Kontakt     Hauptseite / page
                principale / pagina principal / home     zurück / retour /
                indietro / atrás / back

Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Poland: Little towns L-Z

Opatow - Wegrow - Wyszkow - Wronki - Zabludow - Zabolotov - Zabrze - Zambrow

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

Share:

Facebook








Jews in Lezajsk (Pol. Lezajsk; Yid. Lyshansk)

from: Lezajsk; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 11

<LEZAJSK (Pol. Le
żajsk; Yid. Lyzhansk), town in Rzeszow province, S.E. Poland.

Teh Jews of Lezajsk are first mentioned in 1538. In the middle of the 17th century teh community possessed a wooden synagogue and a cemetery. During the 17th and 18th centuries the Jews of Lezajsk engaged in the grain trade, the weaving of woolen cloth, and the brewing of beer, and were contractors of estates and inns. According to the census of 1765, 909 Jewish poll tax payers lived in Lezajsk and its environs. When the
ẓaddik [[ultra radical Jew]] R. *Elimelech settled in Lezajsk in 1775, it became an important center of *Ḥasidism in Poland and Galicia. Each year (until the Holocaust) on the anniversary of his death (21st of Adar), thousands of Jews used to journey to pray at his grave in Lezajsk.

[Fires]

Fires in 1834 and again in 1873 severely affected the economic situation of the community, but toward the end of the century conditions began to improve.

[Numbers]

The Jewish population fluctuated between

1,868 (38% of the total) in 1880,

1,494 (28%) in 1900,

1,705 (32%) in 1910,

and 1,575 (31%) in 1921.

[Racist Zionist activities since 1920]

In the interwar years [[racist]] Zionist parties and youth movements were active in the town. There were Tarbut [[Kultur]], Yavneh, and Beth Jacob schools in the town. [A.CY.]

Holocaust Period. [Poles looting Jewish stores - Stalin deportations to the Soviet zone - ghetto - NS deportations to camps - survivors in the Soviet zone]

The number of Jews in Lezajsk in 1939 rose to more than 3,000. With the outbreak of the war in September, the Poles began to loot stores and attack the Jews. Jewish self-defense was organized.

The Germans entered Lezajsk on the eve of Roth Ha-Shanah [[Jewish New Year]] (September 1939), set [[with Polish collaborators]] synagogues afire, and burned [[with Polish collaborators]] sacred books in the town square. On the eve of Sukkot [[Feast of Booths]] the Jews were deported by the Germans to the area under Soviet control on the other side of the San River. Part of teh community went into hiding and was later allowed to remain in the city. They were concentrated in the ghetto, and in 1942 many of them were transported to work or death camps.

[[Probably the camps were for tunnel constructioning]].

Those who were deported to the Soviet zone lived there in very difficult economic conditions. In the summer of 1940 many of them were deported to the Soviet interior.

[[These were Stalin deportations because the Jews from Western Poland rejected the Soviet passport, see in the article Holocaust, Rescue from]].

A few hundred Jews mostly from those who were in the U.S.S.R., survived.

The old Jewish cemetery was destroyed by the Nazis [[and their collaborators]] and in its place a park was later made. Only the grave of the ẓaddik Elimelech remained. The main synagogue housed the town museum. [AR.W.]

Bibliography:
-- D. Rabin (ed.): Lizhansk, Sefer Zikkaron
-- Halpern, Pinkas, index
-- M. Schorr: Żydzi w przemyślu do końca XVIII wieku (1903), index
-- B. Wasiutyński: Ludność żydowska w Polsce... (1930), 116.> [col. 184]

Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Lezajsk
                        (Lyshansk)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Lezajsk (Lyshansk)

-----

Jews in Opatow

from: Opatow; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12

<OPATOW (Pol. Opatów; Yid. Apta), town in Kielce province, E. Poland.

A Jewish settlement existed in Opatow from the 16th century. In 1634 the town was divided into two sectors, the Christian and the Jewish, the latter known as the "Street of the Jews". According to Samuel Feivish in Tit ha-Yaven (Venice, 1670) over 200 Jewish families perished there during the Swedish invasion of Poland in 1656. Conditions became so difficult that in 1687 the **Council of the Four Lands issued an ordinance prohibiting other Jews from settling in Opatow without obtaining express permission from the community board (kahal).

The community in Opatow was efficiently organized at this period, and its diverse activities, including collection for the needy of Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], were administered by various officers (ne'emanim and gabba'im).

In the 18th century its economic position deteriorated and it became dependent on the whims of the overlords of the town and the governor. The minute book (pinkas) of the Opatow community was an important source of information for the history of Polish Jewry; a copy was preserved in the communal archives in Warsaw up to 1939.

The Jewish population in Opatow increased in the 19th century, numbering 2,517 in 1856 (out of a population of 3,845), and 4,138 in 1897. Among the noted personalities who lived in Opatow the best known is the hasidic (ḥasidic) [[Orthodox]] zaddik (ẓaddik) [[ultra radical Jew]] *Abraham Joshua Heshel, "the rabbi of Apta". [[...]]

Before World War II 5,200 Jews lived in Opatow. [[...]]

[[This number of 5,200 Jews as number of Jews "before World War II" can be the number of the census of 1931, and in this case there was a big emigration wave of the younger generation 1931-1939, and the number of Jews of 1939 was much lower, see *Poland]].

Holocaust Period.

[Jewish flight movement to eastern Poland under Soviet rule - fires - deportation - contribution - ghetto - typhus - forced labor]

The town came under the Radom District of the General-Government during the Nazi occupation. Many Jews fled before the Germans entered, young Jewish men in particular escaping to Soviet-occupied territory.

After the capitulation of the town, the Germans set fire to the market place where mainly Jews lived. Over the next days 200 men, Poles and Jews, were deported and never returned [[probably were shot in a massacre]]. A "contribution" (fine) of 60,000 marks was exacted, and Jews were evicted from the better residences which were handed over to German officers.

A ghetto was officially established in the spring of 1941. It was open and without fence or guard, but Jews were forbidden to leave it on pain of death. Food, however, was available illegally in the open ghetto for high prices, so that Jews with means did not (col. 1410)

suffer from hunger. The poor (among them deportees and refugees from other places), who had no property or could not get work or were not hardy enough to get on in these difficult conditions, suffered misery and hunger, being left only with the meager, official food rations. Among the poor an epidemic of typhus broke out and a hospital was set up in the synagogue, which also served the surrounding Jewish towns. Jews engaged in hard labor in the vicinity of Opatow, on road construction and in quarries.

[Influx of other deported Jews into the ghetto - raids for forced labor - Jewish Council with collaboration and help]

The number of Jews in Opatow grew continually because of the influx of refugees from surrounding townlets and villages, as well as from distant towns - *Konin, *Lodz, and *Warsaw. In September 1940 there were 5,800 Jews, 600 of them newcomers; by September 1942 there were about 7,000 Jews, 1,800 of them deportees. Shortly before the liquidation a number of Jews from Silesia settled in Opatow Ghetto, which from June 1, 1942, was one of the 17 ghettos officially left in the country.

In July 1941 the German police [[with the collaborators]] began abducting young men for labor camps. Raids were carried out by German police with the help of Jewish police. Jews found in hiding were often executed. Until the liquidation of the ghetto, about 1,900-2,100 Jews were sent to the labor camps. A group of youth planning armed resistance bought weapons from Poles and stored them in the garret of the synagogue. The German police, who were informed, seized the weapons and shot a group of girls who were found there.

The Judenrat [[Jewish Council]] was composed of well-known persons, mainly [[racist]] Zionists.the president, Mordekhai Weissblum, is reported to have taken care of the Jewish population, organized Jewish life, and alleviated German persecution and repression by personal diplomacy and bribery. But the Judenrat was also reproached for having prepared lists of candidates for labor camps, although it also sent parcels with food and clothing to the camp inmates.

[Final Aktion and deportations to Treblinka - cleaned ghetto]

The liquidation of the ghetto took place on Oct. 20-22, 1942. German police and Ukrainians surrounded the ghetto and carried out a mass Selektion in the square. Six thousand Jews were driven on foot to the Jasice station near Ostrow, loaded onto wagons, and taken to *Treblinka. Another 500 to 600 Jews were taken to a labor camp in Sandomierz. During the three-day Aktion several hundred Jews were killed in the town. the Germans left a few score Jews in Opatow to clear the terrain and sort out Jewish property. After the work was completed the Jews were shot at the Jewish cemetery, with the exception of a few individuals, among them the president of the Judenrat [[Jewish Council]], who reached labor camps in Sandomierz. The community was not reconstituted after the war.

[DE.D.]

[[Polish Jewish refugees of 1939 in the Soviet occupied eastern Poland
The Jewish refugees of 1939 who arrived in eastern Poland got the choice to get the Soviet passport or to return to Nazi occupied Poland. Most of the Jewish refugees wanted to keep Polish nationality and inscribed for a return. This anti-Soviet gesture was taken for reason to deport the refugees to central Russia (1940). See: *Holocaust, Rescue from. A part of them was drawn into the Russian army (1941), another part lost their lives by cold and hunger in Siberia or in Soviet labor camps (1940-1944). Another part came back since 1946, and the rest stayed in central Russia and a part of them were counted as Yiddish speaking Jews in the central Soviet republics]].

Bibliography

-- Apt (Opatov), Sefer Zikkaron ... (Heb. and Yid., 1966)
-- A. Rutkowski, in: BZIH, no. 15-16 (1955), 75-182 passim
-- Yad Vashem Archives.> (col. 1411)

g
Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Opatow, vol.
                        12, col. 1410
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Opatow, vol. 12, col. 1410
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Opatow, vol.
                        12, col. 1411
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Opatow, vol. 12, col. 1411

g

-----

Jews in Wegrow

from: Wegrow; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

<WEGROW (Pol. Wegrów); in Jewish documents: Vengrove), town in Warszawa province, E. Poland.

[16th century-1794]

Jews settled there at the beginning of the 16th century, when it was under Lithuanian rule. They engaged in trading both locally and abroad, and in tax farming. An organized community was established soon after the middle of the 16th century.

After the town was incorporated withing the kingdom of Poland in 1569, the community developed rapidly to achieve a leading position among the communities of the region. The owner of the town, Jan Kazimierz Kraniński, in an attempt to attract new Jewish settlers, granted the community in 1655 a privilege confirming its right of judicial autonomy, freedom to engage in trade and crafts, and exemption from municipal taxes. It imposed on the Jews an annual tax of two zlotys per household, and a one-time payment of six zlotys by new families as a domiciliary fee.

At the beginning of the 17th century the Wegrow community had jurisdiction over the communities of Ciechanowiec, *Sokolow, and later *Miedzyrzec Podlaski and others. After a prolonged struggle against the kahal [[assembly, community board]] of *Tykocin, the Wegrow kahal obtained official representation at the *Council of Four Lands, and from the 1660s headed the independent galil (province) of Wegrow, which survived until 1764.

In 1715 the Ciechanowiec community broke free of the authority of Wegrow, to be followed by Miedzyrzec in 1753. In 1765 there were 3,623 poll-tax payers under the community's jurisdiction, of whom 581 lived in the town. In 1764 the Wegrow community was the sixth largest in the Polish kingdom. Up to 1788 the Jewish community of the Praga suburb of Warsaw was affiliated to that of Wegrow as regards the payment of the poll tax.

In the second half of the 18th century Jews of the town traded in cattle, participated in the fairs of Breslau, Berlin, and Koenigsberg, and were occupied as tailors, weavers, furriers, bakers, and carters. The Jewish artisans were mostly organized in independent  guilds. The pinkas [[minute book]] of the dayyanim [[judges]] of Wegrow for 1781 to 1814 (now in the National and University Library in Jerusalem) provides an important source for the social and economic life of the community. In the 1790s Jewish entrepreneurs established workshops for wool weaving and tanning, and wealthy merchants were purveyors to the Polish and Russian armies. In 1794 a branch of the Hebrew printing press of *Nowy Dwor, founded by J.A. Krieger, printed books in Wegrow including *Josippon.

[[About Napoleon times and emancipation law under Napoleonic law is nothing mentioned in this article]].

[1815-1918]

In 1815 Wegrow was incorporated within Congress Poland. The community numbered 1,463 (48% of the town's population) in 1827; 2,343 (61%) in 1857; and 5,150 (62%) in 1897. From the 1870s many Jews took up occupations as jewelers, manufacturers of luxury goods and ritual articles, and engaged in transportation. At the beginning of the 20th century many Jews in Wegrow were occupied in the knitting and tanning industries. The *Bund gained considerable influence among the local workers in 1905.

[[The whole period of World War I with it's battles, refugees and hardship is not mentioned in this article]].

In 1918 the [[racist]] *Po'alei Zion established Bet Borochov; later (col. 372)

Tarbut [[culture]], Central Yiddish School Organization (CYSHO), Yavneh, and Beth Jacob schools were established. In Orthodox circles the Gur (*Gora Kalwaria) Hasidim (Ḥasidim) became influential. The Jewish population numbered 5,227 (55% in 1931).

[A.CY.]

[[...]] At the outbreak of World War II there were about 6,000 Jews in Wegrow.  [[...]]

[[This number of "about 6,000" Jews as number of Jews "at the outbreak of World War II" is a wrong estimation with a normal birth rate without considering the emigration of the younger generation 1931-1939 and with a sinking birth rate. The number of Jews of 1939 was much lower than in 1931, can be 3,000; see *Poland]].

Holocaust Period.

[Attacks - influx of other Jewish deportations - deportations to Treblinka - flight to the forests - shooting of the searched]

[[...]] Immediately after the German army entered the town, attacks were made on the Jewish population, and on Sept. 23, 1939 (the Day of Atonement), the rabbi of Wegrow, Mendel Morgenstern, was tortured to death. During 1940 about 1,500 Jews from other parts of Poland were forced to settle in Wegrow, and the number of Jews there had grown to about 7,500 by the beginning of 1942. On Sept. 22, 1942, several thousand Jews from Wegrow and the vicinity were transferred to the *Treblinka death camp, where they perished. However, the majority of the Jewish population had managed to escape to the surrounding forests the previous day. Almost all of them were eventually caught and shot by German armed units [[and their collaborators]] who searched them out. The last 100 Jews, who had remained in a local forced-labor camp, were executed on May 1, 1943.

The community was not reconstituted after the war.

[S.KR.]

[[Flight movement to eastern Poland under Soviet rule is missing in this article]].

Bibliography

-- Halpern, Pinkas, index
-- L. Loewenstein: Index approbationum (1923), 15, 18, 85, 102, 132, 140, 143-4
-- E. Ringelblum: Projekty i próby przewarstwowienia Zydów w epoce stanisławowskiej (1934), 94
-- idem: Di Poylishe Yidn in Oyfshtand fun Kościuszko (1937), 123
-- R. Mahler, in: YIVO Historishe Shriftn, 1 (1937), 644
-- Z. Rubashow (Shazar), ibid., 187, 189
-- M. Baliński and T. Lipiński: Starozytna Polska, 3 (1845), 412
-- R. Rybarski: Handel i polityka handlowa Polska,  w XVI stuleciu, 2 (1928), 89, 93, 149, 155-8
-- M. Kremer, in: Zion,no. 3-4 (1936), 311
-- Yevreyskaya Starina, 4 (1911), 286
-- B. Wasiutyński: Ludność zydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 35, 66, 72, 77.> (col. 373)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wegrow, vol.
                        16, col. 372
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wegrow, vol. 16, col. 372

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wegrow, vol.
                        16, col. 373
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wegrow, vol. 16, col. 373


-----

Jews in Wronki

from: Wronki; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

<WRONKI (Ger. Wronke; in Jewish sources: Vronik), town in Poznan province, W. Poland.

The Jewish community of Wronki was first organized in the early 17th century. In 1607 permission was granted to build a synagogue and in 1633 a royal privilege confirmed the rights of the Jews in the town. They engaged in wholesale trade and crafts; toward the end of the 17th century they participated in the *Leipzig fair.

At that time representatives from Wronki served in important posts on the *Council of the Lands. IN 1765 the poll-taxpaying Jews of Wronki and surrounding villages numbered 483. Their occupations included tailoring, goldsmithery, and weaving. The debts of the community then reached the enormous sum of 200,000 zlotys.

From 1793 up to 1918 the town was under Prussian rule. In 1808 there were 543 Jews in Wronki (32% of the total population); 791 (35%) in 1840; 604 (24%) in 1871; 528 (12%) in 1895; 380 (8%) in 1905; 314 (6.5%) in 1910 and 187 (4%) in 1921. IN the 1860s the local Jews started to move westward to Berlin and other large German cities. When the city was annexed to Poland in 1918 the Jewish population continued to dwindle.

[[The economy of independent Poland of 1919 was catastrophic because of the new borderlines in eastern Europe which blocked the markets. There was a harsh Polish anti-Semitic government. Especially the young generation was emigrating 1919-1939, see *Poland]].

Holocaust Period.

[Deportations - and no death]

On the outbreak of World War II, Wronki had 31 Jews. On Nov. 7, 1939 all the Jews were deported to the General Government via Buk, in Nowy Tomysl county. In the small town of Buk about 1,300 Jews from many other places in the districts of Poznan (Posen) and Inowroclaw (Hohensalza) were concentrated, and sent a month later to the Mlyniewo camp near Grodzisk Poznanski (Suedhof). From there they were sent on to Sochaczew-Blonie county in the General Government, Warsaw District, where they were allowed to disperse among the small towns of the region.

[DE. D.]

[[It can be assumed that they were working in agriculture substituting the missing men in the armies]].

Bibliography

-- Helpern, Pinkas, index
-- A. Heppner and J. Herzberg: Aus der Vergangenheit und Gegenwart der Juden und der juedischen Gemeinden in den Posener Laendern [[From the Past and the Present of the Jews and the Jewish Communities in Pozen Regions]] (1909), index
-- I. Schiper: Dzieje handlu zydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937), index
-- B. Wasiutyński: Ludność zydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 167.> (col. 672)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wronki, vol.
                        16, col. 672
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wronki, vol. 16, col. 672


-----


Jews in Wyszkow

from: Wyszkow; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

<WYSZKOW (Pol. Wyszków), town in Warszawa province, E. central Poland.

The first Jews settled in Wyszkow in the late 18th century. In 1827 the Jewish population numbered 278 (29% of the population). Throughout the 19th century no restrictions were put on Jewish settlement, and in 1857 the Jewish population had reached 1,067 (67%). The wealthier Jews engaged in the timber trade and the brewing of beer; others engaged in tailoring, fishing, carpentry, tanning, haulage, and shopkeeping.

In the late 19th century the community was influenced by the hasidic (ḥasidic) [[Orthodox]] groups of *Aleksandrow and Gur (*Gora Kalwaria). In 1897 Wyszkow contained 3,207 Jews (64%). At the beginning of the 20th century a Jewish workers' union was formed and during the uprisings of 1905 the Jewish youth organized *self-defense. A Jewish library opened in 1909. After the Red Army retreated in 1920, some officers of the Polish army accused the Jews of Wyszkow of treason, almost inciting a pogrom.

[1921-1939: cultural life]

Between the two world wars Abraham Cytryn headed the "Bet Yosef" yeshivah [[religious Torah school]], which had 250 students. There was a CYSHO school [[school of the Central Yiddish School Organization]] (see *Education) between 1925 and 1930 and a *Beth Jacob school. Jacob Aryeh Morgensztern, who later led the *Radzyn Hasidim (Ḥasidim) [[Orthodox Jews]], served as rabbi of the community until 1932. He was succeeded by his son, David Shelomo Morgensztern, who was killed in the Holocaust. Economic competition in the 1930s caused an increase in anti-Semitism. Mordecai *Anielewicz, commander of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, originated from Wyszkow.

[A.CY.]

Holocaust Period.

[Expulsion of the Jews to Soviet eastern Poland]

On the outbreak of World War II there were about 5,000 Jews in the town.

[[This number of "about 5,000" Jews as number of Jews "on the outbreak of World War II" is a wrong estimation with a normal birth rate without considering the emigration of the younger generation 1931-1939 and with a sinking birth rate. The number of Jews of 1939 was much lower than in 1931, can be 3,000; see *Poland]].

The German army entered Wyszkow on Sept. 11, 1939,

[[Jewish flight movement to Soviet eastern Poland is not mentioned]]

and organized anti-Jewish riots in which 65 Jews were shot. A few days later, the entire Jewish population was expelled and forced to move eastward into Soviet-occupied territory.

After the Warsaw ghetto uprising [[1943]], the survivors of the Jewish Fighters' Organization formed a partisan unit named after Mordecai Anielewicz that operated in the forests near Wyszkow.

After the the war, no Jewish community was reconstituted in Wyszkow.

[S. KR.]

[[Polish Jewish refugees of 1939 in the Soviet occupied eastern Poland
The Jewish refugees of 1939 who arrived in eastern Poland got the choice to get the Soviet passport or to return to Nazi occupied Poland. Most of the Jewish refugees wanted to keep Polish nationality and inscribed for a return. This anti-Soviet gesture was taken for reason to deport the refugees to central Russia (1940). See: *Holocaust, Rescue from. A part of them was drawn into the Russian army (1941), another part lost their lives by cold and hunger in Siberia or in Soviet labor camps (1940-1944). Another part came back since 1946, and the rest stayed in central Russia and a part of them were counted as Yiddish speaking Jews in the central Soviet republics]].

Bibliography

-- Slownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego, 14 (1895), 147-8
-- Zydowska Rada Narodowa: Sprawozdanie z dzialalności tymczasowej zydowskiej Radzie Narodowej ... (1921)
-- B. Wasiutyński: Ludność zydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 25
-- T. Berenstein and A. Rutkowski, in: BZIH, 38 (1961), 3-38; 39 (1961), 63-87
-- D. Shtokfish (ed.): Sefer Vishkov (1964).> (col. 680)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wyszkow, vol.
                        16, col. 680
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Wyszkow, vol. 16, col. 680


-----

Jews in Zabludow

from: Zabludow; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

<ZABLUDOW (Pol. Zabludów), town S.E. of *Bialystok, in N.E. Poland.

Jewish settlement in Zabludow began to develop toward the end of the 15th century. The wooden synagogue, built in 1646 and restored in 1765, is one of the best examples of the type in Poland. An important commercial center, Zabludow was the venue of the meetings of the Council of Lithuania (see *Councils of Lands) in 1664 and 1667.

The Russian conquest in 1660 caused terrible suffering to the community. The minute book (pinkas) of the community, containing its records from 1650 to 1800, and of the burial society (1701-1819) are extant.

The Jewish population increased from 831 in 1764 to 2,621 by 1897 (68.6% of the total population). During the 19th century weaving and tanning industries developed in Zabludow. Owing to deteriorating economic conditions [[and because of growing anti-Semitism since the murder of the czar since 1881]], many Jews emigrated to the United States between 1905 and 1925 [[and afterward to other countries]].

Zabludow reverted to Poland after World War I.

In 1939 the community numbered about 2,000.

[[This number of "about 2,000" Jews as number of Jews "in 1939" is a wrong estimation with a normal birth rate without considering the emigration of the younger generation 1931-1939 and with a sinking birth rate. The number of Jews of 1939 was much lower than in 1931, can be 1,000; see *Poland]].

[[Sovietization 1939-1941, Stalin deportations 1940-1941, and the Big Flight from Barbarossa in June 1941 with many Jews in the Communist administration and in the industrial staff are missing in this article]].

During World War II, the Jews of Zabludow were mobilized by the Germans for work in the tanneries. On November 2, 1942, they were deported to the death camp at *Treblinka.

Bibliography

-- Assaf, in: KS, 4 (1925), 307-17
-- YIVO, Historishe Shriftn [[Yidd.: Historical Papers]], 2 (1937), 579-81
-- Bachrach, in: YIVO Bletter [[Yidd.: YIVO Papers]], 28 (1946), 317-28
-- Mitteilungen zur juedischen Volkskunde [[News about Jewish Popular Research]], no. 8 (1901), 162-68
-- M. and K. Piechotka: Boznice drewniane (1957).

[Y.S.]> (col. 901)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabludow,
                        vol. 16, col. 901
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabludow, vol. 16, col. 901


-----

Jews in Zabolotov

from: Zabolotov; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

<ZABOLOTOV (Pol. Zablotów), town in Ivano-Frankovsk (Stanislav) oblast, [[today]] Ukrainian S.S.R.

The Jewish settlement in Zabolotov developed in the 18th century, and by 1764 there were 986 Jews in the town.

From 1772 till 1918 the (col. 901)

region was part of the Austrian empire. In the early 19th century there was a strong hasidic (ḥasidic) [[Orthodox]] trend in the community, due mainly to David Hager (d. 1848; see *Kosov), who founded a rabbinic dynasty centered in the town. the *Baron de Hirsch foundation established a school and a bank.

The Jewish population numbered 1,730 (49% of the total) in 1880; 2,009 (50%) in 1890; 2,092 (49%) in 1900; and 2,171 (46%) in 1910. Toward the end of World War I many Jews left Zabolotov because of anti-Semitic attacks. In 1921 there were only 1,454 Jews (41%) left. Between the world wars the town was under [[harsh anti-Semitic]] Polish administration.
[[Considering the harsh Polish anti-Semitic government and the emigration of the younger generation 1921-1939 with the effect of a further sinking birth rate the number of Jews of 1939 was much lower than in 1921, can be 600; see *Poland]].

Holocaust Period.

[Soviet rule with sovietization 1939-1941 -

Under Soviet rule (1939-41) the town's Jewish institutions were disbanded.

[[Stalin deportations 1940-1941, and the Big Flight from Barbarossa in June 1941 with many Jews in the Communist administration and in the industrial staff are missing in this article]].

[Hungarian rule - German Nazi rule 1941-1944: pogroms - Jewish Council - raids - deportations - general evacuation to Kolomyya - new Jewish influx - deportation to Belzec]

Early in July 1941 Hungarian forces took Zabolotov. The Ukrainians organized pogroms against the Jewish inhabitants. The town passed to direct German rule in September 1941. The Germans imposed a *Judenrat [[Jewish Council]], headed by Neta Feliks, but he was removed shortly after for refusing to fulfill German orders.

[[The following numbers are very high (900+100+250=1,250). Probably there were deportations to Zabolotov from outside which are not mentioned]].

On Dec. 22, 1941, the authorities carried out an Aktion against the Jews, killing and burying 900 Jews in trenches on the road to Trojce. About 100 Jews were shot in the town itself. This was followed by the deportation of 250 Jews on April 11, 1942, to an unknown destination.

On April 24 orders were given for the general evacuation of the remaining Jews to the ghetto in *Kolomyya within a three-day time limit. The mass exodus of inhabitants was averted for a few days by the payment of a sum of money, but afterward everyone moved, except for 20 persons designated as "indispensable", who were allowed stay. In the Kolomyya ghetto the refugees (col. 902)

underwent starvation and suffered from disease. About 250 Jews working in the vicinity of Zabolotov were again allowed to live in the town, and were exempt for the meantime from deportation.

On Sept. 7, 1942, the remainder of the Jewish community of Zabolotov, along with all the Jews in that district, was sent to Snyatyn. They were all deported to the *Belzec extermination camp. The Zabolotov Jews in Kolomyya were liquidated along with the other inmates of the Kolomyya ghetto in an Aktion in January 1943.

[Survivors]

Societies of former residents of Zabolotov function in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel and the [[criminal racist]] U.S.

[AR.W.]

[[Unfortunately there is no number of the survivors in the article]].

Bibliography

-- B. Wasiutyński: Ludność zydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 124
-- R. Mahler: Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index
-- Ir u-Metim: Zabolotov ha-Mele'ah ve-ha-Harevah (Heb. and Yid., 1949) a memorial book.> (col. 903)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabolotov,
                        vol. 16, col. 901-902
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabolotov, vol. 16, col. 901-902

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabolotov,
                        vol. 16, col. 903
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabolotov, vol. 16, col. 903


-----

Jews in Zabrze

from: Zabrze; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

[Synagogue since 1865 - Holocaust - Jewish returnees from central Russia since 1945]

<ZABRZE (from 1915 to 1945, Hindenberg), industrial city in Katowice province, Poland. The Jews who first settled in Zabrze at the beginning of the 19th century belonged to the congregation of neighboring *Beuthen. An independent community was established in 1872. A synagogue was erected in 1865 and a cemetery opened in 1871.

In 1931 there were 1,200 Jews living in Zabrze out of a total population of 70,000.

[[Flight movement of 1939 to eastern Poland is not mentioned. The passport restriction and the Stalin deportations of 1940 to central Russia with these Jewish refugees from western Poland are not mentioned]].

The community was annihilated by the Nazis [[and their collaborators]].

The new community formed after world War II consisted mainly of Jewish repatriates from Russia.

[ED.]> (col. 903)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabrze, vol.
                        16, col. 903
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zabrze, vol. 16, col. 903

-----

Jews in Zambrow

from: Zambrow; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

<ZAMBROW (Rus. Zambrov), town in Bialystok province, N.E. Poland.

The few Jews who lived in Zambrow in the early 18th century were not organized into a community being under the jurisdiction of that of *Tykocin (Tiktin). A hevra kaddisha [[Jewish burial society]] was established in Zambrow in 1741, but the Jews buried their dead in the cemetery of the neighboring community of Yablonka.

In 1765, 12 Jews living in Zambrow and another 462 in the surrounding villages paid the poll tax.

In 1808 the Jews of Zambrow numbered 80 (13% of the total population), and in 1837, 320 (31%).

A Jewish cemetery was consecrated in the town in 1828, and in 1830 an organized community with a synagogue, mikveh [[ritual bath]], and permanent religious officials were established. At first the members of the Jewish community engaged in the timber and grain trade, and kept inns. From the middle of the 19th century Jewish occupations included raising horses, cultivation of orchards, crafts, and petty trade.

In 1857 the community numbered 1,022 (63% of the population). In 1890 the local cemetery was enlarged. A kasher kitchen was opened for the hundreds of Jewish soldiers attached to the battalions stationed there. About 400 Jewish houses were destroyed in a great fire in 1895. In 1905-06 Jewish youths and workers, organized within *Bund, the [[racist]] *Zionist Socialist Workers' party ("S.S.") and the [[racist]] *Po'alei Zion, staged a number of strikes in the textile factory and the sawmills.

R. Lipa Hayyim (Ḥayyim) held rabbinical office in the town from the 1850s until his death in 1882. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, R. Dov Menahem Regensberg, who held the position for several decades.

[[The events of the First World War with battle fields, flight movements and hardship are not mentioned in this article]].

In 1921 there were 3,216 Jews (52%) living in Zambrow. Between the two world wars, branches of all the Jewish parties were active in the town. An elementary Yiddish school named after Ber Borochov was established in 1919. It was followed by a Hebrew school and a [[racist]] Zionist kindergarten in 1921. R. Shlomo *Goren, Israel rabbi, was born in this town.

[A.CY.]

Holocaust Period.

[Soviet rule with sovietization 1939-1941: prohibition of Jewish institutions - Stalin deportations with Jewish refugees from Ostrow Mazowieck

Under Soviet administration (1939-41) great changes were introduced affecting Jewish life. All activities of a political or [[racist]] Zionist nature were suppressed, and private enterprise was terminated. Jewish refugees arrived from Ostrow Mazowieck and were offered assistance by the Jewish community. A great number of these refugees were exiled to the Soviet interior.

[[Further Stalin deportations of the capitalists, the class enemies and their families to central Russia are not mentioned in this article]].

[Draft into the Soviet army]

In the spring of 1941 the (col. 923)

young Jews were drafted into the Soviet army.

[[The Big Flight from Barbarossa in June 1941 with many Jews in the Communist administration and in the industrial staff are missing in this article]].

[German Nazi occupation 1941-1944: Jewish Council - massacres - ghetto - typhus - flight to the partisans - Polish Armia Krajowa killing Jewish partisans]

After the war between Germany and the U.S.S.R. broke out (June 22, 1941), the town fell to the Germans. A Judenrat [[Jewish Council]] was set up on German orders, headed by Gerszom Srebrowicz. It tried to alleviate the suffering of the community, but when it did not comply with all the German demands it was disbanded and a new Judenrat was set up, headed by a man who did not belong to the local community.

The first Aktion was carried out on Aug. 19, 1941, in which about 1,500 persons were murdered in the region of Szumowo. During a second Aktion on Sept. 4, 1941, 1,000 persons were put to death in the locality of Rutki-Kosaki.

At the end of December 1941 about 2,000 Jews were forced into a ghetto and subjected to starvation. Typhus epidemics broke out, and the hospital set up to aid the population worked ceaselessly.

People began fleeing to thee forests in an attempt to join the partisans. The severe conditions of the forest, as well as the anti-Semitic attitude of the partisans, forced many Jews to return to the ghetto. Nevertheless, some Jews were able to join partisan units which operated in the area of the Pniewa forest. Many of them were killed by members of the Polish underground Armia Krajowa.

In November 1942 about 20,000 Jews from Zambrow and the vicinity were rounded up and interned in a former army camp. On Jan. 12, 1943, their transport to Auschwitz began in batches of 2,000 a night. Two hundred elderly and sick were poisoned and disposed of locally.

[Survivors in Zambrow - survivors coming back from central Russia

After the war, only a few survivors from Zambrow and the vicinity remained. Others returned from the Soviet Union. Most of the survivors left again for Bialystok and Lodz, and later left Poland. Societies of emigrants from Zambrow were established in the [[criminal racist]] U.S., Argentina, and [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. A memorial book, Sefer Zambrov, in Hebrew and Yiddish with English summary, was published in 1963.

[AR.W.]

Bibliography

-- w. A. P. Bialystok, Z.O.B., 12:1-38 (= C.A.H.J.P., HM 7546-53
-- R. Mahler: Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index
-- B. Wasiutyński: Ludność zydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 36
-- Ha-Meliz, no. 123 (June 4, 1887)
-- Ha-Zefirah, no. 167 (1895); no. 36 (1897).> (col. 924)


Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zambrow, vol.
                        16, col. 923-924
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zambrow, vol. 16, col. 923-924





Č  Ḥ  Ł  ¦  Ṭ  Ẓ  Ż
ā  ć  č  ẹ  ȩ ę ḥ  ī  ł  ń ś ¨ ū  ¸ ż ẓ

^