differentiating between the legal status of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews on the one hand and of the "German" Jews on the other. Contrary to what was happening elsewhere, the Jews of Bordeaux directly participated in the preparation of the States-General.
When on Dec. 24, 1789, this assembly determined to defer a decision on the concession of equal rights to the Jews, a deputation of seven Sephardi Jews from Bordeaux, including David Gradis and Abraham Rodrigues, went to Paris. Their activities resulted in a decree issued on Jan. 28, 1790, declaring that "all Jews known in France under the name of Portuguese, Spanish, and Avignonese Jews ... shall enjoy the rights of citizens."
One of the first manifestations of this equality of rights was on Dec. 6, 1790, when A. Furtado and S. Lopès-Dubec took office on the municipal council of Bordeaux. These two also figured on the Bordeaux Committee for Public Safety formed on June 10, 1793. During the Reign of Terror no Bordeaux Jews were condemned to death but many were imprisoned or ordered to pay heavy fines.
[Numbers of 1806 - political and cultural life since 1791 - emigration movement in 19th century]
A census of 1806 records 2,131 Jews living in Bordeaux, of whom 1,651 were of Spanish or Portuguese origin, 144 Avignonese, and 336 of German, Polish, or Dutch origin.
When the *Assembly of Jewish Notables was convened by Napoleon that year, the department of the Gironde sent two delegates, both from Bordeaux, Abraham Furtado and Isaac Rodrigues: the first became president of the Assembly (col. 1245)
and the second its secretary. In the consistorial organization (see *Consistory) which was formed following the sessions of the "Great Sanhedrin" (see French *Sanhedrin), Bordeaux became the seat of a Consistory whose jurisdiction extended over ten departments, with 3,713 members.
Abraham Andrade was appointed chief rabbi. The private prayer rooms were replaced by a large synagogue (Rue Chausserouge), inaugurated on May 14, 1812, and partly destroyed by fire in 1873. Of the 12 members of the municipal council in 1830 two were Jews: Camille Lopès-Dubec and Joseph Rodrigues. Lopès-Dubec was also one of the 15 deputies elected for the department of the Gironde to the National Assembly in 1848. Toward the middle of the 19th century Jewish institutions in Bordeaux included a school for boys and girls, a trade school, and a talmud torah [[school]]. IN the second half of the 19th century, many Jews sat on the general council of the department, on the municipal council, and in the chamber of commerce. Adrien Léon was elected to the National Assembly in 1875.
During the 19th century, the Jewish population of Bordeaux dwindled through emigration, numbering only 1,940 in 1900.
[[In 1871 the French Emperor system was abolished. Also the time from 1900 until 1940 is missing in the article, with decisive happenings like the development of the shipping industry, the international stock exchange crash of 1929 with heavy unemployment, and anti-Semitism by unemployment, and probably there was also a right radical and a royal movement]].
Holocaust and Postwar Periods.
[Bordeaux is Jewish refugee center since 1940 - deportation of 2/3 - numbers of 1941 - further deportations 1942-1944]
Bordeaux served as a final station for countless Jewish refugees who fled from northern France in May-June 1940. The town, administered within the Occupied Zone after the Franco-German armistice (June 21, 1940), was one of the most important centers of Nazi police and military activities. Two-thirds of the Jewish population, local Jews and refugees alike, were arrested and deported, including the residents of the old-age home.
A census of the Jewish population of June 1941 showed only 1,198 persons originating from Bordeaux or from southeastern France out of a total of 5,177; most were refugees from other parts of France and even from abroad [[e.g. Belgium, Poland]]. The head office (col. 1246)
of the international rescue organization HIAS-ICA was transferred to Bordeaux.
Between July 1942 and February 1944, 1,279 Jews were deported from Bordeaux by the Germans. [[There is no indication how many Jews come back from the deportations]]. A monument has been erected in their memory.
In January 1944, French Fascists ransacked the great synagogue, which the Nazis had turned into a detention camp where the victims of their roundups waited to be deported.
[[Indications about concentration camps and about resistance and underground movement are missing in the article. Flight was possible to Spain over the Pyrenees for Jews who had money, or they were murdered by their local assists on the trail. It also can be assumed that many Jews survived by hiding, or they assumed other names or other religion so they were not counted as Jews any more]].
[Post-war times - influx of Jews from northern Africa]
After the war the survivors of the Bordeaux Jewish community reconstructed the synagogue with the aid of photographs and eyewitness accounts. When the task was completed 12 years later, the Bordeaux synagogue (built in 1882) was restored to its former renown as the largest (1,500 seats) and most beautiful Sephardi synagogue in France. Meanwhile the Jewish population increased with the arrival of new members, including a new Ashkenazi congregation.
In 1960 there were 3,000 Jews in the community, and with the arrival of Jewish immigrants from N. Africa, the population doubled, with 5,500 persons in 1969. Bordeaux, the seat of a Chief Rabbinate, maintains a community center and a network of Jewish institutions.
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-- L.F. de Beaufleury: Histoire de l'établissement des Juifs à Bordeaux et Bayonne [[History of Jewish settlement in Bordeaux and Bayonne]] (1800)
-- T. Malvezin: Histoire des Juifs à Bordeaux [[History of the Jews in Bordeaux]] (1875)
-- G. Cirot: Les Juifs de Bordeaux [[The Jews in Bordeaux]] (1920)
-- idem, in: Revue historique de Bordeaux..., 29 [[Bordeaux Historical Review..., 29]] (1936); 31 (1938); 32 (1939)
-- Gross: Gal Jud, 111
-- A. Detcheverry: Histoire des Israélites de Bordeaux [[History of the Israelis of Bordeaux]] (1850)
-- Drouyn, in: Archives historiques de la Gironde, 21 [[Gironde Historical Archives, 21]] (1881), 159, 272, 533, 535; 22 (1882), 48, 563, 569, 599, 635, 639
-- Gaullier, in: REJ, 11 (1885), 78 ff.
-- Bouchon, in: Bulletin de la Société Archéologique de Bordeaux, 35 [[Review of the Archeological Society of Bordeaux]] (1913), 69 ff.
-- A. de Maille: Recherches sur les origines chrétiennes de Bordeaux [[Christian origin research of Bordeaux]] (1960), 211 ff.
-- H.G. Richardson: English Jewry under Angevin Kings (1960), 232-3
-- Z. Szajkowski: Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer [[Analytical French-Jewish Journal]] (1966), index
-- idem, in: PAAJR, 27 (1958), 83 ff.> (col. 1347)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Bordeaux, vol. 4, col. 1243-1244
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Bordeaux, vol. 4, col. 1245-1246
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Bordeaux, vol. 4, col. 1247
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