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Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations

New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research

11. The faked occupation under a Joshua appr. 1230-1220 B.C.: the real culprits were other ones

The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo
vergrössern  The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo

  by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010)

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from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title "No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;

Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.

Was there a conquest of land with a mass of hungry Jewish men, women and children?

After the alleged prophecy is said that there was a conquest of land resp. an occupation (p.20).

Map with Jericho, Ai, Hazor, Gibeon and
                        Lachish, satellite photo
Map with Jericho, Ai, Hazor, Gibeon and Lachish, satellite photo
  
OT claims:

-- there was a mass of Jewish men, women and children - and they were handicapped in their health and did not have much with them - and this mass are said having performed an invasion against the big fortresses of Canaan and are said having won (p.86) and they are said having needed appr. 10 years for this, according to the Bible this is said having happened from 1230 to 1220 B.C. (p.89)

-- the book of Joshua claims when the rule would be observed well, so there will fail no victory (p.110)

-- claimed occupied cities are Jericho, Ai, Gibeon, Lachish and Hazor (p.86).

The composed myths and stories about an Israelite past are compiled to one single military campaign under Joshua (p.106), and the whole invasion with mass murder is said having happened with the blessing of God (p.107).


The alleged fall of Jericho

OT claims:

-- Joshua is said having performed one successful siege after the other
-- first it is said that Joshua had taken the bridge head of Jericho: When the mass was crossing Jordan river, two spies are said having been sent to Jericho evaluating the situation and returning that a whore Rahab had informed them that whole Jericho would be very afraid of the future Jewish invasion (p.87)
-- it is said that crossing the Jordan river was no problem, and the Ark of the Covenant is said having borne in advance of the mass of the people
-- it is said that after 7 days of siege the Israelite war trombones had provoked a fall of the strong walls of Jericho (Jos. 6) (p.87).

The alleged fall of Ai bei Bethel

OT claims:

-- as a next town Ai bei Bethel is said having been sieged (p.87-88) with a double tactic: Joshua is said having installed a big military camp in the East and a little one in the West, so the men of Ai had stormed against the big camp, and they are said having pursued the Jews up to the desert
-- then the little part of the Jewish army is said having occupied the town of Ai from the West without any fight putting fire on the whole town
-- then Joshua is said having slaughtered all inhabitants of Ai, having collected all cattle and prey, and Joshua is said having hanged the king of Ai on a tree (Jos. 8,1-29) (p.88).

The alleged panic in Canaan

OT claims:

There is said that after this panic broke out in whole Canaan (p.88).

The alleged claim of the Gibeonites that they would not be natives and by this should not be defeated

The Gibeonites allegedly claim for mercy and are enslaved by the Jews.

OT claims:
-- Gibeonites in panic living in four towns in the North of Jerusalem (p.88) (Gibeon, Kephira, Beeroth, Kiriat-Jearim) (p.97) are said having pleaded for mercy claiming that they would be foreigners and not natives, and by this the order of extermination would not be valid for them, and Joshua is said having agreed to this (p.88)

-- but then there is said that it was stated that the Gibeonites were natives and Joshua is said having enslaved the Gibeonites for ever to "woodcutters and scoops" (Jos. 9,27) (p.88).


The alleged counter coalition against the alleged Jewish invasion

Map with Jericho, Ai, Gibeon,
                      Jarmuth, Lachish, Eglon, Hazor and the Hermon
                      mountains (2814m)
Map with Jericho, Ai, Gibeon, Jarmuth, Lachish, Eglon, Hazor  and the Hermon mountains (2814m)
  
OT claims:

-- there had been a counter coalition under the king of Jerusalem, Adoni-Zedek, with the king of Hebron and with the kings in the Western highlands (Jarmuth, Lachish and Egon)

-- the Canaanites are said having unified their armies at the central place of Gibeon

-- the Canaanite army is said having fled in panic to the steep mountain crest of Beth Horon in the West, and God is said having rained big "hail stones" on the Canaanite armies, so by the hail stones were more deaths to deplore than by the fights (Jos. 10,11)

-- Joshua is said having pleaded to God before sunset keeping the sun without movement winning time for the killing of all enemies (p.88)

-- then it's said that in fact the sun made no movement during a complete day, and by this God had helped Israel (Jos. 10, 13-14)

-- the fled kings are said having been seized and executed (p.89).


The alleged big stone at the entrance of the cave of Makkeda

OT claims:

-- five Canaanite kings (king of Jerusalem, of Hebron, of Jarmuth / Jarmut, of Lachish and of Eglon) are said having fled of Joshua's troops to a cave near Makkeda
-- Joshua is said having received the report that the five kings had hidden themselves in the cave
-- then Joshua is said having put big stones closing the entrance of the cave locking the cave until all enemies of the region were killed
-- after the population had been allegedly killed, Joshua is said having ordered to hang all five kings on five trees
-- in the evening Joshua is said having ordered to bring down the dead bodies of the kings throwing them into the cave, and then the cave is said having locked with stones again "up to the present day" (Joshua 10, 16-27) (p.106).

[The place where should be the cave of Makkeda cannot be found. In Ethiopian language the word Makkeda is the word for "queen"].

The alleged further destruction in the South of Israel Palestine

OT claims:
Under Joshua the Jewish warriors are said having destroyed all towns of southern Canaan and occupied the southern region (p.89).

The alleged final battle in the North of Israel Palestine against the northern coalition under the command of Jabin of Hazor

OT claims:

-- in the North a coalition of Canaanites kings under the supreme command of Jabin of Hazor is said having built a big army against the alleged Jewish murder invasion against any international law (Jos. 11,4)

-- the armies of the Canaanites under Jabin are said having been confronted with the Israeli army in Galilee on an open field

-- Joshua's warriors are said having completely destroyed the north Canaanite troops

-- then Joshua is said having occupied Hazor and put fire on the whole city, the most important city of Canaan, according to the OT "the main town of all kingdoms" (Jos. 11,10) (p.89).

In this way Israel Palestine is said having been occupied by the Israelites from the desert in the South to the snowy mountains of Hermon mountains in the North, and God had given this land to the Jews. Then the land is said having been split to the Israeli tribes (p.89).

Documents and archeology are speaking that occupation under Joshua is a fake

Book Joshua is a collection of myths

-- German Bible searchers of 19th century are defining the book of Joshua as a collection of myths, heroic stories and local ideas
-- above all Albrecht Alt and Martin Noth mean that the book Joshua would be a product of aetiological [searching the origin] tradition with myths about processes of growth [and destruction] (p.106).

The faked warlord Joshua is presented like a king

-- the alleged takeover of power for example is described like an enthronement (Joshua 1, 1-9) (p.110-111)
-- the faked warlord Joshua is said having given a profession of loyalty (Joshua 1,16-18) that reminds to the oath of obedience to a king
-- the faked warlord Joshua is said having led a ceremony to revive the alliance with God (Joshua 8,30-35) as all kings of Judah have done
-- God is said having ordered to faked Joshua studying day and night (Joshua 1,8-9) how also king Josia is said having done (2d book of Kings 23,25) (p.111).


The order of the towns in the book of Joshua corresponds with the order of the 7th century B.C.

It seems very strange, but the strategic military aims in the fake Joshua book correspond with the strategic military aims of later war of king Josia (p.111):

-- the list with the towns on the territory of the tribe Judah (book of Joshua 15, 21-62) corresponds exactly to the development as it was under king Josia. Finkelstein / Silberman say:

"This list corresponds exactly with the border lines of of the kingdom of Judah under Joshia's rule." (p.108)

-- and the names of the locations are corresponding almost exactly with the layout of the settlements of the 7th century B.C.
-- some of the mentioned places "were only populated in the last decades of the 7th century B.C." (p.108)
-- so, also the campaign project corresponds with the situation of the 7th century B.C. (p.108).

-- and also the prescription of northern territories corresponds to ex North Reich Israel under Assyrian occupation and the latter Assyrian province [Samaria] (p.109), since the Assyrian occupation named as "Samerina" (p.241).


The documents speak: Canaan in 13th century B.C. was an absolute Egypt province - and any Jewish invasion is not possible

-- according to letters of Egypt Pharaohs found in Tell el-Amarna, Canaan is an Egypt province during the faked Jewish invasion

-- there was a strict Egypt administration, the capital of Canaan province was Gaza

-- Egypt garrisons were distributed in all the country at the strategic hot spots, for example in Beth-Shean in the South of Lake Gennesaret, or in Joppa (today's Jaffa, a part of southern Tel Aviv at the coast)

-- in the OT the Egypt dominance over Canaan during the faked Jewish occupation is concealed

-- the Canaanite rulers themselves hardly had to say anything corresponding to the Egypt documents (p.90)

-- it can be admitted that Pharaoh Ramesses II did never relax his control over Canaan because his military forces were one of the strongest of Egypt history and his goal in foreign affairs was very high

-- upheavals were answered with Egypt troops immediately, and they could come fast by the well prepared road along the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and Canaan (p.91).


The impossibilities of a Jewish invasion in Canaan in 13th and 12th century B.C.

-- it's proved that there was never any exodus under Moses, so there is the question, how had been a conquest (p.86)

-- Egypt is said having been passive during the Jewish invasion which also seems impossible (p.92)

-- Egypt documents never mention any Jewish invasion nowhere, but such an invasion surely had been mentioned [in such an important territory like Canaan] when it had been executed (p.92)

-- the only source mentioning the name of "Israel" in the 13th century is a stele of Pharaoh Meenptha (1235-1224 B.C.) where is indicated a victory against the Israelites (p.92).


Archeology speaks: There were no city walls nowhere in Canaan in 13th century

-- the Canaanite towns of these relevant times had fortified administration seats of the leading ruling class with the ruling family and their administrators, with palace, temple complex, and with some public buildings

-- the Canaanite towns themselves had no city walls
-- the farmers were dispersed in little villages
-- all sieges and city walls in Old Testament are a fake, so (p.90).

There can be presumed the reasons for the missing of city walls in Canaan of these times in 13th century B.C.:

-- perhaps because of the military dominance of Egypt, so it was considered that a construction of city walls would not be necessary (p.90-91)

-- perhaps because of high taxes for Egypt, so the local rulers had no means for the construction of city walls any more

-- or perhaps Egypt forbade the construction of city walls controlling more the population (p.91).

According to archaeological findings there was a high Egyptian influence and control in Canaan for a long time after the faked Jewish conquest until came the time of Ramesses VI at the end of the 12th century B.C. (p.92).


Findings of statues and hieroglyphs at Beth-Shean [Greek: Scythopolis]

Map of Decapolis in the Middle East with
                      Scythopolis / Beth Shean
Map of Decapolis in the Middle East with Scythopolis / Beth Shean
Beth-Shean /
                        Scythopolis: a part of the high hill of ruins
                        (tell)
vergrössernBeth-Shean / Scythopolis: a part of the high hill of ruins (tell)
Beth-Shean / Scythopolis: there is a
                            high and a lower hill of ruins (tell), see:
                            www.bibleplaces.com.
vergrössern Beth-Shean / Scythopolis: there is a high and a lower hill of ruins (tell), see: www.bibleplaces.com.


"Christian" religious schools, priests, pastors and layman preacher mostly mean that such town hills should not be taken earnest. They are going on claiming that the letters in the Bible are right...

In the 1920s there was excavated an Egypt fortress in Beth Shean [also: Beth Shan, Greek: Scythopolis] (p.91). The findings were statues with texts in hieroglyphs from the time of the Pharaohs

-- Sethos I (1294-1279 B.C.)
-- Ramses II (1279-1213 B.C.)
-- Ramses III (1184-1153 B.C.) (p.92).


[Conclusion:
These findings are absolute proofs for a strong Egypt dominance in the region in this time, and in other hills of ruins more such fortresses can be found].


Excavations in Jericho (hill of ruins Tell es-Sultan) say: there was no population in 13th century B.C.

The hill of ruins (tell) of Jericho, see:
              www.bibleplaces.com
The hill of ruins (tell) of Jericho, see: www.bibleplaces.com


The excavations at the hill of ruins (tell) of Jericho (also called: Tell es-Sultan, er-Riha, Eriha, Yeriho) give the following information:

-- for the 14th century B.C. there can be proved only a little village without any fortification
-- for the 13th century there is no trace of any population at all, the spot was without population
-- and traces of destruction are missing also (p.96).

So, according to Finkelstein / Silberman, the trombones which allegedly have destroyed the city walls of Jericho, are a big lie (p.96).

[No city walls and no population were there: That is a double lie].


Archeology says about Ai (hill of ruins called Chirbet et-Tell): there was no population in 13th century B.C.

The hill of ruins (tell) of Ai, Chirbet et-Tell, see:
              www.bibleplaces.com
The hill of ruins (tell) of Ai, Chirbet et-Tell, see: www.bibleplaces.com


-- the excavations of Jewish woman archaeologist Judith Marquet-Krause 1933-1935 showed ruins of a huge town from Early Bronze Age in appr. 2300 B.C.

-- from Late Bronze Age during the alleged Jewish invasion was not found anything, the location was without population

-- and new excavations in the 1960s have not brought anything new (p.96).

According to archaeological excavations Jericho and Ai had no population during the conquest of the Jews in Canaan (p.96).

Bible-believing archaeologist Albright means that the alleged events of Ai had happened in Bethel near Ai (p.97).


Excavations at the four Gibeonite towns which allegedly pleaded for protection: Gibeon, Kephira, Beeroth, Kiriat-Jearim: there was no population

-- the scholars can find an agreement that the excavation in the village ed-Dshib in the North of Jerusalem would be the hill of Gibeon

-- then remnants of Middle Bronze Age and of Iron Age are found, but nothing is found of Late Bronze Age. So Gibeon in these times also had no population

-- in the other three towns populated allegedly by the Gibeonites during the Late Bronze Age (Kephira, Beeroth and Kiriat-Jearim) there cannot be found anything either of Late Bronze Age (p.97).


The stone of the cave of Makkeda: that's nothing more than a rumor

One rumor indicates that in a cave of Makkeda had been captivated 5 kings of the Old Ages with a stone (Joshua 10, 16-27).

It can be that a big stone before an entrance of a cave has impressed the population all the time. And according to the Bible researchers Albrecht Alt and Martin Noth it can be that there are created new heroic stories and rumors about such a stone (p.106).

[There is nothing more about this stone and it's cave, neither a stone, and neither a cave].


More excavations: towns without populations and fire storms

There are more excavations and more towns without population are found, but also traces of fire storms are found. The stated fire storms are dated in a range of time of 100 years. But there cannot have been an invasion of Joshua of over 100 years, but here were other culprits doing their work. So, Jewry has never committed any genocide under Joshua, and this is principally only good news.

But there are stated many fire storms in Canaan with ash layers with fallen walls and burnt wooden beams, but there are no city walls (p.94). The ruins of the burnt cities are building a "layer of destruction" with a thickness of 1 to 2 meters (p.105).

x
Map with Megiddo and Debir,
                      satellite photo
Map with Megiddo and Debir, satellite photo

Excavations in Megiddo in Jezreel plain indicate that there was no population

According the excavations Megiddo had a territory of 10 hectares (p.95). Remnants of Middle Bronze Age and of Iron Age are found, but from Late Bronze Age is not found anything (p.97).

The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo
vergrössern  The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo

Excavations in Debir (at the Tell Bet Mirsim) show a fire storm

Between 1926 and 1932 the archaeologist and language researcher William Foxwell Albreight is leading excavations at the Tell Bet Mirsim south west of Hebron:
-- the Tell Bet Mirsim is identified as the town of Debir
-- in the OT there is mentioned a Jewish occupation three times (Joshua 10, 38-39; 15, 15-19) and in the book of Judges 1,11-15
-- according to the excavations Debir was a little, poor town without city wall
-- according to Albright a big fire storm destroyed the whole town in 1230 B.C.
-- rough potsherds are identified by Albright as Israelite
-- and by this Albright means that the invasion of the Jews had really happened (p.94).

Excavations at the Arab village Betin: Lus becomes Bethel: and there was another fire storm

-- the location near Betin is identified as Bethel
-- archeology states that Betel was a Canaanite town with population during the Late Bronze Age
-- at the end of the 13th century Bethel was destroyed by a fire storm, and during the Iron Age I it was populated by another population as it seems (p.94).

Archaeologist Albright means that the book of Judges 1,22-26 and the conquest would be fulfilled by this: The Canaanite town Lus had been occupied by relatives of Joseph and the name had been changes into Bethel (p.94).

But it's not necessary that Bethel has been destroyed by Israelites (p.97).

around 1170 B.C.
Excavations in Lachish (hill of ruins Tell ed Duwer): and there was a fire storm again
The hill of ruins (tell) of Lachish, see:
                www.bibleplaces.com
The hill of ruins (tell) of Lachish, see: www.bibleplaces.com

In the 1930s British archaeologists are excavating a big town of Late Bronze Age (p.94) with a layout of 10 hectares (p.95), and again is found the trace of a fire storm. For the archaeologists the Bible text of Joshua 10,31-32 is fulfilled by this (p.94).

The impressive Canaanite town of Lachish was burnt down and then given up (p.105). The date of the fire storm is proved for around 1170 B.C. because there are peaces of metals in the "layer of destruction" - probably from the main town gate - with the inscription of Pharaoh Ramses III who had it's governance from 1184 to 1153 B.C. (p.105).

But it's not necessary that Lachish has been destroyed by Israelites (p.97).


Excavations in Hazor (hill of ruins Tell el-Waggas): and once again there was a fire storm

The hill of ruins (tell) of Hazor (Tell
                        el-Waggas), see: www.bibleplaces.com
The hill of ruins (tell) of Hazor (Tell el-Waggas), see: www.bibleplaces.com
Hazor: a six chamber gate was found, but
                        there is the question who built it, see:
                        www.bibleplaces.com
Hazor: a six chamber gate was found, but there is the question who built it


In 1956 the Jewish archaeologist Yigael Yadin begins with his excavation of Hazor (p.94). According to Joshua 11,20 "this was the capital of all these kingdoms" in Canaan (p.94-95). Can be confirmed this?

Tell el-Waggas is a huge tell:
-- according to archaeological research Hazor was the greatest town of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age, 80 hectares was the layout (p.95)
-- according to the archeology the climax of the development in Hazor was in the European Mid Bronze Age (2000-1550 B.C.), but the boom of the town lasted far into the Late Bronze Age
-- there are many temples and huge palaces excavated
-- the palace is excavated in the 1990s under the leadership of archaeologist Amnon Ben-Tor from Hebrew University [Jerusalem] (p.95)

-- there are cuneiform findings indicating an archive, and among others there is mentioned the king of Hazor: Ibni, which is mentioned in the Mari archives as Ibni Addu
-- Finkelstein / Silberman presume that the name stays in connection with the king of Hazor Yabin, eventually this was a dynasty (p.95).

And then was a fire storm and the destruction:

-- in the 13th century B.C. the boom of the time finds a sudden end, the town is destroyed and put on fire, the mud bricks of the palace walls are burnt in red and are standing today yet with a height of 1.8 meters (p.95)

-- the town is destroyed relatively soon, at about 1350 B.C., and this is provable with ceramic findings: The ceramics found don't have yet the typical form of the late 13th century (p.105)

-- god's statues are beheaded and broken (p.104).

But it's not necessary that Hazor has been destroyed by Israelites (p.97).

And then was a poor population:

After some time of being lost a poor village was found in the center of this huge field of ruins which can be proved with potsherds similar as in the early Israeli villages in the highlands of the West Bank more to the South (p.95).


Other excavations in other towns of the alleged conquest: Arad, Hesbon a.o.: more fire storms

Also in the hills of ruins of Arad, of Hesbon etc. are found remnants of the Mid Bronze Age and of the Iron Age, but nothing can be found of the late Bronze Age (p.97) resp. there are traces of fires, but there is no obligation that Jews were the culprits who put the fires (p.97).

Villages are not destroyed
Another mystery is the fact that some spots are totally destroyed, but others not, without any destruction (p.107). The majority of the villages in Canaan are not burnt. And the villages are not left either (p.120).
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, and Hesbon,
                          satellite photo
Map with Kadesh Barnea, Arad, and Hesbon, satellite photo



Clearance of the contradictions: The real culprits were wild pirates ("maritime nations") exploiting the peace

-- there were no city walls in Canaan (p.96)

-- and the peace between Egypt and the Hittites in combination with a hyperextention of the borders gives way to the negative ideas of pirates looting the towns (p.99-100).

In the beginning of the 13th century B.C. both Empires of the region, Egypt and Hittites, have a great military battle with a draw between the Egypt Pharaoh Ramesses II and the Hittite king Muwattalli on Orontes river (western Syria, today's Lebanon).

Map with
                    the Empires of Egypt and the Hittites with Orontes
                    river as borderline: Jerusalem did not exist in
                    these times yet.
vergrössern Map with the Empires of Egypt and the Hittites with Orontes river as
borderline: Jerusalem did not exist in these times yet.


There is an agreement between the successor of Muwattalli, Hattuschili III and Ramesses II with a peace treaty "for ever" (p.99), and Ramesses even is taking a Hittite princess as his wife, as a symbol for the peace treaty (p.100).

In the region of eastern Mediterranean until far into the 13th century B.C. there are governing Egypt in the South (p.97) with the capital of No-Amon, today Luxor (p.101), and in the North are governing the Hittites with the borderline in Syria (p.97) with their capital of Hattusha in the East of the today's Ankara (p.101). It could be that the trade power of Mycenae (Peloponnese of Greece) has used the situation for attacks. This Mycenae is managing the whole trade in the eastern Mediterranean under the observation of the big powers, altogether with the strategic island of Cyprus (p.100).

There is a dramatic change of the societies. The heavy crises is devastating the kingdoms of the Bronze Age (p.97) and there are new kingdoms coming up (p.98). The precise cause for the collapse of the Reichs of the Later Bronze Age is not known. The source of violence is not clear. [It was surely not a Jewish invasion after 40 years of migration in the desert].

Several hypothesis:
-- possible is a war about essential land strips and farmer's villages
-- or harassed farmers and shepherds have attacked the big towns (p.104)
-- or there were invasions from different sides
-- or the society collapsed
-- or there was a civil war (p.105).

There was mass pillage and setting fire in the whole region of eastern Mediterranean Sea

-- scholars mean that the fires were put by violent maritime nations in combination with an invasion on the land (p.101)

-- there had been huge maritime nations having made an alliance with the Philistines, Sicels, Shekelesh, Denyens, and with the Weshesh

-- according to drawings and paintings these maritime nations are foreign ethnic groups, some have helmets with horns, others have headdresses with feathers on their heads (p.102)

-- there are also reports from Ugarit [a city state in northern Syria on the Mediterranean coast] and also from Egypt are reports from the early 12th century mentioning such looters (p.101).

Other scholars mean

-- that there had been an easy alliance of pirates and rootless souls

or
-- there had been a change of climate and foreigners from the North had been driven away by this and had arrived in the Mediterranean (p.103) provoking a forming of wild groups of pirates and looters (p.104)

or
-- the whole society of eastern Mediterranean had suffered an over specialization and a block of development and could have collapsed by this (p.104) provoking the forming of wild pirates and looters (p.104).

1185 B.C.
Finding of text: Ugarit is in danger by hostile ships and pillage
The last king of the Ugarit, Hammurabi, reports to the the king of Alashiya (today Cyprus) claiming hostile ships and pillages. Hammurabi warns that Ugarit will not be able to defend itself because his troops were in the land of the Hittites and his boats in Lycia (p.102).

Map with Ugarit at the upper Mediterranean coast
                opposite to Cyprus.
Map with Ugarit at the upper Mediterranean coast opposite to Cyprus.

Other finding of a text: The king of Chatti [Anatolia] claims an invasion of the maritime nations
The king of Chatti reports to the prefect of Ugarit [city state of today's Syria] that there are maritime nations as "Shiqalaya [...] living on boats." (p.102)

1175 B.C.
The northern part of the eastern Mediterranean is in ruins
Up to 1175 B.C. the maritime nations have destroyed the complete north eastern Mediterranean region:
-- Chatti [Anatolia]
-- Alashiya (Cyprus)
-- Ugarit [city state in today's Syria on the Mediterranean coast] (p.102).

[Conclusion: This wave of destruction was abused for Jewish war heroes
Now also neighboring regions of Israel Palestine are in ruins. It seems as if the writer of the OT wanted to use this wave of destruction for an invented war hero].

Resistance of Canaan can inhibit the destruction
-- Canaan can inhibit it's destruction for almost 100 years - in contrast to the Hittite Empire
-- but then more and more violence also destroys the order in Canaan
-- and also Canaanite town are victims of fire storms or come down more and more (p.104).

There is another inscription: Egypt is preparing the defense - and Egypt can defend the invasion
According to monumental inscriptions of Ramses III in the temple in Medinet Habu in Upper Egypt the Egyptians are preparing their defense in this time against the conspired maritime nations coming more and more to the south (p.102).

A group of seven Sea Peoples invaded Egypt in the days of Ramses III.  On his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu, the pharaoh had depicted his successful land and sea battles against these migrant peoples.
(http://www.bibleplaces.com/2003jan.htm)

Inscriptions at the temple in Medinet Habu, built under Ramses III
The temple in Medinet Habu, built under
                          Ramses III
vergrössern The temple in Medinet Habu, built under Ramses III
 
The temple complex in Medinet Habu, built
                          under Ramses III, air photo
The temple complex in Medinet Habu, built under Ramses III, air photo
Inscription in the temple wall of the
                          temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu, left
                          side of the wall
vergrössern Inscription in the temple wall of the temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu, left side of the wall
Inscription in the temple wall of the
                          temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu, middle
                          and right side of the wall
vergrössern Inscription in the temple wall of the temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu, middle and right side of the wall

These illustrations of the fights show the strong ethnic difference of the invaders and the Egyptians. Some have helmets with horns, others have headdresses with feathers on their heads (p.102)

Philistines with feathers on their heads.
                    Illustration in the temple in Medinet Habu, built
                    under Ramesses III   Philistines with feathers on their heads.
                  Illustration in the temple in Medinet Habu, built
                  under Ramesses III
vergrössern Philistines with feathers on their heads. Illustration in the temple in Medinet Habu, built under Ramesses III

The Philistines are known by their use of feather head dresses, swan decorations, two edged swords, spears, and rounded shields.  The majority of the Sea Peoples are clean-shaved, but a few Philistines are depicted with beards.
(http://www.bibleplaces.com/medinethabu.htm)

The army of Egypt under Ramses III can stop the invasion of the conspired maritime nations on the Egypt border (p.102).

Destruction of the Philistine towns of Ashdod and Ekron

The Philistine towns - they are allies of the maritime nations - show the catastrophe very well:

-- above all Ashdod is a wealthy center of Canaan in the 13th century B.C. under the influence of Egypt with constructional engineering in Egypt Canaanite mixed style in architecture and pottery



Map with
                        Ashdod, Ekron, Aphek (in the coastal plain) and
                        with Megiddo, satellite photo
Map with Ashdod, Ekron, Aphek (in the coastal plain) and with Megiddo, satellite photo

Ashdod: the
                        hill of ruins (tell) is almost invisible by the
                        fields
Ashdod: the hill of ruins (tell) is almost invisible by the fields

The hill of
                        ruins of Ekron (Tell Miqne) is only some meters
                        higher than the fields
The hill of ruins of Ekron (Tell Miqne) is only some meters higher than the fields

-- and then Ashdod is destroyed after the times of Ramses III by a fire

-- in 12th century B.C. new towns are founded on the ruins of Ashdod and Ekron by Philistine immigrants, and the towns again are wealthy, with a new material culture, but in a completely new Aegean inspired style in architecture and pottery (p.104).

about 1230 B.C.
Fire storm in Aphek in the coastal plain
(p.104-105)
This fire storm is happening around the year 1230 B.C. This is stated by archaeological findings: In the "layer of destruction" is found a letter in cuneiform writing mentioning Ugaritian and Egyptian officials who can be dated precisely with other sources (p.105). The letter of Aphek in cuneiform writing describes a vital corn trade between Ugarit and Egypt (p.105).

1140 B.C. appr.
Fire storm in the town of Megiddo
-- main witness of this fire storm at the end of Late Bronze Age are burned mud bricks

-- the "layer of destruction" with all it's rubble has got a thickness of 1.8 meters (p.105)

-- the evidence for the date of about 1140 B.C. is a metal socket of a statue found in the layer of destruction with the name Ramses IV who was governing 1143 to 1136 B.C. (p.105).

On the countryside life is going on as usual (p.179).
The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo, see:
                          www.bibleplaces.com
vergrössern The hill of ruins (tell) of Megiddo, see: www.bibleplaces.com

1130 B.C.
The big Empires in the eastern Mediterranean are all destroyed
The changes in the region are dramatic, and also Egypt is affected:
-- Egypt is a shadow of it's past and a big part of the Empire is destroyed
-- the Hittite Empire with its capital Hattusha is in ruins
-- Mycenaean world with it's center of Crete is destroyed
-- trade with Cyprus with it's copper mines is stopped
-- Canaanite ports are only ruins, also the great sea power of Ugarit
-- Megiddo and Hazor are fields of ruins (p.101).

Stop the bad fantasies: There is a logic of time: 100 years of Joshua campaign are not possible
It's proved that the towns of Hazor, Aphek, Lachish and Megiddo are destroyed within 100 years. And it's impossible that Joshua has made an invasion over 100 years (p.105).

[Conclusion: The faked war hero Joshua has got ruins that are not from him
The Jewish priests of the 1 God movement who have written the Old Testament, they meant that the ruins of the former times could be used for the creation of a faked Jewish war hero. And many believed it].

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Photo sources
-- map of Decapolis with Beth Shean: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beth_Shean
-- Beth-Shean / Scythopolis: high hill of ruins (tell): http://www.rehov.org/project/tel_beth_shean.htm
-- Beth-Shean / Scythopolis: high and low hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/newsletter/june2005news.htm

-- Ashdod: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bible.gen.nz/amos/places/ashdod.htm
-- Ekron: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.christusrex.org/www1/ofm/sbf/escurs/TS/01_TSes.html
-- Megiddo: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/newsletter/june2005news.htm

-- Jericho: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/jericho.htm
-- Ai / Chirbet et-Tell: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/ettell.htm

-- Lachish: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/lachish.htm
-- Hazor: hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/hazor.htm

-- map with Ugarit: http://www.proel.org/alfabetos/ugaritic.html

-- Pharaoh Ramesses III.: temple in Medinet Habu, air photo: http://webs.alleg.edu/employee/a/acarr/art211/medinethabu.html
-- Pharaoh Ramesses III.: temple in Medinet Habu, details: http://www.greatcommission.com/egypt/; http://www.bibleplaces.com/2003jan.htm


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