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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Warsaw 01: Middle Ages to 1939

Expulsions and restrictions - Sejm since 1572 - "daily tickets" - massacre of 1772 by the Russian army - Prussian rule - Napoleon rule - Orthodox, opponents and enlightenment Jews - emancipations since 1862 - professions, careers - Polish anti-Semitism since 1881 - racist Zionism and Socialist Bund

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16,
                  col. 335. Members of the elite Jewish Municipal Guard
                  in Warsaw, one of the limited forms of military
                  service permitted to Jews during the uprising against
                  Russian rule in 1830-31. Pen and watercolor.
                  Jerusalem, Israel Museum.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 335. Members of the elite Jewish Municipal Guard
in Warsaw, one of the limited forms of military service permitted to Jews during the uprising against
Russian rule in 1830-31. Pen and watercolor. Jerusalem, Israel Museum.

from: Warsaw; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[Strong anti-Semitism in Warsaw - expulsions and restrictions]

<WARSAW (Pol. Warszawa), originally capital of the Masovia region; from the 16th century, capital of Poland.

Jews were apparently living in Warsaw by the end of the (col. 333)

14th century, but the first explicit information on Jewish settlement dates from 1414. In 1423 the records show ten Jewish families paying tax in Warsaw, and about the same number exempted. The hostility of the townsmen of Warsaw to Jewish settlement in the capital was particularly strong.

In 1483 the Jewish inhabitants were expelled, although some were living there three years later. There is no information about Jews in the city between 1498 and 1524; evidently they had either been driven from the city entirely or remained in the outskirts on property owned by the Polish magnates from where they could enter the city for business purposes.

Eventually, in 1527, the townsmen of Warsaw obtained the privilege de non tolerandis Judais, authorizing the exclusion of Jews from the city. Because of its importance as a political and commercial center, however, their connection was not entirely severed. A number of Jews were able to continue to reside in the outskirts, and some managed to gain access to Warsaw itself.

[Warsaw with the national Sejm since 1572 - Sejm conventions with Jews in the town - "daily tickets" - numbers - professions]

When the national Sejm (diet) transferred its sessions to Warsaw in 1572 Jews were permitted to enter the city during its conventions. The time permitted for their sojourn [[stay]] was subsequently extended to a period of two weeks before and after the session. In addition, Jewish representatives (shtadlanim) of the *Councils of the Lands, empowered to negotiate with royalty and the nobility, also visited Warsaw. A number of other Jews obtained authorization by various means to enter the city temporarily even while the Sejm was not sitting. One of the customary "arrangements" was the "daily ticket" system, which gave the holder of a ticket the right to stay in Warsaw for 14 days. A census of 1765 records that there were 2,519 Jews in Warsaw.

During the *Haidamack attacks of 1768 fugitives from the eastern districts of Poland flocked to the outskirts.

The census for 1792 records 6,750 Jews in Warsaw, forming 9.7% of the total population:

-- 30.4% of those economically active were engaged in commerce or as taverners

-- 26.7% in craft or industry

-- 41.4% in undefined occupations, and

-- 1.5% in domestic employment or as simple laborers.

Several scores of Jewish entrepreneurs engaged in flourishing business as moneylenders, court factors of royalty or the nobility, army suppliers, or agents for foreign embassies. These were the nucleus of the great Jewish bourgeoisie which subsequently formed in Warsaw; they were mainly immigrants from abroad or from other towns in Poland.

[Expulsions - massacre by the Russian army before the first partition of Poland in 1772]

Throughout the period of unofficial settlement the townspeople spared no efforts to drive the Jews from the capital. A partial expulsion of the Jewish residents was enforced, in conjunction with organized street attacks, in 1775 and 1790.

After the first partition of Poland (1772), Warsaw Jewry, in particular the poorer sector, took an energetic part in the Polish uprising against the Russians. Many Jews volunteered for guard duties, and a number joined in the fighting in the Jewish legion formed under Berek *Joselewicz. In their onslaught the Russian troops massacred the Jewish civilian population, in particular in the Praga suburb where resistance was fierce. Legend associates the name of Joseph Samuel *Zbitkower with large-scale rescue operations during the massacre.

[Prussian rule since 1797 - attacks in 1805 - attractive Warsaw for Jews from Prussia, Silesia etc.]

After Warsaw passed to Prussia in 1796, Warsaw Jewry was subjected to the Juden Reglements [[Jewish Reglement]] of 1797. Only Jewish residents of the city prior to 1796 were allowed to stay; the others were only permitted the right of temporary domicile, in a reversion to the old "daily ticket" system.

In 1805 fresh attacks on Jews in Warsaw were made by the Polish populace. Nevertheless, there was now continuous immigration of German-speaking Jews from Prussia, Silesia, and other places to Warsaw, and the Jewish population increased from 7,688 (12% of the total) in 1797 to 11,630 (17.4%) in 1804. (col. 334)

Within the Duchy of Warsaw (1807-13). [Napoleon times: new restrictions since 1808 - Jewish quarter since 1809 with special rules - "daily ticket" abolished in 1811]

After the formation of the Napoleon-sponsored duchy of Warsaw the Jews were not deprived of the rights of citizenship, but in 1808, under the "infamous decree" of *Napoleon, restrictions were imposed on Jewish rights for ten years. During this period Warsaw Jewry was burdened with heavy taxes.

In 1809 a "Jewish quarter" was established outside in which the only persons permitted to reside were Jewish owners of real estate, wholesale merchants, manufacturers, bankers, army suppliers, and doctors, on condition that they wore European dress, were able to read and write Polish, German or French, and sent their children to general schools. The "daily ticket" was abolished in 1811. The vicissitudes [[proceedings]] of war war between 1812 and 1815, and the inimical attitude of the government of the duchy, led to a reduction of the number of Jewish residents in Warsaw, who in 1813 numbered 8,000.

[Community life: rabbis - split with orthodox Hasidim, Mitnaggedim opponents and enlightenment Maskilim - German Synagogue since 1802 - rabbinical seminary 1826-1863]

From 1527 until the Prussian conquest no authorized community (kehillah) had existed in Warsaw. However, the Jews living in the city and environs met for prayers, established prayer houses and charitable associations, and appointed a syndic-parnas, to direct the tax administration, who had judicial power and organized the census, among other duties. He was assisted by dayyanim [[judges]] and a sworn-in meturgeman (interpreter). Rabbis had also officiated without authorization. The Prussian administration had appointed a representation for Warsaw Jewry with the right to exercise the *herem (ḥerem) (excommunication) to facilitate tax collection. Thus the Warsaw community was revived and had the opportunity of appointing authorized rabbis.

During the existence of the duchy of Warsaw the community extended its authority until it was transformed in practice from a local body to an institution representative of the Jewry of the whole duchy. (col. 335)

*Hasidism (Ḥasidism) [[pious, righteous, orthodox Jewish movement]] spread to Warsaw toward the latter part of the 18th century. A celebrated public disputation between spokesmen of the Hasidim (Ḥasidim) and Mitnaggedim [[opponents]] was held in the Praga suburb in 1781. On the other hand, a small circle of maskilim [[followers of the Haskalah, enlightenment Jews]] also formed in this period, which included a number of wealthy arrivals from abroad, physicians, and others.

In 1802 Isaac Flatau founded the "German Synagogue", in which traditional services were held but sermons were delivered in German. A government-sponsored *rabbinical seminary was established in 1826, which the Orthodox members of the community strongly opposed. It continued for 37 years, until the Polish uprising of 1863, and became a center for assimilationists and reformist tendencies. (col. 336)

Within Congress Poland (1815-1915). [New restrictions - expulsion from the countryside to the towns - emancipation since 1862]

[[...]]

From 1815 there was a sharp deterioration in the status of Warsaw Jewry. The area of the "Jewish quarter" was further restricted, the system of "daily tickets" was reintroduced, and the animosity of the general populace increased. The second half of the 19th century inaugurated a change for the better, and was marked by some rapprochement between certain Jewish and Polish circles.

In 1862 the restrictions relating to all the Jews of Congress Poland were lifted. The Jews of Warsaw took an active part in the two Polish uprisings against Russia, especially in the second in 1863.

At the end of the 1870s there was a recrudescence [[revival]] of anti-Jewish feeling in Warsaw and throughout Poland. In December 1881 a pogrom broke out in Warsaw in the wake of the Russian pogroms [[when the czar was murdered and the Jews were blamed]], motivated in particular by the nation that the "Litvaks" (Lithuanian Jews) were the promoters of russification in Poland. The elections to the fourth Imperial *Duma of 1912, in which Warsaw Jewry returned a left-wing candidate, further aggravated anti-Jewish hostility. (col. 336)

[[...]]

During the existence of Congress Poland, the size of the Warsaw community increased to become the largest in Europe. The Jewish population numbered 15,600 (19.2% of the total) in 1816, 72,800 (32.7%) in 1864, 130,000 (33.4%) in 1882, 306,000 (39.2%) in 1910, and 337,000 (38.1%) in 1914.

Natural increase was responsible for only part of this growth, which was mainly the outcome of the migration to Warsaw beginning in the 1960s and particularly after the *pogroms in Russia of 1881, when 150,000 Jews moved to Warsaw, a substantial number coming from Lithuania and Belorussia, and from the Ukraine. (col. 336)

[[This influx was the result of systematic anti-Semitism and expulsions of the Jews from the countryside]].

[Professions - careers - bankers - trade - monopolies and Christian competition since the 1870s - proletariat]

Throughout this period, the Warsaw Jews considerably extended their activities in the economic sphere, and the social and economic differences within the community grew more marked. Jews played an important role in finance and all sectors of commerce and also in industry. Of the 20 bankers in Warsaw in 1847, 17 were Jews. Jewish bankers initiated and developed various industries in the state, participated in the construction of railroads, held the monopoly for the sale of *salt and *alcoholic beverages, leased the Jewish taxes, and engaged in other activities.

In 1849 Jews formed 52% of the total persons engaged in commerce. Nevertheless this haute bourgeoisie, despite its economic importance, formed a negligible percentage in the total Jewish population of Warsaw, in 1843 forming 2.2% of the number of Jews actively employed there.

In this year about 30% of the Jews earned a livelihood from commerce, mainly as shopkeepers or peddlers, about one-third as artisans and laborers, 13.5% as carters, porters or day laborers, and 12.5% as domestic workers. The proportion of Jews engaged in commerce increased until the 1870s but afterward dropped in face of growing Polish competition.

In 1862 the main source of livelihood for the Jewish proletariat was commerce and crafts: (col. 336)

-- 31.7% were employed in commercial establishments (col. 336-337)

-- 27.9% in crafts, and

-- 4.5% in industry;

the number in industry later increased, although mainly in small or medium industry, large industries, even under Jewish ownership, taking a smaller number of Jewish workers; 2.8% of the Jews were employed in finance, 1.9% in transportation, and 1.9% in the liberal professions. The large percentage of domestic workers (29.3%) reflects the migration of unemployed women to the metropolis. Later, part of this number was absorbed into the garment and tobacco industries.

Social and Cultural Developments. [Orthodox and opponents - assimilation and conversion]

Hasidism (Ḥasidism) [[pious, righteous, orthodox Jewish movement]] spread rapidly in Warsaw. In 1880 two-thirds of the 300 approved synagogues, and many prayer rooms, were hasidic (ḥasidic), and this also reflected the proportion of Hasidim (Ḥasidim) to the total Jewish population in the city. The Mitnaggedim [[opponents]] were augmented by the end of the 19th century with the advent of the "Litvaks".

The tendency to *assimilation in Warsaw began with the penetration of German cultural influences, in which an important role was played by the wealthy arrivals from the West at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, whose ranks were reinforced by wealthy Jews of Polish birth. Later the attachment of the assimilationists became closely orientated to Polish culture and society, and in the second half of the 19th century the tendency spread to the youth of wider circles. The assimilationists took an active role in the leadership and cultural life of the community. The incidence of conversion in Warsaw became the highest in eastern Europe: in the first half of the 19th century 70 bankers, industrialists and large-scale merchants, 15 printers, and 20 officials adopted [[racist, criminal]] Christianity.

[Racist Zionist organizations in Warsaw - purchasing of land in Palestine]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col.
                338. The Warsaw [[racist]] student Zionist organization,
                Kadimah, 1904. Among those present are: Maximilian Meir
                Apolinary Hartglass, Yizhak Gruenbaum, Moshe Dukovani,
                and Leib Rosenthal. Courtesy A. Rafaeli-Zenziper,
                Archive for Russian [[racist]] Zionism, Tel Aviv
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 338. The Warsaw [[racist]] student Zionist organization, Kadimah, 1904.
Among those present are: Maximilian Meir Apolinary Hartglass, Yizhak Gruenbaum, Moshe Dukovani, and
Leib Rosenthal. Courtesy A. Rafaeli-Zenziper, Archive for Russian [[racist]] Zionism, Tel Aviv

In 1883 the society of She'erit Israel of the Hovevei Zion (Ḥovevei Zion) was established in Warsaw, led by Israel Jasinowski and Saul Phinehas *Rabinowitz, and in 1890 the society Menuhah ve-Nahalah (Menuḥah ve-Naḥalah) was founded, led by Eliyahu Ze'ev *Lewin-Epstein, which established the Moshavah of *Rehovot (Reḥovot) in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]].

The Geulah company, formed in 1904, participated in acquiring land for the society of Ahuzzat (Aḥuzzat) Bayit which pioneered the building of Tel Aviv.

[[The Arab patrons sold the land. The local Palestinians are not asked]].

The circles of Hovevei Zion (Ḥovevei Zion) in Warsaw concentrated in particular in the synagogue of Ohel Moshe, founded in 1885, and subsequently in the Moriah synagogue, founded in 1908, at which Isaac *Nissenbaum served as preacher.

A number of [[racist]] Zionist youth and student circles, whose leadership included Jan Kirshrot, Yizhak (Yiẓḥak) *Gruenbaum, and Yosef *Sprinzak, combined in the society Ha-Tehiyyah (Ha-Teḥiyyah) in 1903. Its ranks included supporters of differing national and socialist ideologies who soon separated. Some of its members joined the [[racist]] Zionist Democratic Fraction, under the (col. 337)

leadership of Gruenbaum. Another group became a formative influence in the Po'alei Zion, under the leadership of Yizhak (Yiẓḥak) *Tabenkin and Ben-Zion Raskin, and in Ze'irei Zion (Ẓe'irei Zion), led by Sprinzak. After the split in the Sixth Zionist Congress over the *Uganda project (1903), the supporters of [[racist]] Theodor *Herzl and the political Zionists joined in the Meginnei ha-Histadrut which established its headquarters in Warsaw.

[[Racist Theodor Herzl stated in his booklet "The Jewish State" of 1896 that all Arabs can be driven away as the natives in the criminal racist "USA" had been driven away, and the Arabs could be enslaved. Herzl also presumed that gold could be found in Palestine as in South Africa. This booklet is the ideological base of Israel until now and is not given up. The Zionists have the aim of a "Greater Israel" from the Nile to the Euphrates prescribed in 1st Mose chapter 15 phrase 18, and this phrase is not forbidden until today. Since 1896 the racist Zionist movement from Russia had it's precise Herzl ideology. The Arab side spread counter propaganda with anti-Jewish newspapers since 1896. At the same time the rich Jewish Zionists purchase land from rich Arabs in Palestine and the Palestinians were never asked. And since 1948 there is an eternal war in Palestine, the war trap of Israel, and the regime in Jerusalem is not giving up it's Herzl ideology or the phrase of 1st Mose. The anti-Zionist groups who saw the war trap coming first were strong, but after 1945 the racist Zionists were dominating most of the Jewish community worldwide]].

[Jewish Socialist parties in Warsaw]

At the end of the 19th century Jewish socialist societies and workers' circles were consolidated into the *Bund, under the leadership of Leo Goldman, John *Mill, and Ziviah Hurvitz, (Ẓiviah Hurvitz), originally from Vilna. The [[Socialist party]] Bund conducted its activities among the Jewish workers, organized strikes and May 1st demonstrations, and promoted Yiddish culture; it was opposed to [[racist]] Zionism and the movement to revive Hebrew.

[Community life: synagogues and rabbis]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col.
                337. The Warsaw Great Synagogue on Tlomacka Street,
                built in 1878. It was blown up by the order of S.S.
                commander, Gen. Juergen Stroop, on May 16, 1943, as a
                token of his victory over the ghetto. Courtesy Israel
                Museum Photo Archives, Jerusalem.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 337. The Warsaw Great Synagogue on Tlomacka Street,
built in 1878. It was blown up by the order of S.S. commander, Gen. Juergen Stroop, on May 16, 1943,
as a token of his victory over the ghetto. Courtesy Israel Museum Photo Archives, Jerusalem.

Until the end of the 1860s the Warsaw community leadership was mainly Orthodox, excepting for the periods 1841-44 and 1856-58, when the president of the community was Matthias Rosen, an assimilationist who was acceptable to all groups of the community. After a financial criterion was established in the elections, the assimilationists assumed the leadership of the community by agreement with the Hasidim (Ḥasidim) [[pious, righteous, orthodox Jewish movement]], and controlled its affairs for over 50 years, between 1871 and 1926. [[Racist]] Zionist opposition to the assimilationists was organized for the first time in 1899.

Four rabbis served for the whole of Warsaw and its vicinity, all Mitnaggedim [[opponents]]: Solomon Zalman *Lipshitz, 1819-39; Hayyim (Ḥayyim) *Dawidsohn, 1839-54; Dov Berush *Meisels, 1854-70; and Jacob *Gesundheit, 1870-73, who was not accepted by the Hasidim (Ḥasidim) and was removed from office with the help of the assimilationists. The rabbis served in conjunction with dayyanim [[judges]]. Attempts to establish a *Reform synagogue in Warsaw were unsuccessful. The only innovation introduced by the "modernized" congregations was that sermons in their synagogues were preached in German or Polish. Rabbis in these synagogues were Abraham Meir Goldschmidt, Isaac Kramsztyk, Mordecai *Jastrow, Isaac Cylkow, Samuel Abraham *Poznanski, and Moses *Schorr.

[Schooling]

The main trend of Jewish education in Warsaw was Orthodox. In the middle of the 19th century, 90% of all Jewish children of school age attended heder (ḥeder) [[Jewish religious school to age of 13]]. Subsequently the percentage decreased, and by the end of the century only 75% attended hadarim (ḥadarim) [[Jewish religious schools to age of 13]].

In 1896 there were 433 authorized hadarim (ḥadarim) in Warsaw and a large number of unauthorized ones. In 1885 circles of Hovevei Zion (Ḥovevei Zion) established the first heder metukkan (ḥeder metukkan), or modern ḥeder, in (col. 338)

Warsaw.

In 1820 three state schools for Jewish children had been opened under the supervision of Jacob *Tugenhold, but the Orthodox opposition curbed the development of general schools. On the threshold of World War I there were 20 elementary schools in Warsaw in which the language of instruction was Russian. Attempts to open private schools for boys met only with limited success. On the other hand, the girls' secondary schools, which disseminated Polish culture, were more popular; even Hasidim (Ḥasidim), who normally insisted on an extreme Orthodox education for their sons, sent their daughters to them. In 1895, 19 schools of this type existed in Warsaw.

Vocational training courses, a secondary school with a scientific trend (1878-88), and a trade school were also opened. The first Hebrew kindergarten was founded by Jehiel *Heilperin in 1909, in conjunction with a course for kindergarten teachers, opened in 1910.

Jewish Press. [Warsaw becomes printing center for Poland and Russia since the 1880s - Hebrew, Yiddish and Polish Jewish newspapers]

The Haskalah literature [[enlightenment literature]] in Warsaw was of an inferior standard and made little impact. However, in the 1880s, Warsaw became the center for Hebrew publishing in Poland and throughout Russia. The daily and weekly press, the many literary organs, and other periodicals which now began to burgeon, marked the transition from the world of Haskalah to the new Hebrew literature. They provided a venue for the elite of the writers, poets, scholars, and journalists.

In 1862 the Hebrew periodical *Ha-Zefirah (Ha-Ẓefirah) was established as a weekly by Hayyim (Ḥayyim) Selig *Slonimski, which after a series of intervals and setbacks became a daily  in 1886 and the central organ for Russian Jewry. Other daily or weekly Hebrew newspapers also published in this period did not continue for long, generally for lack of readership; the heavy hand of the censor also proved a stumbling block. The pioneer of Hebrew publishing in Warsaw was A.L. Ben Avigdor (see *Shalkovich) while the most active personality in journalism and literature was Nahum *Sokolow.

The first Yiddish (and Polish) weekly was Der Beobakhter an der Weykhsel [[Yidd.: The Observer on the Vistula]], published in 1823-24 by assimilationist circles. The transition in *Yiddish literature to new forms and contents originated with Y.L. *Peretz and his circle and the literary publications which they founded, Yidishe Bibliotek [[Yidd.: Yiddish Library]] (1891-95) and Yontev Bletlakh (1894-96). After a number of unsuccessful attempts, two Yiddish periodicals became established which soon began to overtake the Hebrew press: Samuel Jacob Jackan began to publish the daily Yidishes Tageblat [[Yidd.: Yiddish Daily News]] in 1906, changed in 1908 into *Haynt. Zevi *Prylucki established the daily *Moment in 1911. Polish periodicals also appeared, first sponsored by the assimilationists, among them the weekly Jutrzenka. At the beginning of the 20th century national newspapers were also published in Polish.

World War I and Polish Republic. [Numbers 1918-1938]

During World War I thousands of refugees arrived in Warsaw.

[[More indications about the First World War are not to have in the Encyclopaedia Judaica. This seems very poor. During the First World War the Zionist center was moving from eastern Europe to New York, see: *History]].

In 1917 there were 343,400 Jews (41% of the total population). The German occupation brought improvement from the political standpoint, but the concentration of refugees and the havoc [[devastations]] wrought [[made]] by war increased the economic distress. [[Harvests failed, and add to this the war in eastern Europe was not ended but was lasting until 1921 with th short time of Polish revival in Kiev, and then the Communist Red Russian army came up to before Warsaw and was stopped by French help]].

During the period of renewed Polish independence (1918-39) the Jewish population of Warsaw showed marked growth, but a decrease compared with the general population. [[There was a perpetual economic crisis because of the new borderlines in eastern Europe, and because of the closed Communist border of Russia; see: Yehuda Bauer: Joint. This blocked the trade and the markets. The general Jewish emigration movement from Poland - above all of the young generation - was going on up to 1939, see *Poland]].

In 1918 the total was 320,000 (42.2%), and in 1938 368,400 (29.1%). The tendency of the Polish state to centralize economic activity in its own institutions, the anti-Semitic direction of its policy and the anti-Semitic feelings rife among the Polish public, as well as the economic action taken against the Jews (see *Poland), severely affected Jewish life in Warsaw. [[See about the anti-Semitic policy of the racist Polish government and the Jewish aid organizations the book of Yehuda Bauer: Joint, or there is almost a whole chapter about anti-Semitic Poland 1919-1939: Joint, chapter 5]]

The number of Jewish unemployed reached 34.4% in 1931, while that of those without means of livelihood was even greater. In 1933 (col. 339)

half of the members of the Warsaw community were exempted from the communal tax as they were unable to furnish the minimal payment of five zlotys a year. Consequently the pressure of emigration increased, in particular to Palestine [[and to the criminal racist "USA" which were financing Communism and the military movements in Germany at the same time...]]

[Community life in Warsaw 1918-1938 - Orthodox - racist Zionists - socialist Bund]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col.
                341-342. Delegates to a rabbinical conference held in
                Warsaw, c. 1917
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 341-342. Delegates to a
rabbinical conference held in Warsaw, c. 1917

Warsaw was the headquarters of Jewish parties and movements in Poland, the arena of the struggle for Jewish representation in the state Sejm and Senate, and the center of Jewish cultural and educational activities, of the arts, scholarship and literature, and of the Jewish national press. A fierce political struggle was waged over the character that Jewish life in Warsaw should assume. Hasidism (Ḥasidism) continued to be an important factor in Jewish affairs. Many of the hasidic (ḥasidic) [[orthodox]] admorim [[hasidic rabbis]] of various dynasties settled in Warsaw. Assimilation became a less important issue, and the chief political struggle was between the Zionist factions and the Orthodox-hasidic (ḥasidic) groups, which combined in the *Agudat Israel.

Between 1926 and 1936 the direction of Warsaw communal affairs was in the hands of Agudat Israel and the [[racist]] Zionists, either in coalition or alternatively. However, in 1936 the [[Socialist party]] Bund gained the lead in both the elections to the communal leadership and the Jewish representation on the Warsaw municipality. The Polish government annulled the results of the democratically held communal elections and appointed another community board (kahal) [[assembly]] which continued in office until the German occupation in World War II.

JEWISH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. [Jewish schools in Warsaw 1918-1938]

During the inter-war period a number of Jewish school systems existed:

-- six Hebrew-national elementary schools, established by the Zionist Tarbut organization;

-- four Yiddish secular schools established by the CYSHO supported by the Bund and the left Po'alei Zion

-- a Yiddish-Hebrew school of the Shulkult organization, separated from the CYSHO;

-- an Orthodox school of Agudat Israel (Horev (Ḥorev for boys and *Beth Jacob for girls) -

the exact number of their schools is not known but the number of the pupils exceeded that for other schools; two bilingual (Polish-Hebrew) elementary schools and one secondary school of the Yavneh founded by *Mizrachi; and numerous private secondary schools. Most Jewish children attended the state schools. In neighborhoods where there were Jewish concentrations, some of these schools were solely intended for Jewish pupils: lessons were held on Sundays instead of the Sabbath, and the schools were known as Szabatówki.

In 1928 the Institute for Jewish Studies, Makhon le-Hokhmat (Ḥokhmat) Yisrael, was opened, and the name was subsequently changed, as its sphere of activity expanded, to Makhon le-Madda'ei ha-Yahadut. Moses Schorr, Meir *Balaban, Abraham *Weiss, and Menahem (Edmund) *Stein served as principals.

[Hebrew and Yiddish literature and newspapers in Warsaw 1919-1939]

During this period Hebrew literature and press declined. Many of the Hebrew writers emigrated to Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]]. Attempts to continue publication of Hebrew dailies were unsuccessful; not one lasted for an appreciable time. The most important publishing house of Hebrew books in Warsaw was that of A.J. *Stybel. On the other hand, the Yiddish and Polish Jewish press increased its output. Other Yiddish dailies were published alongside the Haynt and Moment, including partly organs and unaffiliated papers, with a wide public and considerable influence on their readers. In 1917 Nasz Kurjer was published under the editorship of Jacob  Apenszlak, which changed to Nasz Przeglad in 1920, a national independent daily. Other weeklies and periodicals were also published.

[A.RU.] (col. 340)

Hebrew Printing.

The beginning of Hebrew printing in or near Warsaw was due to the desire of the government to stem the outflow of capital abroad for the import of Hebrew books. In Warsaw the first Hebrew book (Zevi (Ẓevi) Hirsch b. Hayyim's notes on the Yalkut Shimoni Zemah le-Avraham) was printed by Peter Zawadzki in 1796. After his death his widow continued printing - mainly anti-hasidic (anti-ḥasidic) literature - until 1801. Another non-Jewish Hebrew printer was that of Zevi (Ẓevi) Hirsch Nossonowitz of Lutomirsk, who printed, with Krueger's Novydwor type, from 1811, in partnership with Avigdor Lebensohn 1818-221, and afterward the two of them separately, Nossonowitz now changing his name to Schriftgiesser (col. 340)

("type-caster". He died in 1831, succeeded by his son Nathan; the firm continued for another century, printing a Talmud edition (1872). Lebensohn and his descendants were active to 1900. More than 30 additional presses were established in Warsaw during the 19th century, including that of S. Orgelbrand and sons, who printed Talmud editions as well as Turim [[Code of Jacob Asher]], Maimonides' Yad, the Shulhan (Shulḥan) Arukh, and a Mishnah edition.

Among the moving spirits of Hebrew printing in Warsaw was Isaac Goldmann (1812-1887), who ran his own press from 1867 producing more than 100 books, among them Talmud tractates. In 1890 the brothers Lewin-Epstein established a Hebrew printing house, which is still active in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel.A dozen or so more presses were set up in the first quarter of the 20th century. At the outbreak of World War II in 1939 more than 1,000 workers were engaged in the Hebrew printing works in Warsaw.

[ED.]> (col. 341)






Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 333-334
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 333-334
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 335-336
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 335-336
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 337-338
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 337-338
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 339-340
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 339-340
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 341-342
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 341-342






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