Kontakt / contact     Hauptseite / page
                  principale / pagina principal / home     zurück /
                  retour / indietro / atrás / back
zurück / retour / indietro / atrás / backprevious   nextnext

Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in the Netherlands 04: 1900-1933

Decline of the Jews in Holland - Herzl Zionism - industrialization - Jewish professions and positions

from: Netherlands; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

Teilen / share:

Facebook







<The Twentieth Century.

[Less children and mixed marriages lead to less Jews - weak Orthodox movement]

In the first half of the 20th century the Jewish community in the Netherlands declined. The number of births decreased rapidly (in 1930 only 60% of the number in 1901) because of the smaller number of children born of each marriage and the increasing number of mixed marriages. The number of mixed marriages increased from 13% (in 1901) to 41% (in 1930); therefore, the percentage of Jews in relation to the total population of Holland dropped rapidly. The most important reasons for these phenomena were:

(1) Jews lived mainly in towns (82% of all Jews were concentrated in seven big towns) and therefore adopted the habits of urban life;

(2) after 1900 the prosperity of the Jews increased more rapidly than that of the rest of the population; and

(3) the introduction of the Jews into Dutch society diminished the taboo on mixed marriages, and in this respect the Jews who considered themselves purely as a religious group followed the even stronger tendency to marry outside their religion prevalent among Catholics and Protestants.

Socialist ideology also played a part in this development. Those anti-Jewish disabilities which existed (Jews were excluded from representative functions and from exclusive circles) were not strong enough to divert the general course. Nor could the Orthodox movement be a counterforce since its influence was diminishing; the secular leadership of all Jewish organizations was in the hands of non-Orthodox members while the strong Orthodox character of the kehillot [[communities]] was retained.

The secular leaders neglected education and emphasized the importance of charitable institutions (Jewish hospitals, homes for invalids, the old, and mentally disturbed), which were on a high level.

[Zionism in Holland]

Zionism obtained an early foothold in Holland but its followers remained limited to a small group of intellectuals which included J.H. *Kann, one of the first directors of the Anglo-Palestine Company; Sigmund *Seeligmann, the well-known bibliographer; and especially the chief rabbi of Amsterdam, J.H. Duenner. Until his death Duenner supported Zionism in spite of its violent rejection by all other Dutch chief rabbis, who even proscribed Zionism after the Eighth Zionist Congress at The Hague in 1907. This congress had a favorable effect on the development of the Netherlands Zionist Federation, which under the leadership of Nehemia *de Lieme, formed a small but strong organization.

[[Supplement: Racist Zionism - Arab anti-Semitism can be expected
Zionism is a reaction on czarist Russian anti-Semitism and has it's bases on Herzl's book "The Jewish State" which states that a "Jewish State" has to be installed in Middle East and for this all Arabs can be driven away as in the "USA" the natives have been driven away. Only with this "Jewish State" Jewry would be safe from anti-Semitism and prosecution. This would be a "modern solution of the Jewish question". Herzl did not indicate any borderlines of this state, and the dreams of the "Greater Israel" borderlines can be seen in First Mose chapter 15 phrase 18 the Euphrates (look in the Bible). The main source of European anti-Semitism - the Church - is never mentioned by Herzl. So it seems in the Netherlands were not many Jews who were supporting these racist Herzl ideas which only caused new anti-Semitism at the end from the Arab side. It seems the anti-Zionists had the majority in the Netherlands]].

During World War I the many refugees who came from *Antwerp to Amsterdam and The Hague gave an impetus to greater interest in Zionism: after 1917 a national youth movement developed, a Zionist press was established, and modern Hebrew was studies. At the same time Holland became a base for the vocational training of halutzim [[Zionist pioneers]] from Eastern Europe.> (col. 983)

[[...]]

[first half of 20th century: Jews in the industrialization of Holland]

In the first half of the 20th century, Jews also participated to a greater extent in Dutch society in many fields. As well as in the diamond industry, Jews were also represented in the textile industry, founding the large firms of Menko (Enschede), Spanjaard (Borne), and Kattenburg (Amsterdam), and the chain department stores of Bijenkorf and (col. 983)

Gerzon. The margarine factory of Van den *Bergh (Unilever) developed into a worldwide firm, as did the barrel factory of Van Leer.

[Jews in professions and arts - Jewish newspapers in Holland]

In the professions, lawyers remained the most important: D. *Simsons, J. *Oppenheim, and especially E.M. *Meyers, who compiled the new civil code for the Netherlands; but there were also many Jews in medicine, physics, philosophy, and philology. The best-known authors were the dramatist Herman Heijermans, the poet Jacob de *Haan, his sister, the prose writer Carry van *Bruggen, and the novelist Israel *Querido. There were many performing musicians among the Jews but the only composer of importance was Sem Dresden (1881-1957). Many more Jews were active in the theater: Esther de Boer van Rijk (1853-1937), Louis de Vries (1871-1940), and the noted cabaret performer Louis Davids (1883-1939). The most famous painter was Jozef *Israels; others were his son Isaac (1865-1934) and Martin Monnickendam (1874-1941). The most important sculptor was Joseph Mendes *da Costa and the best-known architect Michel *de Klerk, founder of the "Amsterdam School".

Until World War II there were four Jewish weeklies - of which the Nieuw Israëlitisch Weekblad (founded in 1865) and the Joodse Wachter (1905-   ) were most widely read - and also many monthlies and magazines.> (col. 984)

Teilen / share:

Facebook








Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 973-974
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 973-974
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 975-976
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 975-976
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 977-978
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 977-978
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 979-980
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 979-980
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 981-982
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 981-982
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 983-984
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 983-984
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 985-986
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 985-986
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 987-988
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 987-988
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 989-990
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 989-990
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 991-992
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 991-992
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol.
                    12, col. 993-994
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Netherlands, vol. 12, col. 993-994



zurück / retour / indietro / atrás / backprevious   nextnext

^