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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Warsaw 02: Holocaust and post-war times

Discriminations - Warsaw ghetto - underground work - underground institutions and secret Jewish religious services - deportations - armed resistance and Warsaw ghetto uprising 1943 - Warsaw uprising 1944 - Jews coming back from central Russia 1945-1946 - emigration waves 1946-1970

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16,
                  col. 344. Youngsters in the streets of Warsaw ghetto.
                  Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto by a German war
                  correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941. Courtesy Yad
                  Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 344. Youngsters in the streets of Warsaw ghetto.
Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto by a German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941.
Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.

from: Warsaw; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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<Holocaust Period.

[[The battle of Warsaw and the flight movements to eastern Poland are missing in the article]].


[German discriminating law against Jewry in Warsaw since October 1939]

When German forces entered the city on Sept. 29, 1939, there were 393,950 Jews, comprising approximately one-third of the city's population, living in Warsaw.

Between October 1939 and January 1940 the German occupation authorities issued a series of anti-Jewish measures against the Jewish population. These measured included

-- the introduction of forced labor;

-- the order that every Jew should wear a white armband with a blue star of David [["Jewish Armband"]], and the special marking of Jewish-owned businesses;

-- confiscation of Jewish real estate and other property;

-- and a prohibition against Jews using the railway and other public transportation.

THE GHETTO. [340 hectares - special permits - Jewish Council - German commissioner Auerswald and bridge over Chlodna Street since 1941]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw,
                          vol. 16, col. 347-348. Plan (map) of Warsaw
                          ghetto, 1940-43. After J. Ziemian: "The
                          Borders of Warsaw Ghetto", Jerusalem,
                          1971. There are indicated: 1. the office of
                          the Jewish Council (Judenrat); 2. Pawiak
                          Prison; 3. Great Synagogue; 4. Social welfare
                          institution; 5. Centos social welfare center;
                          6. Toz health services center; 7. ORT office;
                          8. Janusz Korczak's orphanage; 9. Hiding-place
                          for Ringelblum's archives "Oneg
                          Shabbat"; 10. assembly point
                          ("Umschlagplatz") for deportees. Add
                          to this are indicated: in gray: area
                          designated for Jewish residence by German
                          decree of 7 August 1940; gray line: boundaries
                          of the ghetto of 15 November 1940; in gray
                          little lines: ghetto boundary changes from
                          Feb. to April 1941; in black lines: the
                          boundaries of the ghetto on 22 July 1942; in
                          gray lines:the area of the ghetto at the
                          beginning of the uprising on 19 April 1943;
                          also the bridge over Chlodna street is
                          indicated, and with arrows are indicated the
                          movements of the troops during the uprising of
                          1943. amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 347-348.

Plan (map) of Warsaw ghetto, 1940-43. After J. Ziemian: "The Borders of Warsaw Ghetto", Jerusalem, 1971.

There are indicated: 1. the office of the Jewish Council (Judenrat); 2. Pawiak Prison; 3. Great Synagogue; 4. Social welfare institution; 5. Centos social welfare center; 6. Toz health services center; 7. ORT office; 8. Janusz Korczak's orphanage; 9. Hiding-place for Ringelblum's archives "Oneg Shabbat"; 10. assembly point ("Umschlagplatz") for deportees.

Add to this are indicated: in gray: area designated for Jewish residence by German decree of 7 August 1940;

gray line: boundaries of the ghetto of 15 November 1940; in gray little lines: ghetto boundary changes from Feb. to April 1941;

in black lines: the boundaries of the ghetto on 22 July 1942;

in gray lines: the area of the ghetto at the beginning of the uprising on 19 April 1943; also the bridge over Chlodna street is indicated, and with arrows are indicated the movements of the troops during the uprising of 1943.

In April 1940 the Germans began constructing a wall to enclose the future Warsaw ghetto. On October 2, the Germans established a ghetto for all Warsaw Jews and Jewish refugees from the provinces. Withing six weeks all Jews or persons of Jewish origin had to move into the ghetto, while all "Aryans" residing in the assigned area had to leave.

The ghetto originally covered 340 hectares (approximately 840 acres), including the Jewish cemetery. As this area was gradually reduced by the Germans, the walls were moved, and the number of gates changed. [[...]]

The gates were guarded by German and Polish police from the outside and by the Jewish militia (Ordnungsdienst) from the inside and only those with a special permit could enter or leave the ghetto.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col.
                344. Jewish police force. Photo taken in the Warsaw
                ghetto by a German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June
                1, 1941. Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 344. Jewish police force. Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto
by a German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941. Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.

In the beginning, the Warsaw city hall, German political authorities, and a special office, the "Transferstelle", responsible for financial affairs, dealt with the ghetto's administration. [[...]]

The head of the Jewish community council was Adam *Czerniakow, an engineer who had been appointed by the mayor of Warsaw during the siege (Sept. 23, 1939). By order of Hans Frank (Sept. 28, 1939), a *Judenrat was created, consisting of 24 members, and presided over by Czerniakow. Czerniakow carried out his functions for the general good under trying conditions, often interceding with the German authorities to ameliorate the repressive regulations. He tirelessly supported social and cultural institutions in the ghetto and provided relief wherever possible. [[...]]

From April 1941 a German commissioner, Heinz Auerswald, was appointed over the ghetto. [[...]]

In the autumn of 1941 the ghetto was divided into two parts, joined by a bridge over Chlodna Street. [[...]]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col.
                344. Market place of Warsaw ghetto. Photo taken in the
                Warsaw ghetto by a German war correspondent. Oct. 1,
                1940-June 1, 1941. Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives,
                Jerusalem.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 344. Market place of Warsaw ghetto. Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto
by a German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941. Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.

Originally some 400,000 Jews were crowded into the area of the ghetto. The reductions in its size necessitated internal shifting and further overcrowding, so that thousands of families were often left without shelter. The situation was further aggravated when some 72,000 Jews from the Warsaw district (see Poland) were transferred to the ghetto, bringing the total number of refugees to 150,000 (April 1941). The average number of persons per room was 13, while thousands remained homeless. The ghetto population during various periods prior to July 1942 is estimated to have been between 400,000 and 500,000.

[Confiscations by the Transferstelle - food discrimination - working conditions - heating question - mass death in the ghetto - flight and Nazi collaboration of the Polish police - deportation to forced labor camps - >100,000 victims in the Warsaw ghetto estimated]

The confiscation and plunder of Jewish property was conducted by the "Transferstelle". In January 1942, Jewish goods valued at 3,736,000 zlotys ($947,600); in March - 6,0445,000 zlotys ($1,209,000); and in April - 6,893,000 zlotys ($1,378,000).

The ghetto population received a food allocation amounting to 184 calories per capita a day, while the Poles received 634, and the Germans 2,310. The price per large calory was 5.9 zlotys (about $1) for Jews, 2.6 zlotys (50 cents) for Poles, and 0.3 zlotys ($.06) for Germans. The average allocation per person in the ghetto was four pounds of bread and a half pound of sugar a month. The dough was mixed with sawdust [[wooden dust]] and potato peels.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col.
                344. Standing in line for potatoes in the Warsaw ghetto.
                [[In the background can be seen a poster for a ballet
                performance]]. Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto by a
                German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941.
                Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 344. Standing in line for potatoes in the Warsaw ghetto.
[[In the background can be seen a poster for a ballet performance]]. Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto by a
German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941. Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.

The ghetto suffered from mass unemployment. In June 1941, 27,000 Jews were active in their professions, while 60% of the Jewish population had no income at all. A small number of Jews who had their own tools and machines found employment in factories taken over by Germans.

Wages were minimal. For 10-12 hours of of strenuous labor, a skilled worker earned 2 1/-5 zlotys ($0.50-1.00) daily.

There was an acute shortage of fuel to heat the houses. In the winter of 1941-42, 718 out of the 780 apartments investigated had no heat.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col.
                344. Old man. Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto by a
                German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941.
                Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 344. Old man. Photo taken in the Warsaw ghetto
by a German war correspondent. Oct. 1, 1940-June 1, 1941. Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.

These conditions led to epidemics, especially typhoid. The streets were strewn with corpses due to starvation and disease. Bands of children roamed the streets in search of food. A few women and children occasionally slipped across to the "Aryan" side, in an attempt to find food or shelter. The [[collaborating, anti-Semitic]] Polish police usually seized them and turned them over to the Germans. In October 1941 the authorities declared that leaving the ghetto without permission was punishable by death. (col. 342)

From time to time the authorities rounded up able-bodied people in the streets and sent them to slave labor camps. In April 1941 some 25,000 Jews from the Warsaw ghetto lived in the camps under conditions that rapidly decimated their numbers. After the outbreak of the German-Soviet War (June 1941), many of the inmates in the camps were executed.

It is estimated that by the summer of 1942, over 100,000 Jews died in the ghetto proper.

[Underground work in the ghetto - smuggling - ghetto institutions and aid organizations - "soap kitchens" and "trade courses" - Ringelblum archives - secret synagogues]

Nevertheless, the morale of the ghetto inhabitants was not broken, and continual efforts were made to overcome the German decrees and organize relief. Illegal workshops were gradually established for manufacturing goods to be smuggled out and sold on the "Aryan" side. These included leather products, metals, furniture, textiles, clothing, and millinery. At the same time raw materials were smuggled in. In this way thousands of families were sustained.

the smuggling of foodstuffs into the ghetto, carried out by Jewish children, was especially intensive. In December 1941 the official import of foodstuffs and materials into the ghetto was valued at 2,000,000 zlotys ($400,000) while illegal imports totaled 80,000,000 zlotys ($16,000,000). Social welfare institutions were active (col. 347)

to combat hunger and disease. The *Centos for social welfare, the *Toz for health services, and other organizations re-formed and established hospitals, public kitchens (daily providing over 100,000 soup rations), orphanages, refugee centers, and recreation facilities. In each block of houses a committee for charitable work functioned and also engaged in cultural and educational activities, such as reading groups, lectures, and musical evenings.

A network of schools, both religious and secular, as well as trade schools functioned in the ghetto. Some of these schools were illegal and could operate only under the guise of soup kitchens. Similarly, medical, technical, and scientific training was given under the guise of trade courses.

By the end of 1940 the Jewish historian, Emmanuel *Ringelblum, established a secret historical and literary society under the code name of Oneg Shabbat. This group set up secret archives on the life and martyrdom of the Polish Jews under the Nazis. These archives, which were hidden in several places, were discovered after the war.

Despite the closing down of all synagogues and the prohibition against public worship, clandestine services were held, especially on holidays. Yeshivot [[religious Torah schools]] secretly functioned. The zaddikim (ẓaddikim) [[ultra-radical Jews]] of *Aleksandrow (col. 349)

and *Ciechanow were hidden and cared for by their followers. Many religious Jews held the view that their sufferings were preliminary to the coming of the Messiah. There were many instances of heroism by ultra-Orthodox Jews in the face of the death. Hillel *Zeitlin, the famous religious writer, arrived at the "Umschlagplatz" (assembly point) during the 1942 deportation, proudly dressed in his religious garb. Janusz *Korczak, the director of the Jewish orphanage, continued to give hope and courage to his wards until he boarded the death train together with the children.

FORMATION OF RESISTANCE. [Racist Zionists - pogrom of 1940 - underground resistance work - ghetto newspapers]

The main form of resistance in the ghetto revolved around the underground political life which existed throughout the German occupation. The most active were the [[racist]] Zionist groups - *Po'alei Zion,*Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir), *Deror, *Betar, *Gordonia, as well as the [[Socialist party]] Bund and the Communist-inspired Spartakus organization.

As early as Passover 1940 the Germans, with the cooperation of Polish hooligans, provoked a pogrom in the Jewish district. Underground Jewish groups organized effective self-defense.

After the ghetto was established, underground activity increased, as the purely Jewish environment offered better security against denunciations and infiltration of German police agents into the ranks of the underground. The political underground movements in the ghetto engaged in such activities as disseminating information, collecting documents on German crimes [[and of the collaborators]], sabotaging German factories, and preparing for armed resistance.

A series of illegal periodicals appeared in Hebrew, Yiddish, and Polish. Among the best known were the following

Hebrew publications: Deror, circulated by the *He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) organization, El Al, Itton ha-Tenu'ah, and Neged ha-Zerem by Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir); Magen David by Betar; Sheviv by the General [[racist]] Zionists;

Yiddish publications:  Bafrayung [[Liberation]] by He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutẓ); Morgenfray and Biuletin by the Bund;

and Polish publications: Awangarda [[Avangarde]] by Po'alei Zion; Jutrznia and Plomienie by Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir).

[Jewish underground fighting organizations]

The first Jewish military underground organization, Swit, was formed in December 1939 by Jewish veterans of the Polish army. Most of its members were Revisionists. The organization was headed by David Apelbaum and Henry Lipszyc, aided by a Polish major, Henryk Iwanski.

Early in 1942 a second underground fighting organization emerged, created by four [[racist]] Zionist groups: Po'alei Zion, Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (Ẓa'ir), Zionist Socialists, and Deror, as well as the Communist organization. It soon became known as the anti-Fascist bloc. Its leaders were Szachna Sagan, Aron Lewartowski, Josef Kaplan, and Josef Sak. Four commanders were appointed: Mordecai *Anielewicz, Pinkus Kartin, Mordecai Tenenbaum, and Abram Fiszelson.

The Bund did not join the bloc but created its own fighting organization "Samo obrona" (self-defense) under the command of Abraham Blum. None of the three military organizations of the ghetto succeeded in acquiring arms prior to July 22, 1942, when mass deportations to *Treblinka death camp were initiated by the Nazis [[and their collaborators]].

FIRST MASS DEPORTATIONS. [Deportation wave of 1942 from the Warsaw ghetto]

The deportations were preceded by a series of terrorizing "actions", when scores of people were dragged out of their homes and murdered in the streets. Just one day before the mass deportations to Treblinka began (July 21, 1942), 60 hostages were taken to the Pawiak Prison. Three days later, the president of the Judenrat, Adam Czerniakow, committed suicide following a demand by the Nazis that he cooperate with them in the deportations. His successor, Maksymilian (Marek) Lichtenbaum, also an engineer, obeyed the Nazi orders. The number of deportees averaged 5,000-7,000 daily, sometimes reaching 13,000. Some of the victims, resigned to their fate as a result of starvation, reported voluntarily to the (col. 349)

"Umschlagplatz" [[assembly point]], lured by the sight of food which the Germans offered to the volunteers, and by the promise that their transfer to "the East" meant they would be able to live and work in freedom.

In the beginning, the Germans exempted from deportation employees of the ghetto factories, members of the Judenrat and Jewish police, and hospital personnel, as well as their families. Thousands of Jews made feverish attempts to obtain such employment certificates. In the course of time even these "safe" categories were subject to deportation.

The number of victims, including those murdered in the ghetto and those deported to Treblinka, totaled approximately 300,000 out of the 370,000 inhabitants in the ghetto prior to July 1942. This major Aktion lasted
from July 22 until Sept. 13, 1942 [[52 days]]. Following the deportations, the ghetto area was drastically constricted so that some factories and several blocks of buildings were left outside the new walls and cordoned off with barbed wire to prevent anyone finding shelter there. The Germans also fixed the number of inhabitants allowed to remain in the ghetto at a maximum of 35,000 persons.

ACTIVE RESISTANCE. [Fighting organizations - ZOB - armed resistance since 1942 with arms, manufacturing, and bunkers]

The leaders of the underground movements appraised the new situation. At their first meeting, they decided to create the Jewish Fighting Organization (Zydowska (Żydowska) Organizacja Bojowa - ZOB), and take active steps to oppose further deportation. A few members of the underground managed to escape from Treblinka, and brought to the ghetto information about the real fate that awaited the deportees, namely physical annihilation. Because of the blockade it was not even possible to pass this information on to the non-Jewish population.

Some 30,000-35,000 Jews, most of them factory workers and their families, legally remained in the ghetto and were employed within or outside the ghetto. In addition, there were between 20,000 and 30,000 Jews living on in the ghetto "illegally". By the end of 1942 there was an influx of several thousand Jews from the labor camps which had been closed. At this time some Jews hiding on the "Aryan" side were seized and returned to the ghetto.

In this period intensive preparations were made for armed resistance. The Bund also joined the ZOB, while the Revisionists continued to adhere to their separate organization, Swit.

Appeals were made to several Polish underground organizations for the acquisition of weapons. An emissary of the ZOB, Arie (Jurek) Wilner, succeeded in persuading the commanders of one of the Polish underground armies (Armia Krajowa) of the necessity of supplying weapons to the ghetto underground and, after long negotiations, about 100 firearms and some hand grenades were sent into the ghetto.

Another small quantity of arms was supplied by the Communist "People's Guard". The Revisionists also obtained several loads of arms from two Polish underground organizations led by Major H. Iwanski and Captain Szemley (Cesary) Ketling. Several secret workshops were established in the ghetto to manufacture homemade hand grenades and bombs, and some additional arms were bought on the black market.

At the same time, a network of bunkers and subterranean communication channels was constructed to enable combat against the superior German forces and to protect the non-fighting population.

[Deportation wave of January 1943 from the Warsaw ghetto - resistance and 4 days street fight - stopped deportations - about 1,000 Jews murdered in the ghetto]

The second wave of deportations began on Jan. 18, 1943, when the Nazis broke into the ghetto, surrounded many buildings, and deported the inhabitants to Treblinka. They liquidated the hospital, shot the patients, and deported the personnel. Many factory workers who had been employed outside the ghetto were included among the deportees. The underground organizations, insufficiently equipped and ill-prepared, nevertheless offered armed resistance, which (col. 350)

turned into four days of street fighting. This was the first case of street fighting in occupied Poland. The Germans [[and their collaborators]] fearing the impact of this outburst on other parts of Poland, stopped the deportations, and attempted to carry out their aim by "peaceful" means, namely by voluntary registration for the alleged labor camps. The underground, in turn, conducted an intensive information campaign about the real intentions of the Nazis [[and their collaborators]]. As a result the second wave of deportations was suspended after four days, during which the Germans [[and their collaborators]] managed to send only 6,000 persons to Treblinka. About 1,000 others were murdered in the ghetto itself.

THE GHETTO UPRISING. [Street fights - houses burning down April-May 1943]

After this Aktion, daily life in the ghetto was paralyzed. Walking in the street was punishable by death. Only groups of workers marching under armed guard were to be seen. Social institutions ceased to function and the Judenrat, most of whose members were killed in the January Aktion, were reduced to a small office. The underground organizations, however, were preparing for armed resistance in case a further attempt would be made by the Germans [[and their collaborators]] to liquidate the ghetto. Mordecai Anielewicz now headed the ZOB. The members of his command were: Yizhak (Yiẓḥak) (Antek) *Cukierman, Hersz Berlinski, Marek Edelman, Zivia (Ẓivia) Lubetkin, and Michal Rojzenfeld.

The entire force was divided into 22 fighting units, each unit affiliated with one of the political groups. Israel Kanal was commander of the units operating in the central area of the ghetto; and Eleazar Geller and Marek Edelman commanded the factory units. The ZOB underground headquarters were at 18 Mila Street. The Revisionist commanders were Leon Rodal, Pawel Frenkiel, and Samuel Luft.

On April 19, 1943, a German force, equipped with tanks and artillery, under the command of Col. Sammern-Frankennegg, penetrated into the ghetto in order to resume the deportations. The Nazis met with stiff resistance from the Jewish fighters. Despite overwhelmingly superior forces, the Germans were repulsed from the ghetto, after suffering heavy losses. Sammern-Frankennegg was relieved of his command, and Gen. Juergen *Stroop, appointed in his stead, immediately resumed the attack. Street fighting lasted for several days, but when the Germans [[and their collaborators]] failed in open street combat, they changed their tactics. Carefully avoiding any further street clashes, the Germans [[and their collaborators]] began (col. 351)

systematically burning down the houses. The inhabitants died in the flames, while those hiding in the canals and bunkers were killed by gas and hand grenades. Despite these conditions, the Jewish fighting groups continued to attack German soldiers until May 8, 1943, when the ZOB headquarters fell to the Germans. Over a hundred fighters including Anielewicz, died in this battle. Several units continued to fight even after the fall of the ZOB and Revisionist headquarters. Armed resistance lasted until June 1943. With the help of the Polish "People's Guard" some 50 ghetto fighters escaped from the ghetto and continued to fight the Germans in the nearby forests as a partisan unit named in memory of Anielewicz.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 345. The burning ghetto, April-May
                        1943
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 345. The burning ghetto, April-May 1943
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 345. Some of the last inhabitants
                        confronted with the Nazi army.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 345. Some of the last inhabitants confronted with the Nazi army.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 345. Jewish partisan fighters forced
                        out of their bunkers. [[See the laughing German
                        soldiers, but 2 years afterwards they had
                        nothing to laugh any more...]]
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 345. Jewish partisan fighters forced out of their bunkers. [[See the laughing German soldiers, but 2 years afterwards they had nothing to laugh any more...]]
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 346. Captured partisans awaiting their
                        fate.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 346. Captured partisans awaiting their fate.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw,
                          vol. 16, col. 346. From Stroops's report to
                          Hitler: "There is no Jewish quarter in
                          Warsaw any more!" (Es gibt keinen
                          jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr!)
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 346. From Stroops's report [[with a photo of the burning Warsaw ghetto]] to Hitler: There is no Jewish quarter in Warsaw any more!" (Es gibt keinen jüdischen Wohnbezirk in Warschau mehr!)

Photographs taken by General Stroop during his subjugation of the ghetto, April-May 1943. Courtesy Yad Vashem Archives, Jerusalem.


[Moral effect of Warsaw ghetto uprising - sporadic resistance from the ruins until August 1943]

The Warsaw ghetto uprising had an enormous moral effect upon Jews and non-Jews throughout the world, especially since it was prepared and carried out under conditions which practically excluded a priori any attempt at armed resistance. Despite the vastly unequal forces, the uprising continued for a long time and constituted the largest battle in occupied Europe before April 1943 (excepting in Yugoslavia).

This battle also had its impact upon the Polish population, resulting in the intensification of resistance by the Poles as well as by Jews throughout the country. On May 16, 1943, Stroop reported to his superiors on the complete liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto. As a token of his victory he blew up the Great Synagogue on Tlomacka Street. According to his report, the Germans [[with their collaborators]] in the course of one month's fighting had killed or deported over 56,000 Jews. The Germans themselves officially suffered 16 dead and 85 wounded between April 29 and May 15, but it is conjectured that the German casualties were in fact much higher. In the course of the following months, the Germans penetrated the empty ghetto and hunted down the remnants hiding in the ruins, often using fire to overcome sporadic resistance, which continued until August 1943.

[[In the following month in September 1943 Rome was falling]].

The Warsaw ghetto uprising became an event of world history when details of what happened became known after the war. Among the writers who depicted life in the ghetto and the underground fighters were Yizhak (Yiẓḥak) Katznelson, John Hersey, and Leon *Uris.

[Jews in Warsaw 1943-1944 on the "Aryan" side]

After the liquidation of the ghetto, the surviving members of the ghetto leadership continued underground (col. 352)

work on the "Aryan" side of Warsaw. The underground's main activity was to assist Jews living on the "Aryan" side, either in hiding or by means of forged documents. According to their figures, the number of Jews on the "Aryan" side reached 15,000 (May 1944). They also established contact with Jewish organizations abroad and received financial assistance. Among their leaders were Adolf *Berman of Po'alei Zion and Leon Fajner of the Bund. Emmanuel *Ringelblum continued his scientific work of collecting evidence on Nazi crimes until May 1944, when he was seized and executed.

[[There must have been a declaration of the Nazi occupation forces that Warsaw was "judenrein" ("free of Jews"), but it's not mentioned in the article]].

[Warsaw uprising in August 1944]

Hundreds of Jews were active in the Polish underground of Greater Warsaw, particularly Hanna Szapiro-Sawicka, Niuta Tajtelbaum, Ignacy Robb-Narbutt, Menasze Matywiecki, and Ludwik Landau. When the Polish uprising in Warsaw broke out on Aug. 1, 1944, over 1,000 Jews in hiding immediately volunteered to fight the Germans [[and their collaborators]]. Hundreds of them fell in the battle, among them a member of the high commando of the People's Army, Matywiecki, and Pola Elster, a member of the Polish National Council. In addition, the remnants of the ZOB, under the commando of Cukierman, and a group of liberated prisoners from the city concentration camp, participated in the uprising.

[DE.D.]

[[...]] About 6,000 Jewish soldiers participated in the battle for the liberation of Warsaw. Warsaw's eastern suburb, Praga, was liberated [[occupied by Communist terror]] in September 1944,and the main part of the city on the left bank of the Vistula [[Germ.: Weichsel]] on Jan. 17, 1945. On that day only 200 Jewish survivors were found in underground hideouts in the ruins of destroyed Warsaw. [[...]]

Post-War Developments.

[Returned Jews from central Russia - Jewish institutions since 1945 in Warsaw]

[[...]] By the end of 1945 about 5,000 Jews had settled in Warsaw. That number was more than doubled [[to over 10,000 Jews]], when Polish Jews, who had survived the war in the Soviet Union, returned. Warsaw became the seat of the Central Committee of Polish Jews. On April 19, 1948 (the fifth anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising) a monument executed by N. Rapaport in memory of the ghetto fighters was unveiled in the square called "The Ghetto Heroes' Square". In 1949 a number of Jewish cultural institutions (The Jewish Historical Institute, the Jewish Theater, editorial staffs of the Yiddish papers Folksshtime [[People's Voice]] and Yidishe Shriften [[Yiddish Papers]]) were transferred from Lodz to Warsaw. A club for Jewish youth, "Babel", was opened there and one synagogue was rebuilt.

[Emigrations waves from Warsaw 1945-1970]

After the war Warsaw Jews left Poland in three main waves: in 1946-47 after the great pogrom in *Kielce; in 1957-58; in 1967-68 when the Polish government launched its official anti-Semitic campaign. After 1968 Jewish institutions, although officially not closed, had actually ceased to function. The number of remaining Jews, mostly aged people, was estimated at 5,000 in 1969. For further details see *Poland.

[DE.D./S.KR.]

[[Precise numbers how many Jews were emigrating are missing in this article]].


Memorial
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw,
                          vol. 16, col. 351. Memorial of the Warsaw
                          ghetto uprising with group of persons and
                          candle stand (menorah), from Nathan Rapaport,
                          1948.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 351. Memorial of the Warsaw ghetto uprising with group of persons and candle stand (menorah), from Nathan Rapaport, 1948.
x
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw,
                          vol. 16, col. 351. Relief of the memorial of
                          the Warsaw ghetto uprising from Nathan
                          Rapaport, 1948.
amplifyEncyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 351. Relief of the memorial of the Warsaw ghetto uprising from Nathan Rapaport, 1948.






Bibliography

-- S. Dubnow: History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, 3 vols. (1916-20), index
-- R. Mahler: Divrei Yemei Yisrael, Dorot Aharonim, 1, pt. 3 (1955); pt. 4 (1956), 2, pt. 1 (1970), indexes
-- idem: Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Polin (1946), index
-- A. Levison: Toledot Yehudei Varshah (1953)
-- EG (1953, 1959)
-- Pinkas Varshe (Yid., 1955)
-- E. Ringelblum, in: Historishe Shriftn, 2 (1937), 248-68
-- idem, in: Zion, 3 (1938), 246-66, 337-55
-- idem, in: YIVO Bleter [[YIVO Papers]], 13 (1938), 124-32
-- idem: Kapitlen Geshikhte ... (1953)
-- idem: Geshikhte fun Yidn in Varshe [[History of the Yiddish People in Warsaw]], 1-3 (1947-53)
-- A. Kraushar: Kupiectwo warszawskie (1929)
-- H.D. Friedberg: Toledot ha-Defus ha-Ivri be-Polanyah (1950), 109-15
-- B. Weinryb, in: MGWJ, 77 (1933), 273 ff.
-- H. Lieberman, in: Sefer ha-Yovel ... A. Marx (1943), 20-21. See also bibl. Poland.

HOLOCAUST
For a full bibliography see Holocaust, General Survey - Sources and Literature, Sections 3, 4

-- G. Reitlinger: Final Solution (1968), 260-326, and passim, incl. bibl.
-- r. Hilberg: Destruction of European Jews (1961), index
-- Central Commission for War Crimes: German Crimes in Poland [[the collaborators are not mentioned]], 2 vols. (1946-47) (col. 353)
-- American Federation for Polish Jews: Black Book of Polish Jewry (1943) (col. 353-354)
-- American Jewish Black Book Committee: Black Book (1945)
-- A. Czerniakow: Yoman Geto Varshah (1968)
-- C.A. Kaplan: Scroll of Agony: Warsaw Ghetto Diary (1965)
-- J. Tenenbaum: In Search of a Lost People (1949)
-- idem: Underground, the Story of a People (1952)
-- B. Mark: Der Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto [[Warsaw Ghetto Uprising]] (1959)
-- idem. (ed.): The Report of Juergen Stroop (1958), includes introduction and notes
-- J. Kermish (ed.): Mered Getto Varshah be-Einei ha-Oyev (1966), Eng. introd. and notes
-- P. Friedman: Martyrs and Fighters (1954)
-- Y. Gruenbaum (ed.): Varshah (1953), 601-815
-- J. Sloan (ed.): Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto. The Journal of Emmanuel Ringelblum (1958)
-- B. Goldstein: Five Years in the Warsaw Ghetto (1961)
-- idem: The Stars Bear Witness (1950)
-- D. Wdowinsky: And We Are Not Saved (1963)
-- A. Donat: The Holocaust Kingdom (1965)
-- N. Blumental and J. Kermish (eds.): Ha-Meri ve-ha-Mered be-Getto Varshah (1965), Eng. introd.
-- M. Berland: 300 Sha'ot ba-Getto ha-Do'ekh (1959)> (col. 354)



Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 341-342
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 341-342
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 343-344
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 343-344
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 345-346
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 345-346
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 347-348
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 347-348
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 349-350
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 349-350
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 351-352
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 351-352
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol.
                        16, col. 353-354
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Warsaw, vol. 16, col. 353-354




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