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Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations

New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research

9. The legend of the God's rule of Sinai - the faked 40 years migration in the desert

Mount Sinai in daylight
Mount Sinai in daylight

by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010)

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from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title "No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;

Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.


600,000 persons are said having migrated for 2 years and having camped for 38 years without leaving traces?

Map of Sinai peninsula


Mount Sinai in
                        daylight
Mount Sinai in daylight


Sun rise on Mount Sinai
Sun rise on Mount Sinai
Map of Sinai peninsula. It's surely possible to perform a camel migration tour from Egypt to Mount Sinai in mild winter. Meditation in this region must be a great event for sure, and also a new law coming by this meditation will be possible. But can 600,000 persons two migrate two years and camp during 38 years at oasis Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat) without leaving traces? No.


Old Testament invents now a drama with invented 600,000 persons allegedly migrating in the desert.

OT claims:

Moses is said having made an alliance with JHWH on the base of stone tablets:

-- Moses is said having received a codex of laws on Mount Sinai making an alliance with God JHWH on the base of stone tablets (p.20) which are allegedly preserved in the Ark of the Covenant (p.64)

-- Jewish ambassadors are said having examined the possibilities for an occupation and are said having reported that the Canaanites are predominant and claimed for a return to Egypt where it would be possible to survive at least (p.64-65)

-- now God is said having punished the Jews in the Sinai because of their anxiety, and the Jews have to migrate 40 years in the desert, so the generation of anxiety will die and a new generation will not remember again to the good times in Egypt (p.64-65).

[Addition: In 7th century B.C. the average of life expectancy was 40 years. This indication can be taken really earnest].


And now let's analize the alleged migration of 40 years with 2 years of migration and with 38 years in a camp:

OT claims:

-- the Israelites - according to the Bible 600,000 persons - are said having crossed the desert and the mountains of Sinai, 40 years they had camped at different spots, and by this one generation had died (Numeri 33) (p.75)

-- 38 years the Israelites are said having camped at Kadesh Barnea (Qadesh Barne'a) (Numeri 34) (p.76-77) which is identified by archeology as En el-Quderat with a little spring with fresh water aside, En Qadis, with the word of Kadesh (p.77)

-- the migration in the desert is said having passed from Kadesh Barnea passing Araba, then passing the countries of Edom and Moab on the East Bank of the Dead Sea (p.65).


Archeology is speaking in Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat): no findings

Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom,
                        Moab and Ammon, satellite photo. Half of the
                        Dead Sea has disappeared in 2003 already.
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom, Moab and Ammon, satellite photo. Half of the Dead Sea has disappeared in 2003 already.
  
600,000 persons, that is a complete metropolis like Essen (2006: 584.295), Rotterdam (2005: 589.156), Washington DC (2004: 553.523), Frankfurt (2006: 660.289) or Montenegro Republic  (2004: 621.000).

In 40 years - 38 years in a camp and 2 years migrating - a complete generation of 600,000 Jews are said having died and reborn, so, there should be found potsherds, tools, graves or bones.

Archaeologists found remnants of shepherds from 3d millennium B.C. and remnants from Greek period and Byzantine period. But from the 40 years of the alleged stay of a huge Jewish group with 600,000 Jews in the time of 13th century B.C. in the Sinai desert NOTHING can be found (p.75-76), nothing at the alleged camp sites either (p.76), no camp site, no hill of ruins, not one single potsherd, not one single house, not one single skeleton etc. (p.75).


Archeology speaks about oasis Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat): This was a fortress in the 7th century

-- in the middle of the oasis there is a little hill of ruins (Tell) with remnants of a fortress of the European Iron Age II (7th century B.C.)

-- but there are no remnants for European Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C., not one single potsherd (p.77)

-- but in Kadesh Barnea was built a big fortress in 7th century B.C., whereas archaeological research is not sure if it was a fortress of the beginning of 7th century B.C. for Assyria or at the end of 7th century as an outpost of kingdom of Judah

-- in any case Kadesh Barnea is known in 7th century B.C. all over in the region of the Middle East as a desert outpost (p.81), and this is one more time an evidence that the book of Moses was written in 7th century B.C. taking reference to political structures of that time (p.77).


The allegedly bad states of Edom and Ammon: They are said having blocked passing the Jews

Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom,
                        Moab and Ammon, satellite photo. Half of the
                        Dead Sea has disappeared in 2003 already.
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom, Moab
and Ammon, satellite photo. Half of the Dead Sea has disappeared in 2003 already.

 

OT claims:

-- the fully developed states of Edom and Ammon are said having planned to block the passage for the Jews on the East Bank entering Canaan from the other side (p.78)

-- Moses in Kadesh Barnea is said having sent ambassadors to the king of Edom with the order handling out a passage right to Canaan

-- king of Edom is said having rejected this claim and the 600,000 Jews under Moses are said having been forced to make a big detour around kingdom of Edom (p.81).


Archeology speaks: Edom and Ammon were no states in these times

-- according to archaeological findings the Est Bank during the European Late Bronze Time in 13th century B.C. had only a little population, and only a little part of the population was resident

-- statal structures or kings of Edom and Ammon, who had the capacity blocking the pass of the Jews, did NOT exist in the alleged time of Moses in 13th century B.C. (p.78)

-- in these times Edom has only a little population and is a border region of shepherd nomads

-- and only as an Assyrian protectorate Edom develops the statal structures being a state in 7th century B.C. (p.81).

[Conclusion:
Edom had no army because there was no statal administration yet which would be necessary installing an army. The faked Moses cannot have been blocked by Edom in these times].


The alleged camp Ezion Geber

Map with Ezion Geber and the faked way of
                        Moses' migration
Map with Ezion Geber and the faked way of Moses' migration
   -- Ezion Geber at the northern tip of Gulf of Aqaba is later an important port town

-- the hill of ruins ("Tell") shows remnants of the Iron Age II (7th century B.C.), but from Late Bronze Age of 13th century B.C. nothing can be found (p.77)

-- since 7th century B.C. Ezion Geber is in a full development (p.81), and this is another evidence that the book of Moses was written in 7th century according to the political conditions of that time (p.77).

So, there are no remnants for both camps of faked Moses during his alleged exodus in 13th century in respect of the alleged 600,000 persons of the migration under Moses [and there are no remnants of other persons either] (p.77).


The invention of an aggressive Canaanite king of Arad

Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad,
                      Ezion Geber, and Hesbon
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, Ezion Geber, and Hesbon
 
OT claims:

Canaanite king of Arad is said having attacked the Israelis and kept some of them as prisoners of war. Then is said that the Jews had claimed to the sky for help pleading that all Canaanite towns will be destroyed (Numeri 21,1-3) (p.77).

Archeology speaks: There was NO king of Arad in these times

-- there were intensive excavations with the hill of ruins of Arad (Tel Arad) eastward of Beersheba. 20 years the archeolgists were digging and searching. Remnants of a big town of the European Early Bronze Age could be found, a surface of 10 hectares, as big as a fortress during the European Iron Age (p.77)

-- but from Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C. there is NOTHING, is seems Arad was left during this time

-- these times of a populated period and an uninhabited period can be stated for the whole bay of Beersheba (p.77).

So, during Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C. Arad seems having been left by some reason, and there was NO king for sure (p.77).


[Conclusion
During his migration faked Moses cannot have been blocked by any king of Arad because there was nobody in Arad at this time].

Migration around the Dead Sea up to the border of the West Bank??

The allegedly bad Ammonite king in Hesbon (capital of Sihon) is said having blocked passing the Jews

Position of Hesbon, satellite photo
Position of Hesbon, satellite photo
 
OT claims:

-- the mass of the 600,000 Israelites is said having migrated around the Dead Sea
-- Ammonite king of Sihon in his capital of Hesbon in the North of Dead Sea is said having blocked the Jews on their way to Canaan
-- the Jews are said having fought the army of the Ammonite king (p.77), like this it is described in Num. 21,21-25, Deuteronomy 2,24-35, book of Judges II, 19-21 (p.78).

Archeology speaks: Ammon was no state in Moses' times
During 13th century B.C. there was no statal structure and there was no Ammonite king who had been capable blocking the pass of the Jews in these times (p.78).

Archeology speaks: Hesbon did not exist in Moses' times
The hill of ruins ("tell") from Hesbon indicates no findings for Late Bronze Times in 13th century B.C. There was not even a village. Hesbon was without population in these times (p.78).

[Conclusion
Faked Moses cannot have been blocked by a State of Ammon with a king in Hesbon when this State of Ammon and this town of Hesbon did not exist in these times].


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Photo sources

-- Mount Sinai: http://www.solidrockfaith.com/ZehnGebote.html; http://www.solidrockfaith.com/sinai.jpg
-- map of Mount Sinai: http://www.welt-atlas.de/datenbank/karte.php?reg=2&kat=1&kartenid=2-281&back=reg%3D2%26kat%3D1
-- Mount Sinai, sunrise: http://home.arcor.de/o.knak/fotostory2/deutsch/foto-28.htm
-- map with Kadesh Barnea, satellite photo 2003: http://www.genesisfiles.com/Maps/Kadeshbarnea/Kadeshbarn_MapFrameSet.htm
-- map with Ezion Geber: http://www.nccg.org/ezion_geber/ezion_geber.html


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