Kontakt /
                              contact       Hauptseite / page principale / pagina
                              principale / home        zurück / retour /
                      indietro / atrás / back    

Frankreich / France. Index

von / by Michael Palomino


Suchmaschine / search engine Webseite / web site Internet

Suchmaschine FreeFind,
                                        Logosite search by freefind
Gefällt mir, teilen mit Facebook-Freunden

Share with Facebook friends








Versailles 1919

Frankreich 1940-1945



Frankreich ab 1945 / France after 1945

Paris und die Hundehäufchen
Im Jahr 2001 hinterlassen etwa Pariser 200.000 ­Hunde (»clebs«, Köter) täglich etwa fünfzehn Tonnen Kötel auf den Gehwegen; deshalb wird die Stadt auch »crottes de chiens«, Hauptstadt der Hundekacke, genannt.
(aus: http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/Bei_den_Flamen/bei_den_flamen.html)



Städte / villes

Strassburg / Strasbourg / Estrasburgo / Straatsburg

2009


Juden in Frankreich / Jews in France

1. Jews in France 01: Roman times and Carolingians  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Archelaus - Roman Empire - communities and proselytism - terror of the Church - Carolingian rule favorable to the Jews - professions and migration movements - terror Church - schooling and scholars

2. Jews in France 02: Crusade persecutions and expulsions  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Collaboration libel 1007-1012 because of the Sultan - 1st crusade persecution - 2nd crusade contribution - stake, prison, expulsion - crusade against Albingenses - expulsion from rural spots in 1283 - stake 1288 - general expulsion order in 1306 - expulsion 1322 - Black Death expulsions - general expulsion in 1501 - numbers

3. Jews in France 03: Cultural life in the Middle Ages  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Communities - professions - social regulations - jurisdiction - propaganda of "Christians" and Jews - Jewish synods against criminal anti-Semitic Church - taxes - structures in 15th century

4. Jews in France 04: Resettlement until revolution  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Spanish and Portuguese Jews - deprivations in Bordeaux in 1625 - taxes - quarters - migrations to Alsace-Lorraine - immigration of Dutch and Ukraine Jews - centers Bordeaux and Paris - discussions about equality

5. Jews in France: Revolution 1791 - Napoleon times  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Portuguese and Ashkenazi Jews become Frenchmen - privileges lost - migration movements - Napoleon's regulations - consistorial system - debts elimination in 1806 - residential act - "useful" professions - names act for integration

6. Jews in France 06: Integration 1815-1870  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Rabbis - immigration of Jews from Holland and Rhineland - conversion wave - reform of the Jewish community structures - charity and schooling - Damascus affair 1840 and pogroms in Alsace 1848 - self-defense - and careers - reform Judaism

7. Jews in France 07: France 1871-1918  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Jews from Alsace-Lorraine and from Algeria - anti-Semitism - immigration of Russian and Ottoman Jews - more anti-Semitism - Dreyfus scandal - separation of state and religion in 1905 - Jewish artists - WW I - immigration of Ottoman, East European and German Jews 1919-1939

The Dreyfus Affair 1894-1906 (Encyclopaedia Judaica)  English
Anti-Semitism: A Jew blamed and life punishment for nothing - anti-Semitic state's structures in France coming up - Herzl's Zionism as a reaction

8. Jews in France 08: Holocaust 1940-1944  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
The Big Flight to South of France of 1940 - German Nazi occupation - discrimination step by step 1940-1942 - structures of the Jewish organizations - the Vichy zone - concentration camps in France and in Africa - resistance and hideouts

9. Jews in France 09: 1945-1970  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Immigration waves - professions - organization of the communities - newspapers, radio, and TV - youth organizations - Hebrew in France - de Gaulle speech of 1967 - numbers of 1968


Juden in französischen Regionen / Jews in French regions
  • Jews in Alsace  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    German rule: Jewish refugees from France - Armleder pogrom 1338 - Black Death persecutions - always expulsion and re-admittance - trade connections - taxes, wars, and badge - French rule with emancipation - Holocaust with flight to central and southern France - Jewish influx from North Africa


Juden in französischen Städten / Jews in French towns

  • Jews in Belfort  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Privilege of 1307 - expulsions since 1336 - coming back since 1689 - Jewish influx from Alsace-Lorraine after Franco-Prussian war  - Holocaust - post-war times
  • Jews in Bordeaux  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jews since 4th century - English rule 1154-1453 with Jewish taxes - French rule - "Portuguese" and "Avignonese" community - charitable institution "Sedaca", later "Nation" - equality since 1791 - Holocaust deportations - influx of Africa Jews
  • Jews in Grenoble  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish settlement - expulsion in 1306 and partly coming back - Black Death persecutions in 1348 with Jews on stake - short re-settlement in 1717 with expulsion - definitive re-settlement since 1791s - resistance center during WW II - Jewish refugees after 1945 and from northern Africa
  • Jews in Lille (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish community since 19th century - NS occupation - many Jewish refugees - deportations - cultural life - 2,800 Jews in 1969
  • Jews in Limoges (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Refugee center for Alsatian Jews during WW II
  • Jews in Lyon (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jews since 39 by Caligula - Christians at Jewish religious services - first anti-Jewish agitation since 820 appr. - expulsion in 1420 - new Jews probably from Spain and Portugal - and from other regions of France - cemetery - numbers - rabbis - NS times: Lyon is a "free town" - center of Jewish organizations and racist Zionist organizations - center of resistance against NS government - arrests, torture, deportations, final action at Bron - 1945-1970: immigration from North Africa
  • Jews in Montpellier (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish refugee zone 1940-1943 - resistance center 1943-1945
  • Jews in Mulhouse  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Expulsion of the Jews in 1940
  • Jews in Nancy  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish settlement - expulsion in 1477 - resettlement in 1595 - Jewish bankers - edict of settlement in 1721 - professions and cultural life - Jewish refugees 1871 - Holocaust - post-war period
  • Jews in Nantes  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish settlement - expulsion in 1240 - influx of Jews from Portugal - professions and cultural life - Holocaust - influx of Jews from northern Africa
  • Jews in Nice  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish community - ghetto on Giudaria Street since 1430 - influx of Jews from Rhodes (1499) - Italy and Holland (since 1648), and Algeria (1669) - emancipation since 1848 - Holocaust with Italian and German occupations - deportations and resistance with hiding and flight - influx of African Jews
  • Jews in Nîmes (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish refugees from central France in 1940 - deportations 1943-1944 - Jewish influx since 1945 and in the 1960s


Jüdische Organisationen in Frankreich / Jewish organizations in France

Alliance Israélite Universelle [[Universal Israeli Alliance]]
Associations Culturelles de France et d'Algérie ("Union of the Religious Associations of France and Algeria")
Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives [[General Office on Jewish Questions]]
Union Générale des Israélites de France (UGIF) [[General Union of the Israelites of France]]
Fédération des Sociétés Juives de France (F.S.J.F.) [[Federation of Jewish Societies of France]]
Union Libérale Israélite [[Liberal Israelite Union]]

Armée Juive (A.J.) [[Jewish Army]]
Mouvement des Jeunesses Sionistes (M.J.S.) [[Young Zionist Movement]]
Organisation Juive de Combat (O.J.C.) [[Yewish Fighting Organisation]]

Consistoire Central Israélite de France et d'Algérie [[Central Israelite Consistory of France and Algeria]]
École Rabbinique [[Rabbinical School]]
Séminaire Israélite de France [[Israelite Seminary of France]]
Conseil Représentatif du Judaisme Traditionnaliste de France (C.R.J.T.F.) [[Representative Counsil of Traditionalist Judaism of France]]
Institut International d'Études Hébraďques [[International Institute of Hebrew Studies]]

Conseil Représentatif des Juifs de France (C.R.I.F.) [[Representative Counsil of Jews in France]]
Fonds Social Juif Unifié (F.S.J.U.) [[Jewish Unified Social Funds]]
Appel Unifié pour Israël (United Israel Appeal)
Appel Unifié Juif de France [[Unified Appeal of France]]
Institut Français de l'Opinion Publique [[French Institute of Public Opinion]]

Besatzungszeit / temps d'occupation

Détachements de prestataires de travail (forced labour detachments)