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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Poland 09: Relations with racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel

Polish goodwill - anti-Jewish change after foundation of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel - Gomulka government with improved relations - cultural exchange - block after Six-Day war - trade relations with Polish depths

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13,
                  col. 782. Israel Barzilai (center on balcony), first
                  Israel envoy to Poland, at the Israel consulate
                  building. Warsaw, 1948
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 782. Israel Barzilai (center on balcony), first Israel envoy
to Poland, at the Israel consulate building. Warsaw, 1948

from: Poland; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 13

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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<RELATIONS WITH ISRAEL

[[The relations of Communist states were always changing in corresponding to the wars. Communist leadership always wanted Israel to be a Communist "satellite" on the Mediterranean Sea. The racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl government played with the Communist regime and finally got weapons from both sided, from the Capitalists and the Communists. This kind of policy was also applied by many other countries, to get all from both sides, e.g. Indonesia's dictators and others]].

[Polish goodwill until May 1948]

Poland was among the first countries to recognize [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel (May 18, 1948). During the period preceding the establishment (col. 785)

of [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, Poland was unstinting in its support for the yishuv [[Jews in Palestine before Herzl Israel foundation, before 1948]]. At a convention of Soviet-bloc foreign ministers, the Polish foreign minister introduced a resolution congratulating [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel and condemning Arab aggression. Polish public opinion also strongly supported Israel and its struggle as evidenced by resolutions passed by various public institutions, including the National Conference of Polish writers. [[Racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel also received practical aid.

In 1948, before the declaration of independence, a Haganah camp was set up in Poland, where 1,500 young Jews underwent preparatory military training before leaving for [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. During the actual fighting, shipments of wheat were brought to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel by a Polish boat. In August 1948 an Israel legation was established in Poland, one of Israel's first diplomatic missions.

The Change of 1950. [Turn against Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel]

The cooling of U.S.S.R.-Israel relations from 1950 affected relations between Poland and [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. A certain ambivalence characterized Poland's attitude toward [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, for, together with criticism of [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel on the international scene, particularly at the UN, there was also understanding and sympathy for Israel's problems and a courteous attitude in official relations, in contrast to the attitude of other member states of the eastern bloc, even in 1950-55, which were particularly difficult years for Israel relations with eastern Europe. The change, which started to make itself felt at the beginning of 1950, was reflected in a decrease in the number of exit permits issued, although emigration from Poland never ceased altogether. Polish authorities began to display animosity toward the Israel legation, with a view to minimizing its contacts with Polish Jewry.

During this period there were mass arrests and staged trials in a number of eastern European countries, and while the situation did not reach such proportions in Poland, police measures were intensified there and the Israel legation was put under police surveillance. A sharp turn of events occurred in 1953, when the Israel minister in Warsaw, A.L. Kubovy, who was stationed in Prague, was declared persona non grata as a result of a similar action taken against him by the Czechoslovak government after the *Slįnskż trial. Thereafter two other Israel diplomats were expelled.

Improved Relations in 1956. [Gomulka policy]

Wladyslaw Gomulka's ascension to power as secretary of the Communist Party in the fall of 1956 ushered in a liberalization in Poland's internal regime and a more independent foreign policy. Relations toward [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel improved primarily through an open emigration policy. [[Racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel's problems were given more objective treatment in the press [[with the aim to have Israel a Communist satellite at the end]].

In 1956 [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel again appointed a resident minister in Warsaw after a three-year period during which a chargé d'affaires headed the Israel legation. In 1963 the mission was elevated to the level of an embassy.

After 1956 there was also a broadening of cultural and scientific relations in the form of reciprocal visits by individuals and delegations. Nevertheless, the Polish government maintained a constant reserve and did not respond to all of Israel's initiatives, sometimes even failing to implement plans they themselves had suggested. Thus, for example, cultural and scientific relations were not established on a formal basis, although such a step would have been justified by the extent of these activities. Nor was a Polish-Israel Friendship League set up in Poland, although an Israel-Polish Friendship League functioned in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel.

[Cultural exchange between Poland and racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel]

Nevertheless, Poland was undoubtedly foremost among the East European countries in fostering [[make a tradition of]] relations with [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, especially in the areas of culture, science, and information. Israel artists participated regularly in international music festivals in Poland, and many Polish performers appeared in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. Radio musical programs were exchanged. Exhibitions of Hebrew books were held in (col. 786)

Poland, and Polish books were distributed in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel. Regular exchanges of scientific publications took place, and individuals and figures in public life paid reciprocal visits. Exhibitions of graphic art were organized in Poland and in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel.

Of special note during the period between 1956 and 1967 were the tour of a Polish medical delegation in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel; the visit to Israel of the chairman of the Polish Academy of Sciences; and the visit of the Israel ministers of health and welfare to Poland. After 1956 [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel participated regularly in the International Fair in Poznan. An information bulletin distributed by the Israel embassy influenced public opinion, and the Polish press often drew upon it.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col.
                781. Communal seder [[Passah festival]] in Warsaw, 1960,
                with Israel Consul-General Rehavam Amir second from
                right.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 781. Communal seder [[Passah festival]]
in Warsaw, 1960, with Israel Consul-General Rehavam Amir second from right.

[Communist line in the UN - Polish support of Jews in the UN]

In the political arena (for example in voting at the UN), Poland continued to identify with the U.S.S.R. but nevertheless was willing to support the election of Israelis for various functions in international agencies. Its spokesmen would point out that Poland's guiding principle was to foster [[make tradition of]] relations both with Israel and with the Arab states, but neither at the expense of the other. An event in May 1966 seemed to herald a market improvement in Polish-Israel relations and a development in Israel's relations with the entire Communist bloc: a convention of Israel diplomatic representatives in eastern Europe was held in Warsaw with the participation of Foreign Minister Abba Eban. It was the first time that such a convention was held in a capital of the eastern bloc, and Warsaw was willing to serve as its venue [[event location]]; it was also the first visit in an East European capital by an Israel foreign minister. Eban held discussions with the Polish foreign minister, Adam Rapacki, who displayed the attitude usually accorded an official foreign visitor.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col.
                782. Official visit to Auschwitz by Israel Foreign
                Minister Abba Eban and members of the Israel diplomatic
                corps, as part of a convention of Israel ambassadors to
                Eastern Europe, Warsaw, May 1966. [[The tunnel and
                bunker systems were not in public discussion at this
                time]]
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 782. Official visit to Auschwitz by Israel Foreign Minister Abba Eban
and members of the Israel diplomatic corps, as part of a convention of Israel ambassadors to Eastern Europe,
Warsaw, May 1966. [[The tunnel and bunker systems were not in public discussion at this time]]

The Six-Day War. [The political turn against racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel with it's occupations]

[[After Six-Day War racist Zionist Free Mason Herzl Jewish leaders - e.g. Moshe Dayan - proclaimed that the occupations of Israel would be a "step further" of the creation of "Greater Israel" from the Nile to the Euphrates. This mad fantasy could only be answered by a Communist-Arab boycott movement. It's strange that this fact is not mentioned in the Encyclopaedia Judaica...]]

Fairly normal relations were maintained between the two countries when the U.S.S.R. began escalating the Middle East crisis, which resulted in the Six-Day War. Significantly, a visit to Poland at the end of April by the Israel minister of welfare, heading a delegation for the establishment of the Auschwitz memorial [[the tunnel systems were not in public discussion in that time]], was handled in a way that reflected a change for the worse in Poland's attitude. The fact that the visit was not mentioned in the press was interpreted as one expression of the attempt to minimize the Jewish character of the Holocaust. In the first half of May, Polish newspapers and communications media were still presenting a balanced view of the Middle East crisis. A sharp change occurred, however, during the second half of the month. The press began to give unilateral coverage to the Arab-Soviet position. Grotesque accusations with anti-Semitic overtones were leveled against [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel and its leaders. On May 28 the president of Poland sent a message to Nasser expressing "full support for the struggle of the Arab nations". After that time, Poland's statements were characterized by an animosity toward [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel even more venomous than in other eastern European countries.

According to all indications, Polish public opinion generally supported [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel in its struggle for survival [[the aim of "Greater Israel" and Herzl ideology was hidden]], but in the hands of groups competing for power in the party and in the Polish government, the Middle East crisis became a weapon for infighting, with the declared intent of displacing Jews from public positions. On June 12, 1967, following the Soviet Union's example, Poland notified [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel that diplomatic relations between the two countries were being severed [[finished]], and inimical demonstrations against the Israel diplomats initiated by the authorities [[because of the occupation of Palestinian territory against the UN partition map]] took place in sight of the diplomatic staff that came to take leave of the Israelis at the Warsaw airport. The Dutch embassy, which represented Israel's interests in Poland from that time, strongly protested against this behavior. (col. 787)

[[In western Europe - e.g. in the Netherlands - the real truth about the racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl government in Jerusalem was never said. Dutch policy was naive - as in whole western Europe with was a puppet of the criminal racist "USA"]].

Trade Relations. [Polish debts]

[[One has to see the trade relations always as a connection with the aim converting Israel into a Communist "satellite"]].

A trade agreement signed between Poland and Israel in 1954 was renewed annually until 1968. The numerous industrial and agricultural products traded were valued at approximately $4,000,000 in both directions. Major Israel exports were citrus fruit and tires, with Poland exporting frozen meat, sugar, iron, and shell products, and chemicals. Two Israel exports added in the later years were potash [[kali]] and cotton, which then exceeded the citrus export. During 14 years the scope of the agreement had doubled, in effect, and in certain years it had tripled. A shift in the trade balance in Israel's favor occurred in the first months of 1966 and continued thereafter due to a steep increase in the export of potash.

Upon the severance of diplomatic relations, Poland was in debt to [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel for over $5,000,000, but despite its hostile attitude toward [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel it did not revoke the trade agreement of 1954, and it was automatically renewed in 1968. By then, however, the agreement was meaningless, with [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel having discontinued its exports to Poland to avoid increasing the Polish debt, which was, in effect, a credit extended to Poland without interest. In June 1968 the Israel government informed the Polish government of the revocation [[elimination]] of the trade agreement. Poland's debt to Israel, then $2,700,000 was repaid thereafter.

[M.AVI.]> (col. 788)






Bibliography

POLAND (UNTIL PARTITION)

-- Dubnow, Hist Russ, 1 (1916), 13-305
-- R. Mahler: Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Polin (1946)
-- I. Halpern (ed.): Beit Yisrael be-Polin, 2 vols. (1948-54)
-- Istoriya yevreyskogo naroda: Istoriya yevreyev v Rossii, 11 (1914)
-- I. Schiper: Studya nad stosunkami gospodarczymi Zydów w Polsce podczas średniowiecza (1911)
-- idem: Kultur-Geshikhte fun di Yidn in Poyln beysn Mitlalter [[Cultural History of Yiddish People in Poland up to the Middle Ages]] (1926)
-- idem: Dzieje handlu żydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937)
-- T.B. Heilikman: Istoriya obshchestvennago dvizheniya yevreyev v Polshe i Rossii (1930; rev. ed. of: Geshikhte fun der Gezelshaftlekher Bavegung fun di Yidn in Poyln un Rusland [[History of the Social Movement of Yiddish People in Poland and Russia]], 1926)
-- H.H. Ben-Sasson: Hagut ve-Hanhagah (1959)

AFTER PARTITION

Dubnow, Hist Russ
-- S. Segal: The New Poland and the Jews (1938)
-- B. Johnpoll: The Politics of Futility (1967)
-- W. Gliksman: A Kehilah in Poland during the Inter-War Years (1970)
-- J. Shatzky, in: YIVOA, 7 (1962), 146-74
-- M. Mishkinsky, ibid., 14 (1969), 27-52
-- Y. Gruenbaum: Milhamot Yehudei Polin (1941)
-- idem (ed.): EG, 1 (1953)
-- idem: Ne'umim ba-Sejm ha-Polani (1963)
-- J. Lestschinsky: Oyfn Rand fun Opgrunt [[On the Margin of the Downfall]] (1947)
-- idem, in: Yidishe Ekonomik [[Yiddish Economy]], 1 (1937); 2 (1938)
-- M. Linder, ibid, 1 (1937)
-- J. Shatzky: Geshikhte fun Yidn in Varshe [[History of the Yiddish People in Warsaw]], 3 vols. (1947-53)
-- idem, in: YIVO Bleter [[YIVO Papers]], 36 (1952), 24-62
--I. Halpern (ed.): Beit Yisrael be-Polin, 2 vols. (1948-54)
-- N.M. Gelber (ed.): Ha-Yehudim ve-ha-Mered ha-Polani (1953)
-- R. Mahler: Ha-Ḥasidut ve-ha-Haskalah (1961)
-- idem: Yehudei Polin bein Shetei Milḥamot ha-Olam (1968)
-- idem: Divrei Yemei Yisrael, Dorot Aḥaronim, vol. 2 bk, 1 (1970)
-- A. Tartakower, in: Velt-Federatsye fun Poylishe Yidn: Yorbukh [[World Community of Polish Yiddish People: Yearbook]], 3 (1970) (col. 788)
-- Sbornik materialov ob ekonomicheskom polozhenii yevreyev v Rossii, 2 vol. (1904) (col. 788-789)
-- M. Wischnitzer: Perezhitoye, 1 (1908), 164-221
-- J. Kirszrot: Prawa Zydów w Królestwie polskiem (1917)
-- I. Schiper: Zydzi Królestwa polskiego w dobie powstania listopadowego (1932)
-- idem: Dzieje handlu żydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937)
-- idem, in: Miesięcznik Zydowski, 1 (1931), 513-29; 2 no. 4 (1932), 311-27
-- idem et al. (eds.): Zydzi w Polsce odrodzonej, 2 vols. (1932-33)
-- L. Halpern: Polityka żydowska w Sejmie i Senacie Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (1933)
-- P. Friedman: Dzieje Zydów w Łodzi od poczatków osadnictwa do roku 1863 (1935)
-- E. Ringelblum: Zydzi w powstaniu kościuszkowskiem (1938)
-- S. Bronsztejn: Ludność żydowska w Polsce (1963)
-- A. Eisenbach et al. (eds): Zydzi apowstanie styczniowe (1963)
-- idem, in: Społeczeństwo Królestwa polskiego, 2 (1966), 177-316

HOLOCAUST PERIOD

-- Bernstein, in: Algemeyne Entsklopedye: Yidn [[General Encyclopaedia: Yiddish people]], 6 (1963), 165-242
-- Brustin-Bernstein, in: Bleter far Geshikhte [[History Papers]], 1, nos. 3-4 (1948), 125-64; 3, no. 2 (1950), 51-78; 4, no. 2 (1951), 103-22; 6 no. 3 (1953), 45-153
-- Rutkowski, ibid.: 12 (1959), 75-118
-- Rutkowski and Brustin-Bernstein, in: BZIH, 38 (1961), 28-38
-- Winkler, in: Bleter far Geshikhte [[History Papers]], 1 nos. 3-4 (1948), 3-40;
-- Trunk, ibid., 1 no. 1 (1948), 114-69; 1, no. 2 (1948), 14-45; 2 (1949), 64-166
-- idem, in: YIVO Bleter [[YIVO Papers]], 37 (1953), 58-100
-- idem: Geshtalten un Geshenishn [[People and Events]] (1962), 127-261
-- idem: Lodzer Geto ... (1962), preface, conclusion, and list of documents in English
-- Zydowski Instytut Historyczny: Dokumenty i Materiały, 3 vols. (1946)
-- P. Friedman: Zagłada Zydów polskich w okresie okupacji hitlerowskiej 1939-1945 (1947)
-- Podhorizer-Sandler, in: BZIH, no. 30 (1959), 37-108
-- Datner, ibid., no. 60 (1966), 3-29
-- J. Kermisz: Akcje i wysiedlenia (1946)
-- A. Eisenbach: Hitlerowska polityka zagłady Zydów (1961)
-- idem: Di Hitleristishe Politik fun Yidn-Farnikhtung [[The Hitlerist Policy of the Destruction of the Yiddish People]], 2 vols. (1955)
-- T. Berenstein et al. (eds): Eksterminacja Zydów na ziemiach polskich w okresie okupacji hitlerowskiej (1957).

FOR FURTHER READING IN ENGLISH:

-- G. Reitlinger: The Final Solution (1962), 143-53, 260-319 and passim, includes bibliography
-- R. Hilberg: Destruction of European Jews (1961), index
-- American Federation for Polish Jews: Black Book of Polish Jewry (1943)
-- American Jewish Black Book Committee: Black Book (1945)
-- Central Commission for War Crimes, Warsaw: German Crimes in Poland [[and their collaborators?]], 2 vols. (1946-47)
-- M. Muszkat: Polish Charges against War Criminals (1948)
-- A. Melezin: Demographic Processes among the Jewish Population of Poland 1939-1945 (1948)
-- J. Tenenbaum: In Search of a Lost People (1949)
-- idem: Underground, the Story of a People (1952)

PARTISANS

Sefer Milḥamot ha-Geta'ot (1954 = The Fighting Ghettos, partial trans. by M. Barkai, 1962)
-- J. Tenenbaum: Underground (1952)
-- Y. Suhl (ed.): They Fought Back (1968)

RESCUE OF JEWISH CHILDREN IN POLAND

-- N. Orelovitch-Reznik: Imma, ha-Muttar Kevar Livkot? (1965)
-- L. Kuchler-Silberman: One Hundred Children (1961)
-- E. Mahler: Yad Vashem Bulletin, no. 12 (Dec. 1962), 49-56
-- J. Goldman: Rabbi Herzog's First Rescue Journey (1964), passim
-- S. Nishmit: Dappim le-Ḥeker ha-Sho'ah ve-ha-Mered, 2 (1952)
-- Tetikeyts-Baricht fun Tsentral-Komtet fun di Yiden in Poyln [[Action Report of the Central Committee of the Yiddish People in Poland]] (1947)
-- Farn Yidishn Kind [[About the Yiddish Child]] (1946)

AFTER WORLD WAR II

-- P. Lendvai: Communism without Jews (1971), 89-239> (col. 789)



Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland,
                          vol. 13, col. 785-786
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 785-786
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland,
                          vol. 13, col. 787-788
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 787-788
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland,
                          vol. 13, col. 789
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Poland, vol. 13, col. 789



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