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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Turkey 03: Strategical value 1945-1970

Money from the "USA" for "strategical value" - emigration to Herzl Israel - attacks - anti-Herzl-Israel movement - demography - emigration and remigration

from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 15

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[since 1945: money from the "USA" because of the "strategic value" of Turkey - emigration to Herzl Israel]


<After the end of the war the general economic situation and its structure changed for the better. Primarily, the reforms introduced after the establishment of the republic began to be felt. In addition, the aid given by the United States, aimed to strengthen the social structure of the population and hence the strategic value of the country, showed its efficacy.

[[Supplement: Stratetical value was given by the situation of Turkey with the common border with the Soviet Union. The "US" policy pretended that Turkey had to be a "strong" state and gave financial aid. But: Considering that the Soviet Union also was financed by the "USA" one can detect that all this was a play of the banks, "US" weapon industries, and of the secret services]].

The Jewish population also took part in this recovery. In 1968 the economic situation of Turkish Jewry was good and the community contained some (col. 1458)

wealthy men. Most Jews were merchants, employees (very few of them in government service), or artisans. There were few underprivileged since most of the needy had settled in [[Herzl]] Israel soon after the establishment of the state.

[1955 and 1964: attacks against Greeks and Jews]

Minor persecutions of Jews in Istanbul occurred, however, through the tension between Turkey and Cyprus. During the anti-Greek riots in 1955 and 1964 the Jews were among the victims. The *Six-Day War (1967) also aroused anti-Jewish feelings and led to some small-scale incidents.

[Relations with Herzl Israel - anti Israel movement in Turkey]

The Turkish government, which established diplomatic relations with Israel, always attempted to quell mob turbulence, but not with full effect. As the government's attitude toward Muslim religious activities became more tolerant, the rightist parties used it as a cover for anti-Jewish propaganda. Anti-Semitism being prohibited by law, anti-leftist and anti-Communist slogans were employed in demagogy. By use of these tactics a small daily, Bugun, raised its circulation from 10,000 copies to 60,000. Some Turkish newspapers published articles in 1948 condemning emigration to Israel and a few attacked the government for allowing it.

[[So the movement was not against the Jews in general, but was against Herzl Free Mason CIA Israel which had the aim to drive away the Arabs as the natives had been driven away in the "USA"]].

They argued that the exodus of Jews would undermine the economy, and that communists were helping to organize emigration. Later the amount of anti-Jewish material published in Turkey was reduced [[anti-Herzl-Israel material]]. Among those continuing to publish such material was Cevat Rifat Atilhan, who wrote Le Sionisme, Danger pour l'Islamisme [["Zionism, danger for Islamism"]] (1951; all copies were seized by the authorities) and "Turks, Here is Your Enemy" (Turkish, 1959). Atilhan also wrote anti-Jewish articles in the newspaper Yeni Istiklal [[probably anti-Herzl-Israel articles, must be investigated]].

Between 1951 and 1961 the newspaper Büyük Doğu ("Great East"), whose editor was Necip Fazll Kisakürek, printed many anti-Jewish articles [[probably anti-Herzl-Israel articles, must be investigated]].

Demography.

[Figures]

The first census of the Turkish republic, held in 1927, showed some 81,454 Jews in a total population of over 13.5 million, of whom half were in Istanbul. By 1945, the total Jewish population had decreased to 76,965, and in 1955 to 40,345.

Table. Jews in Turkey
Year
number of Jews
remark
1927
81,454
official census
1945
76,965

1955
40,345

1965
42,940
chief rabbinate estimates
(According to letter Aug. 3, 1965)
1965-1970
xxxxxxxxxxx40,000xxxxxxxxxxx
Jewish institutions estimates
(World Jewish Congress: Jewish Agency)
Table by Michael Palomino; from: Turkey; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 15, col. 1459

Table 1. Distribution of Jewish Population in Turkey

Year 1927 official census
Year 1965 Chief rabbinate estimates*
Year 1965-70 Jewish institutions estimates**
* According to letter Aug. 3, 1965
** World Jewish Congress: Jewish Agency
1. Adana
159
60
70
2. Ankara
663
800
3,200 (!)
3. Antakya (Antioch
-
100
6
4. Bursa (Brusa)
1,915
350
400
5. Çanakkale
-
420
300
6. Çoclu 592
40
20
7. Dardanelles
1,109
-
-
8. Edirne (Adrianople)
6,098
400
120-400
9. Gallipoli
736
200
200
10. Gaziantep
742
160
-
11. Iskenderun
-
60
60
12. Istanbul
47,035
35,000
30,000
13. Izmir (Smyrna)
17,094
5,000
4,800-4,000 (!)
14. Kirklareli
978
90
67-35 [[?]]
15. Mersin
122
90
50
16. Milas
259
-
79
17. Tekirdag (Rodosto)
889
170
120
18. Tire
1,063
-
100




Total
81,454
42,940
40,000
from: Turkey; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 15, col. 1459



[Emigration to Herzl Free Mason CIA Israel - and partly remigration]

Immediately after the establishment of the State of Israel there was large-scale emigration of Turkish Jews. However, in November 1948, as the result of pressure exerted by the Arab states, emigration was forbidden until (col. 1459)

early 1949. Later in that year Turkey recognized the State of Israel de jure, and Jews were again permitted to emigrate. The government even put ships of its merchant shipping line at the disposal of the emigrants, but forbade Israel representatives to organize emigration (until 1950). A total of 4,362 Turkish Jews went to Israel 1948, and 26,295 in 1949-50. After 1950 the number of emigrants fell, although the Turkish government made no difficulties for those wishing to leave, except for the prohibition of taking out property. Between 1952 and 1955 only 2,182 Jews went to Israel. It is presumed that about 37,000 Jews left Turkey for Israel between 1948 and 1970; however about 10% of these, principally from Istanbul and Izmir (peddlers, bootblacks, small wage earners, etc.), returned to Turkey, as conditions had improved in the country.> (col. 1460)

[[Or there could be told also another version: The conditions in Herzl Free Mason CIA Ben Gurion dictator Israel were so bad for Turkish Spanish Jews (Sephardim) that many Turkish Jews preferred to have their living in Turkey again. The immigrants were second class Jews (Sephardim). They were put into tent desert camps for years, and this could not be accepted by the Turkish Spanish Sephardim]].

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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1456
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1456
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1457-1458
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1457-1458
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1459-1460
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1459-1460
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1461-1462
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1461-1462
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15,
                            col. 1463-1464
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: vol. 15, col. 1463-1464



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