Jews in Poland 08: Stalinization since 1948
Foundation of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel and the reaction with prohibitions and anti-Semitism waves - emigration waves
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 781. Jewish shoemakers' cooperative, in the early 1960s assisted by the JDC [[Joint Distributed Committee]]. Courtesy Joint Distribution Committee
from: Poland; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 13
presented by Michael Palomino (2008)
[Stalinization since 1948: anti-Semitism and Soviet secret police - "socialist realism" - Jewish organizations are prohibited]
A second factor discouraging any hope for a viable Jewish community in Poland was the rising tide [[wave]] of anti-Semitism in the U.S.S.R.
[[Since 1948 since Israel became a satellite of the criminal, racist "USA" and was working with the Free Masons and with the CIA Stalin turned against all Jews and let perform anti-Semitic waves by the press, performed mass arrests and prohibitions of Jewish organizations etc.]].
Soviet anti-Semitism was at first disguised as a campaign against "rootless cosmopolitans". This was followed by the judicial murder of leading Jewish writers and artists and the total liquidation of Jewish cultural life in the Soviet Union. The campaign culminated in the so-called *Doctor's Plot (see *Anti-Semitism, In the Soviet Bloc). These Soviet developments had an immediate effect on the Polish scene. In 1948 the central committee of the ruling party, the PPR, on Moscow's initiative, accused its first secretary, Wladyslaw Gomulka, and his associates of rightist-nationalist deviation, and Poland became, more than ever, a Soviet satellite. The entire country was overrun by the Soviet secret police. Under these circumstances Poland's attitude toward its Jews could not be substantially different from the Soviet model.
Nevertheless, Stalinist anti-Semitism was effected in Poland without bloodshed and mass arrests. It was the cultural activities of Polish Jewry that were immediately affected, reduced in their scope, and adapted in their content to the new spirit. The Stalinization of Poland was carried out by a variety of measures. The existing workers' parties were merged into a single party, and all other parties were liquidated. The Soviet Union was glorified and its policies in internal and foreign affairs were slavishly copied. In all creative activities "socialist realism" became the rule.
In the Jewish sphere, "unifications" and liquidations were carried out. The first to be liquidated were the [[racist]] Zionist parties and the [[Socialist party]] Bund in November 1949. This was followed by a ban on the operation of the JDC [[Joint]] and ORT, in spite of the assurance given by the Polish Committee of National Liberation in its manifesto of July 20, 1944, and the appeal in December 1945 by the Polish provisional government of foreign aid to be extended to Polish Jews.
[[After the foundation of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel as a satellite of the criminal racist "USA" there was no place for aid for Jewish organizations any more, because this racist Zionist Israel had the aim of a "Greater Israel" from the Nile to the Euphrates according to 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18, and Herzl's booklet "The Jewish State" was the base for this imperialist Jewish state with the aim to enslave all Arabs and to drive them away ad the natives had been driven away in the criminal racist "USA". These reasons are not mentioned in the article]].
Similarly, the recognition of the JDC's work expressed in November 1946, when JDC director, Joseph *Schwartz, was awarded a high decoration by the government, no longer had any meaning. (col. 783)
In mid-1948, the Union of Religious Communities formally joined the Central Committee of Jews in Poland. The cooperation between the two bodies, however, lasted only into the early 1950s, when the Stalinization taking place in the country also affected Jewish life and made the cooperation of secular and religious bodies impossible. (col. 780)
[Jewish structures dissolved]
An act of liquidation by "unification" affected the Union of Jewish Cooperative Societies, representing 200 societies, 15,000 workers, and substantial assets (originally financed (col. 783)
by the JDC) which was forced to merge with the general Polish Union of Cooperatives. On May 16, 1949, a "recommendation" was made to the Central Committee of the Jews in Poland to secede [[to split]] from the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] World Jewish Congress. Finally, the Central Committee itself, whose continued existence as a seemingly independent representative body was not in harmony with the new trend, was ordered to merge with the Jewish Society for Art and Culture. The new organization bore the name Cultural-Social Association of the Jews in Poland (Kultur-Gezelshaftlekher Farband fun di Yidn in Poyln [[Yidd.: Cultural Social Association of the Yiddish Speaking People in Poland]]). All Jewish schools were nationalized in the 1948-49 school year, resulting in the further reduction of Jewish studies. Yiddish as the language of instruction and the teaching of Hebrew had already been eliminated. Such organizations as the Jewish Agency came to be regarded as "agents of imperialism", and any contact with them was highly suspect. The spiritual life of Polish Jews was now restricted to preoccupation with the "progressive" tradition. (col. 784)
[Numbers of 1950 approx. - relatively stable Jewish life 1950-1957]
The mass emigration had resulted in a radical reduction in the number of district and local Jewish committees. Their total number dropped to 30. The largest concentrations of Jews were in Warsaw (about 8,000), Wroclaw [[Breslau]] (about 6,000), Lodz (about 5,000) and Szczeczin [[Stettin]], Katowice [[Kattowitz]], Cracow [[Krakau]], Legnica, and Walbrzych.
In spite of these far-reaching quantitative and qualitative changes, the leaders of the Cultural-Social Association and the other Jewish establishments (such as the Historical Institute, the theater, the publishing house, the literary journal, and the newspaper Folksshtime), both in Warsaw and the provinces, did all in their power to maintain at least a modest level of Jewish activity. In fact, in the period 1950 to 1957, Jewish life in Poland was relatively stable. Even so, there were those in the association who, encouraged by the ruling party, sought to promote assimilation and achieve results. (col. 784)
[1953: Stalin's death and crimes - protest against Russian anti-Semitism - work of JDC and ORT - Jews and Poles coming back from central Russia - network of Jewish schools - new emigration wave]
Stalin's death in 1953 resulted in an easing of tension, but Gomulka's assumption of power, in 1956, completely transformed the Jewish scene in Poland. Revelation of the innumberable crimes committed in the U.S.S.R. during the period of Stalin's rule enabled the Jewish newspaper Folksshtime to publish a passionate protest against Soviet anti-Semitism and its destruction of Yiddish literature and culture.
In Poland it was once more possible to foster [[make tradition of]] Jewish literature and to reestablish contact with Jewish organizations abroad. The JDC [[Joint]] and ORT returned to devote themselves primarily to the approximately 25,000 Polish Jews who were being repatriated from the U..S.S.R., under an agreement between Gomulka's government and the Soviet Union (along with hundreds of thousands of people who had been Polish citizens in 1939 but for some reason had not been repatriated after the war).
Once again the JDC extended aid to the sick, the aged, and children. It also assisted various cultural institutions, including schools. ORT, for its part reestablished its network of vocational training schools.
The great majority of Jews repatriated from the U.S.S.R. did not, however, have any intention of staying in Poland. Even before their departure from the Soviet Union, most of them resolved [[took the resolution]] to move on from Poland, primarily to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. Similarly, thousands of long-established Jews now decided to leave Poland for good [[for ever]]. Their decision was influenced by the anti-Semitic incidents that occurred soon after Gomulka's rise to power. Poland again allowed Jews to emigrate, and some 50,000 people left the country in 1958-59. In some cases, whole towns were emptied of their Jewish population, and the Jewish community in Poland was now reduced to about 30,000 people. Of those who remained some 3,000 were too old or too sick to earn their livelihood (col. 784)
and were supported by the JDC [[Joint]], as were various children's homes, camps, and clubs. In addition, the JDC financed the Historical Institute, the Cracow Jewish Museum, cultural enterprises, the reestablishment of Jewish cooperatives, and the construction of a Jewish home for the aged.
The Jewish cooperative movement, revived after 1957 with help from the government and the JDC, was soon able to stand on its own feet and to transfer 20% of its yearly profits - ranging from one to two million zlotys - to the Jewish Cultural-Social Association. This situation prevailed [[dominated]] until 1967.
[Anti-Semitism after Six-Day war - final exodus]
[[The satellite of the criminal racist "USA" - racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel - had the aim of borderlines from the Nile to the Euphrates (see: 1st Mose, chapter 15, phrase 18) and wanted to enslave and to drive away all Arabs (see Herzl's booklet: "The Jewish State", which is the mental base of this criminal Israel until today (2008)). "Soviet Union" felt in danger by the "US" satellites (Germany - Turkey - Israel - India - Japan). The "Soviet Union" had no other choice than supporting the Arab states, and any new war of this criminal Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel with the occupation of new territories and enslaved Palestinians provoked new anti-Semitism in the Communist world. So, after the Six-Day war with large new occupations of territories by the racist Zionist Free Mason Jewish Herzl army of Israel there was another anti-Semitic wave in all Communist states, e.g. in Communist Poland, with the final permission of mass emigration to this criminal, racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel, and the Jews had the fantasy that Israel would be a "peaceful" country, because the truth about criminal Israel (Herzl ideology and 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18) was never said in the western press, and persons resp. anti-Zionists who said the truth were blamed as anti-Jewish. So, the Jews were lead into the war trap of Israel, and Human Rights were never found. The general propaganda against Israel has to be understood in the connection of the eternal propaganda of capitalist press against all what was Communist. But criminal racist "USA" were financing Communism. All this is not mentioned in the article...]]
[Six-Day war and its consequences against the Jews in Poland: discriminations - dismissals - restrictions for congregations and for the Yiddish language]
In 1968-69 [[after Six-Day war]], a fourth mass emigration of Jews from Poland took place, resulting in the virtual dissolution of the Jewish community as an identifiable and creative group. It also spelled the final disillusionment of those Jews who hoped the Gomulka regime would differ from the Soviet Union in its approach to the Jews. The Six-Day War (1967) [[with new Jewish occupations and Palestinians driven away]] and the March 1968 student riots in Polish university towns were seized by the Polish government as the opportunity to utilize popular anti-Semitism for its own political purposes. When the party faction called the Partisan Group, led by Minister of Interior Miecysław Moczar, initiated anti-Semitic action in an attempt to oust Gomulka from power, the Polish Communist leader adopted a clearly defined anti-Jewish policy.
In March 1968 Gomulka publicly declared those Jews whose loyalty wavered between Poland and [[criminal racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel to be "rootless cosmopolitans" unworthy of holding public office. He reiterated [[repeated]], however, the principle that Israel-oriented Jews should be allowed to emigrate to the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Jewish state. In the course of 1968, Jewish youth camps, schools, and clubs were disbanded. Jews were dismissed from whatever public positions they still held, and the Cultural-Social Association was reduced to a mere paper existence.
Restrictions were placed even on the status of Yiddish, a language which had been used in Poland almost as long as Polish itself. Yiddish was declared a foreign language, with the result that any publication in Yiddish had first to be translated into Polish before it could be released for distribution. In practice this signified the end of the Yiddish publishing house "Yidish Bukh" [[Yiddish Book]] and of Yidishe Shriften [[Yiddish Writings]], the literary journal. The Yiddish newspaper Folksshtime [[Folk's Voice]], which formerly appeared four times a week, was now restricted to a weekly appearance. The JDC [[Joint]] and ORT were again forbidden to operate in Poland, and the Jewish cooperatives were again handed over to the general Cooperative Union. The Jewish home for the aged, financed by the JDC, was turned into a general institution.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 782.
Desecrated tombstone in the Warsaw Jewish cemetery following the Six-Day War of June 1967.
[[The swastika indicates that racist Free Mason CIA Herzl Zionism with it's aim for a "Greater Israel" from the Nile to the Euphrates and with the aim to enslave all Arabs and to drive away all Arabs, all this contains the same imperial policy as it was the Nazi philosophy for a "Greater Germany"]].
[Visas for emigration to racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel - and other destinations]
The liquidation of all organized forms of Jewish life was accompanied by a relentless [[harmful]] anti-Semitic campaign carried through the press, radio, and television. The majority of Polish Jews, the tragic remnant of a community that had once numbered over 3,250,000 people [[this estimated figure of 1939 is much too high and could be about 2,200,000, see above]], reacted to these events by choosing to emigrate. Since the Polish authorities allowed Jewish emigration only to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, and then only upon renunciation of Polish citizenship, many Jews who intended to emigrate to other countries (Canada, Australia Scandinavia) ostensibly applied for papers and visas to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel.
Efforts to assure the continued existence of Jewish life in Poland were in vain. Young Jews, most of whom left the country, were especially shocked by the anti-Semitism displayed by leading Polish Communists [[because the Jews were never said what the principle aims of criminal Israel were: a Jewish Reich from the Nile to the Euphrates]]. The few Jewish institutions still in existence in 1971 were devoid of all creative content and had been stripped of all authority. (See also *Cooperatives; *American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee; *ORT; *OZE; *Berihah (Beriḥah))
[D.SF.]> (col. 785)
Emigration to Israel. [Numbers 1948-1967]
In 1948 there were approximately 70,000-80,000 Jews in Poland. This number was swollen by (col. 787)
thousands of Jews who returned from the U.S.S.R. in 1956-57 under the Polish-Soviet repatriation agreement. One of the major tasks of the Israel legation in Poland was the struggle on behalf of the majority of Jews who wished to migrate to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. Despite accusations leveled periodically by Polish authorities at the Israel legation and its staff for propagandizing and organizing the Jews for migration to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, there was continuous emigration. Between 1948 and 1949 the Polish authorities were issuing several hundred passports a month to Jews wishing to emigrate, especially to the aged, handicapped, and women left alone. Between 1949 and 1956 the number of passports issued decreased to a few dozen per month. The major years of Polish Jewish immigration to Israel were 1956-60 with their numbers reaching around 52,000. The peak year was 1957, during which some 31,000 Jews migrated to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. Despite the breakdown in diplomatic relations in June 1967, the Polish government continued to issue exit permits for emigration to Israel, but the motivation for this policy became more and more an anti-Semitic intent to "purge" Poland of its Jewish population. (col. 788)
[Numbers of Jews in Poland in the 1960s]
By the end of 1960, there were 23 member communities in the Union, and by 1966 the number was reduced to 18. The number of individual members varied greatly from one community to another; thus, in Warsaw, there were only 20 registered members, while in Katowice there were 12,000 and in Wroclaw [[Breslau]] 2,000. The Union of Religious Communities was still in existence in 1969, but the mass emigration of 1968-69 reduced its membership severely.> (col. 780)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 779-780
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 783-784
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 785-786
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 787-788
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