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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in Ukraine: Little towns A-K

Bolekhov (Bolechóv) - Borislav (Boryslaw) - Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav) - Dubno - Feodosiya (Kaffa, Caffa) - Glinyany (Gliniany, Gline) - Gorodenka (Horodenka) - Gorodok (Gródek Jagiellonski)

from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[["Christian" Orthodox church was the base of Antisemitism in Ukraine but is never mentioned in Encyclopaedia Judaica]].


Bolekhov (Bolechów)

from: Bolekhov; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 4 [[also: Bolekhev, Bolechiw]]

Map of Ukraine with the positions of L'viv
                  (Lemberg), Bolekhov (Bolechow) and Kiev (Kiew)
Map of Ukraine with the positions of L'viv (Lemberg), Bolekhov (Bolechow) and Kiev (Kiew) [1]

[Municipality since 1612 - Jewish rights and professions]

BOLEKHOV (Pol. Bolechów), city in W. Ukrainian S.S.R. since 1945 (formerly in *Galicia; from 1772 to 1919 within Austria, subsequently in Poland).

Municipal status was granted to Bolekhov in 1612 by the lord of the town, and the Jews living there were accorded the right to participate in municipal elections for the mayor and council. In 1780 the Austrian government founded a Jewish agricultural settlement near Bolekhov named New Babylon; although the Jews were shortly afterward superseded by Germans, the name was retained. Jewish occupations in Bolekhov in the 18th century included trade in Hungarian wines, cattle, horses, and salt from the local mines. Later they extended to other trades and crafts. Industrial undertaking established by Jews included timber and other mills, tanneries, and furniture, soap, and candle factories.

The oil industry founded in Bolekhov after World War I, and its position as a summer resort, also provided sources of Jewish incomes. Bolekhov was a cradle of the Jewish Enlightenment movement (*Haskalah) in eastern Galicia, the Jews there taking an interest in Polish and other foreign (col. 1185)

languages even in the 18th century. Prominent among its leaders were Dov Ber *Birkenthal, author of a famous autobiography, and Solomon *Rubin, principal of the modern Jewish school, where both Hebrew and German were taught.

The Jews formed a considerable majority of the population until World War II. In 1900 there were 3,323 Jewish inhabitants (78% of the total), in 1925, 2,435. In elections for the Austrian parliament (1867 through 1906), Bolekhov formed part of a constituency with largely Jewish voters. In 1931 there were 2,986 Jews.

[N.M.G. / ED.]

Holocaust Period. [Shooting waves]

[[The Big Flight from Barbarossa is not mentioned]].

When World War II broke out, Bolekhov came under Soviet occupation until July 2, 1941, when the town was occupied by Slovak and Ukrainian units under German command. The German commander established a Judenrat, headed by Dr. Reifeisen, who shortly afterward committed suicide. The Jes were segregated in a ghetto established in the autumn of 1941 and the intolerable living conditions there were aggravated by the arrival of refugees from the villages in the district.

Relief was organized with great difficulty, and by the spring of 1942 most of them had died of starvation. Some Jews were employed in the local tanneries. Later, Jews were employed in lumber [[forest]] work at a special labor camp.

In October 1941, the German police seized over 1,000 Jews. After being tortured for 24 hours, some succumbed and the rest were brought to a mass grave and shot. The second mass liquidation took place in September 1942 when a manhunt was conducted jointly by the Ukrainian and Jewish police for three days. The victims were herded into the courtyard of the city hall, where some 500 persons were murdered by the Ukrainians and some 2,000 dispatched by freight trains to *Belzec death camp where they perished.

Most of the remaining Jews, including those from the work camp and some of the Jewish police and Judenrat were killed in December 1942. By 1943 only 1,000 Jews remained in the ghetto, in the work camp, and a few in the Jewish police. These were gradually murdered and only a few managed to escape to the neighboring forests. Some joined the partisans, while others perished there during the first few weeks.

By the time of the Soviet conquest (spring of 1944) only a handful of Jews remained alive. In the district of Bolekhov, there was a group of Jewish partisan fighters who operated under the command of a Ukrainian communist.

[DE.D.]

[[There is no indication about returning Jews or Jewry from 1944-1971, which seems to be strange]].


Bibliography

-- B. Wasiutynski: Ludnósc zydowska w Polsce w w. XIX i XX (1930), 122
-- Y. Eshel and M.H. Eshel: Sefer ha-Zikkaron li-Kedoshei Bolehov (1957)> (col. 1186)


Sources for Bolekhov (Bolechów)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Bolekhov (Bolechow), vol. 4, col.
                              1185-1186
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Bolekhov (Bolechow), vol. 4, col. 1185-1186



Borislav (Boryslaw)

from: Borislav; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 4 [[Germ. Borislau]]

Map of Ukraine with the positions of Lviv
                  (Lemberg), Borislav (Borislau) and Kiev (Kiew)
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Lviv (Lemberg), Borislav (Borislau) and Kiev (Kiew) [2]

[Jewish oil business in Borislav]

BORISLAV (Pol. Boryslaw), city in Ukrainian S.S.R. (until 1939, Galicia, Poland).

From 1867 to 1903 Borislav formed part of an Austrian parliamentary electoral district in which the majority of the constituents were Jewish. [...] The [[oil]] industry was pioneered by Jews. About 1880 the numerous wells located (col. 1248)

by them employed about 3,000 Jewish workers from Borislav and the vicinity. At this time, large Austrian and foreign banks, subsidizing modern techniques, began to squeeze out the smaller enterprises and Jewish labor, although a number of wells were still Jewish owned.

[1898: Emigration wave]

Borislav, which at the end of the 19th century was nicknamed the "California of Galicia", in 1920 supplied 75% of the oil in Poland. [...] In 1887 the first society of Hovevei Zion was established in Borislav.  [...] In 1898 some of the unemployed workers petitioned the Second Zionist Congress to grant them facilities to emigrate to Erez Israel. At the request of Theodor Herzl, the Alliance Israélite Universelle assisted approximately 500 workers to leave for the United States.

The Jewish community of Borislav had been affiliated with the *Drogobych kehillah [[congregation]], and became independent in 1928. [...]

In 1860 the Jewish population of Borislav numbered about 1,000; in 1890, 9,047 (out of a total of 10,424); in 1910, 5,753 (out of 12,767); in 1921, 7,170 (out of 16,000); and in 1939 over 13,000.

[N.M.G. / ED.]

Holocaust and Postwar Periods. [Soviet 1939 - Jewish refugees from Western Poland are deported 1940 - Big Flight from Barbarossa]

When the town came under Soviet administration in 1939, the Jewish institutions were disbanded and the political parties ceased to function. Jewish merchants were forced out of business, while the artisans were organized into cooperatives. Refugees from western Poland were deported from Borislav to the Soviet interior in the summer of 1940.

When the war with Germany broke out (June 1941) many young Jews joined the Soviet army, and others fled with the retreating Soviet authorities.

[Shooting waves]

The town fell to the Germans on July 1, 1941, and the following day the Ukrainians staged a pogrom against the Jewish community, killing more than 200 Jews. A *Judenrat was set up, headed by Michael Herz. The first Aktion took place on Nov. 29-30, 1941, when 1,500 Jews were murdered in the forests of two neighboring villages. The following winter (1941-42), hunger and disease made inroads on the Jewish community. In 1942 able-bodied Jews were sent to the labor camps of *Popiele, *Skole, and *Stryj, and about 5,000 Jews were sent to *Belzec death camp.

Two separate ghettos were established, followed by a series of roundups in which hundreds were sent to Belzec. Toward the end of 1942 a special labor camp was established in Borislav for the oil industries. The extermination process of the Jewish community continued with the execution, at the city slaughterhouse, on Feb. 16-17, 1943, of some 600 women, children, and elderly people.

During May-August 1943, the remaining Jews were killed and only some 1,500 slave laborers were temporarily spared. Jews who tried to hide in the forests and in the city itself were mostly caught and killed by the Germans, with the cooperation of local Ukrainians belonging mostly to the bands of Stefan Bandera.

In April-July 1944 the local labor camp was liquidated and the last surviving members of the Jewish community were brought to *Plaszow labor camp from where they were sent on to death or concentration camps in Germany. There were resistance groups among the young Jews of Borislav, but the only detail known about them is the fact that one of their leaders, Lonek Hofman, was killed while attempting to assault a German foreman.

[1944: Some 200 Jews - and Jews coming back from central "Soviet Union" and from German cc]

When Soviet forces took Borislav on Aug. 8, 1944, some 200 Jewish survivors were found in the forests and in local hideouts. Another 200 Jews came back later from the Soviet Union and from German concentrations camps. A monument was erected to the Jews who fell in World War II but was allowed to fall into disrepair. The Jewish cemetery was closed down in 1959.

In 1970, the number of Jews in Borislav was estimated at 3,000. There was no synagogue. A society composed of emigrants from Borislav and Drogobych and the vicinity was set up in [[Herzl]] Israel.

[AR.W.]

Bibliography

-- Gelber, in: Sefer Drohobycz ve-ha-Sevivah (1959), 171-6
-- K. Holzman: Be-Ein Elohim (1956)
-- T. Brustin-Berenstein; In: Bleter far Geshikhte, 6, no. 3 (1953), 45-100
-- Sefer Zikkaron le-Drohobiz, Borislav, ve-ha-Sevivah (1959), Heb. with Yid.> (col. 1250)


Sources for Borislav (Boryslav)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Borislav (Boryslav), vol. 4, col.
                              1248-1249-1250
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Borislav (Boryslav), vol. 4, col. 1248-1249-1250




Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav)

from: Dnepropetrovsk; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 6

Map of Ukraine with the positions of
                  Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav) and Kiev (Kiew)
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav) and Kiev (Kiew) [3]

[Foundation of Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav) in 1778 - Pale of Settlement - Jewish community - agricultural colonies 1840s-1941]

DNEPROPETROVSK (Yekaterinoslav until 1926), city and industrial center situated on the River Dnieper in Ukrainian S.S.R.

Jews first settled there shortly after its foundation in 1778, and in 1794 the town was included in the *Pale of Settlement. The community numbered 376 in 1805, and 1,699 in 1847. With the growth of the city in the second half of the 19th century Jews began to move there from other parts of Russia, and played an important role in its commerce and industry. Several Jewish agricultural colonies (see *Agriculture) were founded in the Yekaterinoslav province and in the neighborhood of the city itself between 1846 and 1855 with about 8,000 persons; some remained in existence until the German occupation in World War II.

[Pogroms 1883 - further increase of Jewish population - professions - pogroms 1905 - racist Zionism]

Pogroms occurred in Dnepropetrovsk and the vicinity in July 1883 in which much Jewish property was looted and destroyed. By 1897 the Jewish population had increased to 41,240 (36.3% of the total population), and included some very wealthy members, as well as shopkeepers, artisans, workers, and dockers.

The community was one of the most highly organized in Russia, and maintained a network of educational and charitable institutions, including a small yeshivah [[religious Torah school]]. There was also a small Karaite house.

Pogroms again broke out in October 1905 and local *self-defense was organized which did much to protect the community. The pogroms, which continued for about three days, took a toll of 67 dead and 100 wounded. Revolutionary trends among the Jewish youth were strong, alongside Hasidism and Orthodoxy among the older generation of the community. Dnepropetrovsk was an important Zionist center where M. *Ussishkin (from 1891 to 1906) and Shemaryahu *Levin were active. The latter served there as *government-appointed rabbi from 1898 to 1904.

[Jewish refugee center during WW I]

During World War I and the civil war in Russia, thousands of Jews took refuge in Dnepropetrovsk, which numbered 73,000 Jews in 1920. After the establishment of Soviet rule, Jewish community life ceased there as elsewhere in the Soviet Union. Some of the refugees returned to their former places of residence.

[Numbers and professions 1926]

The Jewish population numbered 62,073 in 1926 (26.9% of the total), with the following occupational structure:

-- workers in factories and workshops: 6,397
-- office workers: 8,477
-- in professions: 425
-- in agriculture: 887
-- in trade: 2,194
-- artisans: 3,469
- without professional status: 2,146
-- unemployed: 4,819

[1941: about 80% succeed in the Big Flight from Barbarossa]

The number of Jews was estimated at 100,000 (one-fifth of the total population) on the eve of World War II. Most succeeded in escaping from the city during the Nazi occupation. Those who remained, numbering about 20,000, were murdered toward the end of 1941.

[[The return of the Jews from central Russia 1945-1946 is not mentioned. The harsh Antisemitism since 1948 and the russification is not mentioned]].

According to the 1959 census there were 13,256 Jews living in Dnepropetrovsk. In 1963 anti-Semitic hooligans broke into a synagogue during the High Holiday services without interference from the police. In 1970 there was one (col. 141)

synagogue still functioning in the city and the Jewish population was estimated at 25,000. During the High Holidays the synagogue street is filled with Jews and order is maintained by the police. J.L. *Levin served as rabbi of Dnepropetrovsk before becoming chief rabbi of Moscow.

Bibliography

-- I. Halpern: Sefer ha-Gevurah, 3 (1950), 105, 162-79
-- M. Osherowitch: Shtet un Shtetlekh in Ukraine, 2 (1948), 99-111
-- Z. Harkavy, in: He-Avar, 5 (1957), 128-32
-- Die Judenpogrome in Russland, 2 (1910), 175-95
-- B. West: Be-Hevleei Kelayah (1963), 76.

[Y.S.]> (col. 142)



Sources for Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews
                                in Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav), vol.
                                6, col. 141-142
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Dnepropetrovsk (Yekaterinoslav), vol. 6, col. 141-142




Dubno

from: Dubno; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 6

Map of Ukraine with the positions of Lviv
                  (Lemberg), Dubno and Kiev (Kiew)
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Lviv (Lemberg), Dubno and Kiev (Kiew) [4]

[Jews since 16th century - writer Horowitz - Jewish rights - Chmielnicki massacres]

DUBNO, city in *Volhynia, Ukrainian S.S.R.

Dubno had one of the oldest, and for four centuries most important Jewish communities in Eastern Europe. Jews in Dubno are first mentioned in documents of 1532 in connection with the ownership of cattle. The oldest tombstone inscription in the Jewish cemetery dates from 1581.

At the beginning of the 17th century Isaiah ha-Levi *Horowitz, author of Shenei Luhot ha-Berit, was rabbi in Dubno. The community was represented on the council of the province of Volhynia (see *Councils of the Lands). Various sources relate that during the *Chmielnicki revolt of 1648-49, the Jews were massacred because the Poles had refused to permit them to take refuge in the fortress. According to tradition the graves of the martyrs were located near the eastern wall of the great synagogue, where it was customary to mourn them on the Ninth of Av. (col. 249)

[Reestablished Jewish community]

The Jewish community was reestablished shortly afterward under the patronage of the owners of the town, the princes Lubomirski, who accorded it special privileges in 1966 and 1713. By the beginning of the 18th century Dubno had become the largest Jewish community in the district of Luck, being represented on the Council of the Four Lands and earning the sobriquet "Dubno the Great" (Dubno Rabbati). Jewish polltax payers numbered 1,923 in 1765. The great fair of *Lvov was moved to Dubno between 1773 and 1793, and the city became an important commercial center. The most famous of the 18th-century Jewish preachers of Lithuania, *Jacob of Dubno, was known as the Dubner Maggid, after the city with which he was most closely associated.

[Numbers and professions]

In 1780 the Jewish population numbered 2,325, in 1847, 6,330, and in 1897, 7,108 (about half the total). A main occupation was dealing in grain and hops.

[1914-1921]

During World War I and the civil war in Russia (to 1921), the city changed hands a number of times and the community suffered extreme hardship, mainly of an economic nature.

While Dubno belonged to Poland (1921-1939), the community maintained many cultural institutions and there was an active Zionist and pioneer movement.

[Y.S.]

Holocaust and Postwar Periods. [Soviets 1939 - Jewish refugees from Western Poland]

After the outbreak of World War II Dubno was occupied by Soviet forces (Sept. 18, 1939). The Soviet authorities liquidated the Jewish community institutions, made all political parties illegal, transferred Jewish welfare institutions to the municipality, and allowed only one Jewish activity - the public kitchen for refugees from the West. All Jewish economic enterprises and buildings were nationalized. Jewish leaders, among them David Perl, president of the Zionist Organization, were arrested.

[[Deportation of Western Jewish refugees who resign to the "Soviet" passport and other deportation waves are not mentioned]].

[1941: Big Flight from Barbarossa - ghettos and shooting waves]

When the German-Soviet war broke out (June 1941), hundreds of young Jewish men escaped from Dubno to the Soviet interior. On the eve of the Nazi occupation there were about 12,000 Jews in the city. After the Germans entered Dubno (June 25), the local Ukrainian population indulged [[gave way]] in acts of murder and robbery, while the Germans extracted 100,000 rubles ($20,000) from the Jewish community.

On July 22, 1941, 80 Jews were executed by the Nazis in the local cemetery; one month later 900 were killed. The Germans organized a Judenrat headed by Konrad Tojbenfeld. The Jewish population was conscripted for forced labor and many succumbed to the unbearable conditions. The winter that followed (1941-42) was marked by hunger and disease, despite the attempts to provide relief by organizing public kitchens. The ghetto was established at the beginning of April 1942, and on May 27 the Nazi police moved in and "selected" over 5,000 "non-productive" Jews to be killed and buried in mass graves on the outskirts of the city.

The destruction of the remnant of the community continued throughout the summer and in October, in a final Aktion to liquidate the ghetto, the last 3,000 Jews were murdered, including about 150 discovered in hiding.

[1944: 300 Jews in Dubno - return of Jews from central Russia]

When the war was over only about 300 Jews from Dubno remained alive, including those who had returned from the Soviet Union. No Jewish community was reestablished after the war. A society of immigrants from Dubno has been established in Israel.

[AR.W]> (col. 250)


Sources for Dubno
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Dubno, vol. 6, col. 249-250
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Dubno, vol. 6, col. 249-250



Feodosiya (Kaffa, Caffa)

from: Feodosiya; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 6

Map of Ukraine with the positions
                of Crimea and Feodosiya (Kaffa, Caffa)
Map of Ukraine with the positions of Crimea and Feodosiya (Kaffa, Caffa) [5]

[Jews in Kaffa since the Hellenistic period - rule of Genoa since 1266 with freedom of religion]

FEODOSIYA [[Kaffa, Caffa]], Black Sea port in Crimea, Ukrainian S.S.R.;

one of the most ancient towns of the Soviet Union. Founded during the Hellenistic period as the Greek colony of Theodosia, it was called Kaffa (Caffa) until the Russian conquest (1783).

The Jewish settlement was also one of the oldest on Russian territory, its beginnings dating from the Hellenistic period. The old synagogue of Feodosiya, thought to be the most ancient in Russia, had an inscription which testified to its construction in 909.

Under the rule of the Republic of Genoa from 1266, Feodosiya became the center of the Genoese colonies on the Black Sea. In order to attract merchants from all nations there, freedom of religion was granted for all Christian sects, Muslims, and Jews. The traveler Schiltberg, who visited Feodosiya at the beginning of the 15th century, relates of the existence of two communities in the town - a *Rabbanite and a *Karaite one. The Jews engaged in commerce and maintained relations with the Near East and Poland. The constitution of the town, proclaimed in Genoa in 1449, called on the consul and city elders to protect the Jews as all members of other religions, "from any robbery, from scheming against (col. 1224)

their property when one of them died intestate, and from other molestations of the bishop."

The situation of the Jews remained unchanged when the government of the town was transferred to the Bank of San Giorgio, a powerful financial company that administered the eastern colonies of Genoa (1453-75).

[Turkish rule 1475-1783]

The community continued to develop under Turkish rule also (1475-1783). At the beginning of the 16th century *Moses b. Jacob of Kiev, of Lithuanian origin, held rabbinical office in Feodosiya. He composed a uniform siddur [[Jewish prayer book]] for all Jews of Crimea (the Kaffa rite) and instituted 18 takkanot [[major legislative enactment of Jewish law]] for the community.

[1783-1919: Czarist Russian law]

After annexation by Russia, Feodosiya was incorporated in the *Pale of Settlement.

[[About pogroms from 1881 to 1883 and about the emigration wave from Russia at the end of the 19th century is no indication]].

In 1897 there were 3,109 Jews in the town (12.9% of the total population), mainly Ashkenazim who had emigrated from Lithuania and Ukraine. On Oct. 17, 1905, pogroms accompanied by murder and looting broke out.

[[Famine and turmoil of Communist Revolution is not mentioned]].

The Jewish population of Feodosiya numbered 3,248 (11.3% of the total) in 1926.

[1941-1944: Holocaust period]

When the town was occupied by the Germans [[and probably also by Romanian troops]] at the end of 1941, all the Jews who had been unable to escape were arrested, and taken to their deaths (Dec. 4, 1941).

[[There was a big Jewish settlement movement which cut the other populations land. Stalin let deport the German friendly populations 1940-1941. Under Nazi law the Karaites were not pursued. The staying Tatars helped the NS occupation forces to kill the Jews. After Soviet return the Tatars were deported because of their help to the German troops. After 1945 some Jews came back from central Russia and were allowed to settle in the Crimea. Details: see: Crimea ]].

In 1970 the Jewish population of Feodosiya consisted of Crimean and Russian Jews and Karaites. There was no synagogue.

Bibliography

-- I. Markon, in: Zikkaron le-Avraham Eliyahu Harkavy (1908), 449-69
-- E. Farfel: Beit Keneset ha-Attik ha-Nimza be-Ir Feodosiya (1912)

[Y.S.]> (col. 1225)


Sources for Feodosiya (Kaffa, Caffa)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Feodosiya (Kaffa, Caffa), vol. 6, col.
                              1224-1225
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Feodosiya (Kaffa, Caffa), vol. 6, col. 1224-1225


Glinyany (Gliniany, Gline)

from: Glinyany; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7

[6]

[Jews in 12th century - community since 1474 - Tatar raids and Cossack massacres - Chmielnicki massacre - synagogue in 1704 - Shabbateans and Frankists - Hasidism in the 18th century]

GLINYANY (Pol. Gliniany; Yid. Gline), small town in Lvov oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.

Some Jews lived there in the 12th century. An organized community existed from 1474. The Jews of Glinyany suffered during the Tatar raids and Cossack massacres in 1624, 1638, and 1657, and particularly in 1648-49 (see *Chmielnicki). The first synagogue, built of wood, was erected there in 1704. Glinyany was a stronghold of the Shabbateans and later of the Frankists (see Jacob *Frank); in 1758 King Augustus III assigned Glinyany to the latter as one of their places of residence before baptism. In the 18th century Glinyany became a center of Hasidism.

[Austrian law: Jewish-German school until 1806 - Baron Hirsch school 1816-1914 - racist Zionists - figures]

A Jewish-German school in Glinyany, established under Joseph II after Austrian annexation of Galicia, remained open until 1806. A public school in the name of Baron Hirsch existed there from 1816 to 1914. The center of [[racist]] Zionist activity was a club, "National Home", founded in 1906. The community numbered 688 in 1765, 1,708 in 1880 (out of a total population of 3,695), 2,177 in 1900 (out of 4,906), 1,679 in 1921 (out of 4,355), 1,906 in 1931, and 2,300 in 1939.

[ED.]

Holocaust Period. ["Soviet" rule 1939-1941 - German rule with fine and labor camp - "Soviet" rule since 1944]

Under Soviet rule (1939-1941), the communal bodies were disbanded and all political activity outlawed. In 1940 the former political leaders and important businessmen were arrested. In spring 1941 young Jews were drafted into the Soviet army and placed in special work units.

The city fell to the Germans in July 1941. On July 27 a pogrom broke out, led by the Ukrainian populace in which the Jews were murdered and robbed, and their sacred literature was burned. A provisional Jewish committee was set up in an attempt to prevent further persecution.

The community had to pay a fine of 1,000,000 zlotys, but could not raise such a sum. Emissaries were sent to the German authorities in Peremyshlyany in an effort to lower the sum and delay payment, but met with partial success.

The Jews of Glinyany were sent to a labor camp in Kurwice. The *Judenrat, headed by Aaron Hochberg, considerably assisted the community until the period between Nov. 20, 1942, and Dec. 1, 1942, when the remaining Jews were interned in Peremyshlyany ghetto. They perished there when it was liquidated in the summer of 1943.

The city of Glinyany was taken by Soviet forces in August 1944, at which time only 20 Jewish survivors were found there. These left Glinyany in 1946.

[AR.W.]

Bibliography

-- M. Balaban, in: YE, 6 (c. 1910), 586
-- Bleter far Geshikhte, 4 pt, 3 (1953), 163
-- H. Halpern (ed.): Megiles Gline (1950)
-- Khurbn Gline (1964)
-- A. Korech (ed.): Kehillat Glina 1473-1943, Toledoteha ve-Hurbanah (1950)> (col. 621)


Sources for Glinyany (Gliniany, Gline)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Glinyani, vol. 7, col. 621
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Glinyani, vol. 7, col. 621



Gorodenka (Horodenka)

from: Gorodenka; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7

[Jews since 17th century - Jewish trade activities in 18th century]

GORODENKA (Pol. Horodenka), city in Stanislav oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.

Jews first settled there under Polish rule during the middle of the 17th century. In 1743 the Polish landowner granted them by a privilege the right to live in the town and to engage in commerce (excluding trade in Christian religious appurtenances) and crafts. The community received land for building a synagogue and for a cemetery. Jews of Gorodenka were dealers in grain, timber, and salt, wine makers, distillers of brandy, beer brewers, tavern keepers, and leasers and managers of estates. According to the census of 1765, there were 863 Jewish families in Gorodenka and 133 Jews living in 14 villages in the vicinity, affiliated to the Gorodenka community.

In the middle of the 18th century there was a group of Shabbateans and Frankists in the town. During the 1760s most of the Jews in Gorodenka joined the hasidic movement, among them *Nahman of Horodenko, one of the closest disciples of *Israel b. Eliezer Ba'al Shem Tov.

[1772: Discrimination under Austrian law - racist Zionism - Jewish institutions]

The city passed to Austria in 1772. In 1794, 30 Jews in Gorodenka (12 families) joined to found an agricultural settlement. Despite their economic difficulties, the rate of taxation levied upon the Jewish population was five times higher than that for the Christian population.

According to data of 1890, 4,340 of the 11,162 inhabitants of the town and 7 of the 18 members of the municipal council were Jews.

By the end of the 19th century a local [[racist?]] *Benei Zion society had been founded, which by 1897 consisted of about 150 members. A Jewish boys' school financed by Baron *Hirsch functioned from 1898 until 1914. The first Hebrew school was opened in 1907. At the beginning of the 20th century, the community had a great synagogue and a number of battei midrash [[houses of learning]] and hasidic prayer houses.

["Soviet" occupation - 1915-1921 - Polish law 1921-1939 - "Soviet" law 1939-1941]

In World War I the Jews in Gorodenka suffered severely under the Russian occupation. In 1916 Jewish houses were set on fire and nine local Jews were hanged on a charge of espionage.

Gorodenka was within Poland between the two world wars. The Jewish population numbered 3,048 (out of 9,907) in 1921. Subsequently, about 2,000 emigrated to the United States, Canada, and South America, and hundreds of others to [[racist Herzl]] Erez Israel.

[A.CY.]

[[Sovietization 1939 and deportations 1940-1941 are not mentioned].

Holocaust Period. [Hungarian troops - pogroms - German administration since September 1941: badge and slave labor]

Within a few days of the outbreak of war between Germany and the US.S.R., Gorodenka was occupied by Hungarian troops. The local Ukrainian populace immediately attacked the Jewish inhabitants, murdering and robbing them. Subsequently, Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia (which had been annexed by Hungary) (col. 813)

arrived in Gorodenka, having been driven from their homes. A local Jewish committee was set up to deal with the situation. Aid was extended to the local Jews and refugees. When the city came under German administration in September 1941 conditions deteriorated. Anti-Jewish measures were enacted, including restriction on free movement on the streets, compulsory wearing of the yellow *badge, and the institution of slave labor.

In November the Jews were concentrated in a ghetto. On Dec. 4, 1941, they were assembled, allegedly to receive immunization against typhus, but were guarded by the Germans and their Ukrainian collaborators in the great synagogue. The following day they underwent a "Selektion", and those classed as "nonproductive" were taken to mass graves dug between the villages of Michalcze and Simakowce, and murdered.

On April 4, 1942, a second Aktion was carried out in which 1,500 were murdered. In May and June hundreds of Jews were taken from Gorodenka to Kolomyya, where they shared the fate of the Jews there. Some of the inmates fled to Tlusta, where they found temporary refuge.

The ghetto was liquidated on Sept. 6, 1942. On March 24, 1944, Soviet forces returned to Gorodenka, but by then only a few Jews were left. Thy subsequently left for Poland in transit to Palestine.

[AR.W.]

Bibliography

-- M. Balaban: Spis Zydow i Karaitow ziemi Halickiej i powiatow Trembowelskiego i Kolomyiskiego w roku 1765 (1909), 18
-- M. Freudental: Leipziger Messegaeste (1928), 141
-- W. Tokarz: Galicya w. poczatkach ery józefinskiej ... (1909), 356-7
-- B. Wasiutynski: Ludnosc zydowska w Polsce w wiekach xix i xx (1930), 100, 122
-- Sefer Horodenka (Heb. and Yid., with Eng. introduction, 1963).> (col. 814)


Sources for Gorodenka (Horodenka)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Gorodenka (Horodenka), vol. 7, col.
                              813-814
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Gorodenka (Horodenka), vol. 7, col. 813-814



Gorodok (Gródek Jagiellonski)

from: Gorodok; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7

[Jewish data since 1444 - customs and tax - Tatar raid and devastation - Jewish quarter - Jewish rights confirmed in 1684 - debts - numbers - WW I suffering - numbers]

GORODOK (Pol. Gródek Jagiellonski), city in Lvov oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R., within Poland until 1772 and between the two world wars.

The earliest information on the presence of Jews there dates from 1444. Jews were responsible for collection of customs and taxes in Gorodok for short periods. In 1550 King Sigismund II Augustus granted the town the privilege to exclude Jews (de non tolerandis Judaeis), but probably those already there remained.

In 1662, after Gorodok had been devastated during the Crimean Tartars' invasions, the local governor (starosta) encouraged Jews to settle in the town and rehabilitate it; because of the objections of the townsmen, he assigned them a special quarter, "the Gnin". King John III Sobieski confirmed their right of residence in 1684.

According to the census of 1765, there were 788 Jews living in the "Jewish town of Gnin" and 251 in neighboring villages. As a result of the difficult economic situation, the debts of the community increased, amounting to 3,212 zlotys in 1784.

The community numbered 2,952 in 1880 (29% of the total population), and 3,610 in 1900,with an additional 3,478 living in villages in the district.

In World War I the Jews of Gorodok and its surroundings suffered severely during the fighting between the Russian and Austrian armies in 1915, and subsequently in 1918-19 during the struggle between the Poles and Ukrainians. There were 2,545 Jews living in the city itself (24% of the population) and 1,414 in the villages in 1921, and 3,281 in 1931. Between the two world wars most of them were occupied in crafts, hawking, and trade in agricultural products.

[A.CY.]

Holocaust Period. [Jewish refugees from western Poland 1939 - "Soviet" rule 1939-1941 - German Nazi rule and Ukrainian attacks against the remaining Jews - mass shootings]

With the German invasion of Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, many Jewish refugees from western Poland arrived in the city, and by 1941 the Jewish population numbered over 5,000. From October 1939 until the outbreak of the German-Soviet war in June 1941 the city was occupied by the Soviets.

[[The deportation waves to central Russia are not mentioned, and the Big Flight from Barbarossa and the retreat of the Red Army are not mentioned either]].

In July 1941 the Germans captured Gorodok, (col. 814)

and neighboring farmers, mainly Ukrainians, attacked the Jews there. Conscription into forced labor camps in Jaktorow and Winniki continued through the autumn of 1941 and 1942. On May 19, 1942, several hundred Jews were deported to Janowska camp in Lvov. On August 13, a large number were deported to the extermination camp in Belzec. On Jan. 21 and Feb. 3, 1943, additional deportations took place. The ghetto was liquidated in May 1943. The last Jews of Gorodok were shot and buried in mass graves near Artyszczow.

[AR. W.]

[[Jews coming back from central Russia are not mentioned]].

Bibliography

-- B. Wasiutynski: Ludnosec zydowska w Polsce ... (1930), 107, 115, 147, 151, 196, 212
-- I. Schiper: Studya nad stosunkami gospodarczymi zydow w Polsce podczas sredniowiecza (1911), 154, 239, 243> (col. 815)



Sources for Gorodok (Gródek Jagiellonski)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in
                              Gorodok, vol. 7, col. 814-815
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Jews in Gorodok, vol. 7, col. 814-815

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Further sources

[1] http://maps.google.de/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lviv

[2] http://travel.kyiv.org/map/e_lviv.htm; http://travel.kyiv.org/map/e_lviv.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lviv

[3] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dnepropetrovsk

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lviv; http://travel.kyiv.org/map/e_rivne.htm

[5] http://travel.kyiv.org/crimea/map/; http://www.onlineholidays.de/reisen/europa/russland/ukraine/rundreise_krim.html

[6] http://www.jhi.pl/en/gminy/miasto/869.html


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