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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Nancy

Jewish settlement - expulsion in 1477 - resettlement in 1595 - Jewish bankers - edict of settlement in 1721 - professions and cultural life - Jewish refugees 1871 - Holocaust - post-war period

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Nancy, vol. 12,
                  col. 816. The synagogue of Nancy, built in 1788 and
                  renovated in 1842 and 1935. Courtesy Bernard
                  Blumenkranz. Photo J. Roth, Paris
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Nancy, vol. 12, col. 816. The synagogue of Nancy, built in 1788 and
renovated in 1842 and 1935. Courtesy Bernard Blumenkranz. Photo J. Roth, Paris

from: Nancy; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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<NANCY, capital of Meurthe-et-Moselle department, northeastern France; former capital of the Duchy of *Lorraine.

[Jewish settlement - expulsion in 1477 - resettlement in 1595 - Jewish bankers as Court Jews - edict of settlement in 1721]

In 1286 the Jews acquired a cemetery at nearby Laxou.

In 1341, and later in 1455, several Jews settled in Nancy itself only to be expelled from the Duchy in 1477.

The Jews temporarily reappeared in Nancy in 1595; and Maggino Gabrieli, called "consul-general of the Hebrew and Levantine nation", attempted to establish two banks and a pawnshop in 1637-1643.

In 1707 and 1712 Duke Leopold authorized three Jewish bankers from *Metz to (col. 815)

settle in Nancy, one of whom, Samuel *Lévy, became the duke's chief tax collector in 1715 [[so they were "Court Jews"]]. After Lévy fell into disgrace there was a hostile reaction toward the Jews. Nevertheless, in 1721 an edict authorized 70 Jewish families to remain in Lorraine, eight of them in Nancy and its surroundings.

[Professions - first official synagogue in 1788 - rabbis]

The 90 Jewish families in Nancy in 1789 (50 of whom were without authorization), included such wealthy merchants and manufacturers as the *Alcan, Goudchaux, and *Berr families from whom the trustees of the duchy's Jewish community were chosen. Herz *Cerfberr became squire of Gomblaine; and *Berr Isaac Berr became the leader of the Ashkenazi Jews in 1789. There was a house of prayer in 1745, but it was not until 1788 that a synagogue was officially erected (renovated in 1842 and 1935), eight years after the chief rabbi of Lorraine established himself in Nancy. Notable among the chief rabbis of the consistory formed in 1808 were Marchand *Ennery and Solomon "Ullmann.

[Jewish refugees from German occupied Alsace and Moselle since 1870 - Polish Jewish prayer room]

With the influx of people from Alsace and Moselle after 1870, the number of Jews in Nancy increased to some 4,000 by the end of the century. The prayer room of the Polish Jews was decorated by the artist *Mané-Katz. Nancy was the birthplace of the writer André *Spire and Nobel Prize winner F. *Jacob.

[G.C.]

[[In 1871 the French Emperor system was abolished. The time from 1900 until 1940 is missing in the article, with decisive happenings like the French re-occupation of Alsace and Moselle in 1918, the international stock exchange crash of 1929 with heavy unemployment, and anti-Semitism by unemployment, and probably there was also a right radical and a royal movement]].

Holocaust Period.

[Three aktionen - deportations - robbed and destroyed Jewish values]

Many of Nancy's prewar Jewish population (about 3,800 in 1939) fled the city under the German occupation. Those who stayed were exposed to Nazi persecution. In three aktionen in 1942-43, 130 Jews of foreign origin were arrested and deported from the Southern Zone after it was overrun by the Germans in 1942. Only 22 survivors returned.

Among the old French Jewish families, 250 victims were deported, of whom only two survived.

[[Probably others were under the Displaced Persons and emigrated directly or changed names or religion etc.]].

The majority were arrested on March 2, 1944, along with 72-year-old Chief Rabbi Haguenauer, who despite his being forewarned, refused to desert the members of his community. A street in postwar Nancy bears his name.

The synagogue, (col. 816)

as well as other buildings belonging to the Jews, were plundered by the Nazis [[and their collaborators]]: the synagogue interior was destroyed while the holy books were sold to a rag collector. Certain of the art works and books in the local museum and departmental archives were saved.

[Post-war times]

After the war the community of Nancy was rapidly renewed, and by 1969 had about 3,000 members with a full range of Jewish communal institutions. A chair for Hebrew studies was set up at the university.

[G.LE.]

Bibliography

-- Gross, Gal Jud, 400
-- C. Pfister: Histoire de Nancy [[History of Nancy]], 1 (1902), 678-81; 3 (1908), 310-38
-- A. Gain et.a..; in: Revue juive de Lorraine [[Jewish Review of Lorraine]], 2-3 (1926-27); 9-11 (1933-35), passim
-- J. Godchot; in: REJ, 86 (1928), 1-35> (col. 817)
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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Nancy, vol. 12,
                    col. 815-816
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Nancy, vol. 12, col. 815-816
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Nancy, vol. 12,
                    col. 817
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Nancy, vol. 12, col. 817


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