from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman:
The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient
Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free
Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001;
German edition has got the title "No trombones before
Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"):
edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;
Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine
Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second
edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the
German version. I hope the page numbers are not very
600,000 persons are said having
migrated for 2 years and having camped for 38 years
without leaving traces?
Mount Sinai in daylight
Sun rise on Mount Sinai
|Map of Sinai
peninsula. It's surely possible to perform a camel
migration tour from Egypt to Mount Sinai in mild
winter. Meditation in this region must be a great
event for sure, and also a new law coming by this
meditation will be possible. But can 600,000 persons
two migrate two years and camp during 38 years at
oasis Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat) without
leaving traces? No.
Old Testament invents now a drama with invented 600,000
persons allegedly migrating in the desert.
Moses is said having made an alliance with JHWH on the base
of stone tablets:
-- Moses is said having received a codex of laws on Mount
Sinai making an alliance with God JHWH on the base of stone
tablets (p.20) which are allegedly preserved in the Ark of
the Covenant (p.64)
-- Jewish ambassadors are said having examined the
possibilities for an occupation and are said having reported
that the Canaanites are predominant and claimed for a return
to Egypt where it would be possible to survive at least
-- now God is said having punished the Jews in the Sinai
because of their anxiety, and the Jews have to migrate 40
years in the desert, so the generation of anxiety will die
and a new generation will not remember again to the good
times in Egypt (p.64-65).
[Addition: In 7th century B.C. the average of life
expectancy was 40 years. This indication can be taken really
And now let's analize the alleged migration of 40 years with
2 years of migration and with 38 years in a camp:
-- the Israelites - according to the Bible 600,000 persons -
are said having crossed the desert and the mountains of
Sinai, 40 years they had camped at different spots, and by
this one generation had died (Numeri 33) (p.75)
-- 38 years the Israelites are said having camped at Kadesh
Barnea (Qadesh Barne'a) (Numeri 34) (p.76-77) which is
identified by archeology as En el-Quderat with a little
spring with fresh water aside, En Qadis, with the word of
-- the migration in the desert is said having passed from
Kadesh Barnea passing Araba, then passing the countries of
Edom and Moab on the East Bank of the Dead Sea (p.65).
Archeology is speaking in
Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat): no findings
Map with Kadesh
Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom, Moab and Ammon,
satellite photo. Half of the Dead Sea has
disappeared in 2003 already.
persons, that is a complete metropolis like Essen
(2006: 584.295), Rotterdam (2005: 589.156),
Washington DC (2004: 553.523), Frankfurt (2006:
660.289) or Montenegro Republic (2004:
In 40 years - 38 years in a camp and 2 years
migrating - a complete generation of 600,000 Jews
are said having died and reborn, so, there should
be found potsherds, tools, graves or bones.
Archaeologists found remnants of shepherds from 3d
millennium B.C. and remnants from Greek period and
Byzantine period. But from the 40 years of the
alleged stay of a huge Jewish group with 600,000
Jews in the time of 13th century B.C. in the Sinai
desert NOTHING can be found (p.75-76), nothing at
the alleged camp sites either (p.76), no camp
site, no hill of ruins, not one single potsherd,
not one single house, not one single skeleton etc.
Archeology speaks about oasis
Kadesh Barnea (today En el-Quderat): This was a fortress
in the 7th century
-- in the middle of the oasis there is a little hill of
ruins (Tell) with remnants of a fortress of the European
Iron Age II (7th century B.C.)
-- but there are no remnants for European Late Bronze Age in
13th century B.C., not one single potsherd (p.77)
-- but in Kadesh Barnea was built a big fortress in 7th
century B.C., whereas archaeological research is not sure if
it was a fortress of the beginning of 7th century B.C. for
Assyria or at the end of 7th century as an outpost of
kingdom of Judah
-- in any case Kadesh Barnea is known in 7th century B.C.
all over in the region of the Middle East as a desert
outpost (p.81), and this is one more time an evidence that
the book of Moses was written in 7th century B.C. taking
reference to political structures of that time (p.77).
The allegedly bad states of
Edom and Ammon: They are said having blocked passing the
Map with Kadesh
Barnea, Arad, Araba, Edom, Moab
and Ammon, satellite photo. Half of the Dead Sea
has disappeared in 2003 already.
-- the fully
developed states of Edom and Ammon are said having
planned to block the passage for the Jews on the
East Bank entering Canaan from the other side
-- Moses in Kadesh Barnea is said having sent
ambassadors to the king of Edom with the order
handling out a passage right to Canaan
-- king of Edom is said having rejected this claim
and the 600,000 Jews under Moses are said having
been forced to make a big detour around kingdom of
Archeology speaks: Edom and
Ammon were no states in these times
-- according to archaeological findings the Est Bank during
the European Late Bronze Time in 13th century B.C. had only
a little population, and only a little part of the
population was resident
-- statal structures or kings of Edom and Ammon, who had the
capacity blocking the pass of the Jews, did NOT exist in the
alleged time of Moses in 13th century B.C. (p.78)
-- in these times Edom has only a little population and is a
border region of shepherd nomads
-- and only as an Assyrian protectorate Edom develops the
statal structures being a state in 7th century B.C. (p.81).
Edom had no army because there was no statal administration
yet which would be necessary installing an army. The faked
Moses cannot have been blocked by Edom in these times].
The alleged camp Ezion Geber
with Ezion Geber and the faked way of Moses'
||-- Ezion Geber at the northern tip of
Gulf of Aqaba is later an important port town
-- the hill of ruins ("Tell") shows remnants of the
Iron Age II (7th century B.C.), but from Late Bronze
Age of 13th century B.C. nothing can be found (p.77)
-- since 7th century B.C. Ezion Geber is in a full
development (p.81), and this is another evidence
that the book of Moses was written in 7th century
according to the political conditions of that time
So, there are no remnants for both camps of faked
Moses during his alleged exodus in 13th century in
respect of the alleged 600,000 persons of the
migration under Moses [and there are no remnants of
other persons either] (p.77).
The invention of an aggressive
Canaanite king of Arad
Map with Kadesh
Barnea, Arad, Ezion Geber, and Hesbon
king of Arad is said having attacked the Israelis
and kept some of them as prisoners of war. Then is
said that the Jews had claimed to the sky for help
pleading that all Canaanite towns will be
destroyed (Numeri 21,1-3) (p.77).
There was NO king of Arad in these times
-- there were intensive excavations with the hill
of ruins of Arad (Tel Arad) eastward of Beersheba.
20 years the archeolgists were digging and
searching. Remnants of a big town of the European
Early Bronze Age could be found, a surface of 10
hectares, as big as a fortress during the European
Iron Age (p.77)
-- but from Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C.
there is NOTHING, is seems Arad was left during
-- these times of a populated period and an
uninhabited period can be stated for the whole bay
of Beersheba (p.77).
So, during Late Bronze Age in 13th century B.C.
Arad seems having been left by some reason, and
there was NO king for sure (p.77).
Migration around the Dead Sea up to the
border of the West Bank??
During his migration faked Moses cannot have been blocked by
any king of Arad because there was nobody in Arad at this
The allegedly bad Ammonite king
in Hesbon (capital of Sihon) is said having blocked passing
Hesbon, satellite photo
-- the mass of the 600,000 Israelites is said having
migrated around the Dead Sea
-- Ammonite king of Sihon in his capital of Hesbon
in the North of Dead Sea is said having blocked the
Jews on their way to Canaan
-- the Jews are said having fought the army of the
Ammonite king (p.77), like this it is described in
Num. 21,21-25, Deuteronomy 2,24-35, book of Judges
II, 19-21 (p.78).
Ammon was no state in Moses' times
During 13th century B.C. there was no statal
structure and there was no Ammonite king who had
been capable blocking the pass of the Jews in
these times (p.78).
Hesbon did not exist in Moses' times
The hill of ruins
("tell") from Hesbon indicates no findings for
Late Bronze Times in 13th century B.C. There was
not even a village. Hesbon was without population
in these times (p.78).
Faked Moses cannot have been blocked by a State of Ammon with
a king in Hesbon when this State of Ammon and this town of
Hesbon did not exist in these times].