from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A.
Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New
Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred
Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon &
Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title
"No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine
Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich
From the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of
DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page
indications refer to the German version. I hope the page
numbers are not very different.
The prescription about Jacob
according to the outdated Bible
-- Jacob is said having had 12 sons
-- these 12 sons of Jacob are said having fled from a famine
to Egypt, and Jacob's testament is said having rated the son
Judah over all other (p.20)
-- Egypt is said having been full of Jews (Exodus 1,7)
-- a Pharaoh who did not know anything of Josephs history is
said having claimed that the Jews could reveal Egypt to it's
-- as a reaction the Pharaoh is said having enslaved all
Jews, and the Jews are said having built as slaves the towns
of the kings Pithom and Ramses
-- as enslaved Jews the Jews are said not having had
children any more (Ex. 1,12)
-- and by this the slavery is said having been extended to
heavy brickworks and heavy agriculture (Ex. 1,14)
-- under the alleged conditions of slavery the 12 sons of
Jacob in Egypt are said having formed one nation (p.62).
documents speak: the extreme poetry of Egypt historian
Manetho in 3th century B.C. with a dreadful Hyksos dynasty
Egypt poet Manetho is writing texts with descriptions of
invasions from the East:
-- Manetho is stating immigrants in the eastern part of the
Nile Delta who have an extraordinary success, and he claims
that these immigrants from the East (named "Hyksos", "rulers
from abroad", he translates it as "kings of shepherds") are
a national tragedy for Egypt as if there had been an
invasion from the East (p.67)
-- these hyksos are said having settled in the delta in the
town of Avaris
(later Tell ed-Daba)
and had founded an own dynasty governing in a dreadful way
over Egypt for 500 years (p.67-68)
-- prescribing this invasion Manetho also is commemorating
the latest invasions from Assyria, Babylonia and Persia in
Egypt during 7th and 6th century B.C. (p.69).
So, there are new doubts what is true or not with this
Manetho. Because of this there has to be more investigation.
The "scholars" - the Hyksos of
the "mid Bronze Age"
For a long time the scholars rated the Hyksos as the kings
of 15th dynasty of Egypt 1670-1570 B.C. (p.68), compared
with Europe this would be in the mid Bronze Age (p.78). In
mid Bronze Age around 1600 B.C. Canaan (today's Israel
Palestine) is a wealthy society (p.91).
But how should ruled a foreign folk from Canaan in Egypt?
This question has to be cleared.
Archaeological proof for the
The Nile Delta is a center of
safe nutrition during dry periods in Canaan - and there
was constant immigration
The documents and archeology confirm a steady immigration
from Canaan to Egypt to the eastern part of the Nile Delta
(p.65). This immigration is a very old rhythm of the Middle
East performed in all times (p.67). Egypt always was the
spot of rescue and safety when there was a dry season or war
in Canaan (p.65), because the flood of the Nile in Egypt was
a guarantee for a good harvest every year, in case of doubt
with irrigation. Add to this Egypt state had store houses
for the case of dry seasons (p.66).
During Bible times the Nile Delta was parted in 7 arms and
had a bigger territory than today with only two arms of the
river. In Bible times the eastern Delta arm of the
Nile for example arrived the north western Sinai. And
corresponding to this also the irrigation system was more
expanded. Excavations can prove this (p.66).
Nile Delta of Bible times and of today
Nile Delta in Pharaoh's times: many arms, Memphis,
Nile Delta of
today: only 2 arms have left, and Suez Channel
Nile Delta in 1706: there are 4 or 5 arms
The immigrants in the eastern
Nile Delta - making career in Egypt administration
Probably these immigrants were nomads and farmers of Canaan
(p.66-67), eventually also economic refugees or merchants.
They had their salary with jobs as landless workers. Add to
this Canaan war prisoners were settled in eastern Nile
Delta, when Egypt executed a punitive action in Canaan, and
these war prisoners had to work in the Egypt temple plants.
Some of the immigrants succeeded with their career and got
posts of government, were soldiers and priests. Joseph who
is said having sent with a caravan to Egypt would be not a
singular case, but this would be only the most known case of
many cases (p.67).
Archeology with seals,
inscriptions and texts
-- in the Nile Delta of these times (which is situated more
in the East than today) archeology finds inscriptions and
seals with names of Canaanite origin (p.69)
-- latest excavations confirm the Canaanite origin of the
Hyksos rule and an immigration step by step, but a sudden
military invasion as it is claimed by the Egypt extreme poet
Manetho is not confirmed by archeology (p.69)
-- the today's Tell
ed-Daba in the eastern Nile Delta of these times is
identified as Aurais /
Avaris, the former capital of the Hyksos rulers
-- archaeologists can prove that since 1800 B.C. appr. there
was a Canaanite influence on the eastern Nile Delta
enforcing with ceramics, architecture and graves. Since 1670
B.C. Avaris (today's Tell ed-Daba) was growing up to the
15th dynasty and was a huge town, mainly in Canaanite style.
And there was a peaceful takeover of power to the
Canaanites, because there are no fire traces or ash layers
in the hill of ruins (p.69).
The documents speak: Pharaoh
Ramses did not exist yet - and not either a town of Ramses
A name "Ramses" for a town which the Jews are said having
constructed in 15th century B.C. during the alleged time of
a certain Jacob is not possible in this 15th century B.C.,
because first Pharaoh named "Ramses" comes only in 1320 B.C.
on it's throne, only over 100 years after the traditional
date of the Bible (p.70).
Egypt sources report about a construction of the town
Pi-Ramesse ("House of Ramses", "Palace of Ramses") in the
Nile Delta under king Ramses II (1279-1213 B.C.), whereas it
seems that Semites were the workers (p.71).
[If this was a slavery or not is not said by Finkelstein /
Evidence: Later invasions of the
Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians provoking anxiety in
Egypt with reproaches to the Israelites
The immigrants from Canaan are confronted with the reproaches
by Egypt (Genesis 42,9) that they would be spies investigating
where "the country is open", and by this all Jews should be
documents say: Such reproaches of espionage have no
reason before 7th century B.C., but after the invasions of
Assyria, Babylonia and Persia in Egypt and in Mid East in 7th
and 6th century B.C. such reproaches of espionage would have
their reasons (p.81).
The contradiction about a steady immigration to Egypt because
of dry seasons and wars and the contradictions about the fear
of invasions and espionage in Egypt are provoking to put in
doubt the events with the 12 sons of Jacob in Egypt. The
evidence indicates that the history of Jacob was written in
the 7th century B.C. only.