from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman:
The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient
Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free
Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001;
German edition has got the title "No trombones before
Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"):
edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;
Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine
Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition
of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version.
I hope the page numbers are not very different.
There is a stele of victory of
Pharaoh Merenptah mentioning a great victory against the
describing victories of Pharaoh Merenptah
Merenptah is the son of Ramses II. According to
this "Merenptah stele" he is said having defeated
the Israelites in a successful campaign at the end
of 13th century B.C. The Israelites are said
having been expelled and massively reduced
claiming that Israel's "seed would be off" (p.71).
This stele is the first safe historical proof of a
text mentioning the word "Israel" (p.71). But the
location of the alleged battle is not mentioned.
So, since 1207 B.C. it's only proved that in Egypt
it's known that some group exists with the name of
According to archeology there are founded many new
villages in the highlands of Canaan at the same
time. These founding wave of new villages can be
connected with the expulsion of Israelite
[It can be that the Israelites have played with
the sea peoples against Egypt, and Jerusalem was
at another place and is not detected yet?
Archeology cannot say anything yet. This stele is
a mystery. Speculations may go on...]
12th century B.C. / interim period from Bronze Age to Iron
Age / end of Late Bronze Age / 1150 B.C. appr.
Collapse of Egypt and Hittite
Empires - wave of villages - villages and towns in the
highlands - independences
The powers are collapsing (p.134). City states of Canaan are
-- by raids of the sea peoples
-- by rivalries
-- or by social upheavals
-- accompanied by a fast economic decline.
Weakening of the city states of Canaan permits the
independence for the city states in the highlands - Shechem
(Bible name for "Israel") and Jerusalem (Bible name for
survivors of the regions win the independence. The
populations of the villages are probably producing just for
their personal needs. But the heaviest consequences suffer
the Bedouins: They cannot change corn in the villages any
more and have to cultivate corn themselves now, and now they
are settling down, and there are more villages installed
So, according to Finkelstein / Silberman the genesis of
villages is the result of the collapse of Canaanite culture,
and the importance of the Israelite villages is rising. The
native people were the Canaanites. Other peoples as the
foreigners, Bedouins who are called Israelites later, were
not from the coastal region (p.135)
Wave of villages also in the
Eastbank of Jordan river
Also in the Eastbank of Jordan river can be proved the
same wave of foundations of villages. But this local
population is not Israelite, but is forming the kingdoms of
Ammon and Moab and Edom later (p.135).
1180-1130 B.C. appr.
Some decades the big towns are left without population,
for example Megiddo, Tel Dor, or Tel Rehov (p.179).
B.C. / European Iron Age
The highlands of Canaan are
developing a change into territorial states
since 1130 B.C. appr.
New population in the towns of
The fields of ruins are
populated by the native Canaanite population again. There
follows a regeneration of the towns, for example Megiddo,
Tel Dor, or Tel Rehov, but the towns are not that big like
on hill of ruins ("Tell"): by this are acropolis created
Every town constructed on a hill of ruins is 1.5 to 2 meters
higher. The repeated events of destruction and
reconstruction gives the result of towns on hills, and at
the end these towns are on an acropolis].