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Jewry: Fake and truth in the Old Testament (OT) according to documents and excavations

New identity by new Jewish history by help of chronology and archaeological research

29. Southern Reich of Judah according to OT and findings 884-842 B.C. up to the invasion of northern Reich of Israel

The hill of ruins of
              Lachish (Lakhish, Tell Lachish, Tell ed-Duweir)
The hill of ruins of Lachish (Lakhish, Tell Lachish, Tell ed-Duweir)
see: www.bibleplaces.com

by Michael Palomino (2006 / 2010)

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from: Israel Finkelstein / Neil A. Silberman: The Bible unearthed. Archeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts; The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2001; German edition has got the title "No trombones before Jericho" (orig. German: "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho"): edition C.H.Beck oHG, Munich 2002;

Here in this analysis is used the German version "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" of DTV, Munich 2004, second edition of 2005. All page indications refer to the German version. I hope the page numbers are not very different.


The events in southern kingdom of Judah according to censorship of the Old Testament and according to the documents and findings

Map of Judah with Lachish,
                      Shefela, Hebron, Beit Shemsh, Ekron, Gibeon, Gat,
                      and Geba
Map of Judah with Lachish, Shefela, Hebron, Beit Shemsh, Ekron, Gibeon, Gat, and Geba


Finkelstein / Silberman give the following indications about the OT concerning the development of the southern Reich of Judah:

-- the data indications of the kings are right with light corrections (p.250-251)

-- OT conceals the characters of the kings in the southern Reich

-- "sin" in Judah is said having punished by God, and "bad" kings are having said only for a short time (p.251).


The documents according to the El-Amarna letters: There are always border conflicts of Urusalim with Shechem  and the region of Shfela

In the letters found in Tell el-Amarna from Egypt the territory of Judah is described with 6 clay tablets (p.258). Abdi-Hepa [a king of Phoenicia] writes about Jerusalem (named Urusalim in that time):

-- the king's citadel Urusalim (Jerusalem) is ruling highlands with only few population

-- the territory consists of the regions of Bethel in the North down to the region of Hebron in the South, that are appr. 2330 km2 [for example almost the surface of little German federal state of Saarland]

-- southern kingdom of Judah is always affected by border clashes with the northern Reich Shechem (northern kingdom of Israel) and with the Shfela region (p.259).

[Conclusion: Perhaps Jerusalem was in the beginning only a tree or a stone].


Archeology about the city state of Jerusalem (southern kingdom of Judah): there is no statehood

OT claims that there had been a holy ideal, but all is a fake and historically unreal. According to archeology there exists no national religion until king Hezekiah is ruling (p.254).

Archeology is looking for and arranging their findings for a long time according to the biblical story and their mind is blocked and they don't look for a new story (p.254-255). Archeology has believed the OT for a long time, but all was only a wishfulness (p.255).

According to Finkelstein / Silberman there has only grown the number of the villages a little bit since the tribe leaders David and Solomon (p.260).

Missing indications for any statehood
-- until the late 8th century B.C. there are missing any monumental inscriptions and seals of the kings - the essential characteristics for a developed state (p.255)
-- ostrakas are missing (that are written clay tablets for managing any trade)
-- and there are missing marked weight stones (p.258).

Production of potteries and the production of olive oil is managed in local private enterprises (p.258).

  
The hill of ruins (tell) of
                      Lachish (Lakhish), Tell ed-Duweir, see:
                      www.bibleplaces.com
The hill of ruins (tell) of Lachish (Lakhish), Tell ed-Duweir

Regional center of Lachish
At the beginning the town of Lachish on the foothills of the Shfela region is the only regional center in the kingdom of Judah (p.255).

Country style architecture
According to the archaeological research until today the layout of town planning and architecture is generally in a country style up to 7th century B.C. without any monumental kind of constructive form (p.255).

The customs in the region of Judah according to archeology - no trace of any temple

Archeology is investigating in whole Judah and can find all possible forms of religions with figurines, altars, vessels for libation sacrifices and altars for sacrifices. The customs were very different and distributed in the different centers of clans. The temple of Jerusalem - if there had been one - was not the only center. But there is not one single little finding of a temple in that time (p.261).

Settlement building was done with the scheme of the "amplified family settlement" (p.261).

Religions and alleged reforms in Judah

In the alleged first temple of Jerusalem [until today without any findings] is said having preserved also cult objects for Baal, Astarte, or for the heavenly hosts, and the cult actions were performed also in the temple, also the adoration of Mesopotamic god of Tammuz. OT qualifies all this as "atrocities" (p.263).

The prophets of Judah are said having protested against the "foreign gods". When we admit the description of the conditions in Jerusalem as true, so hardly "good" and "bad" kings can be distinguished - so Finkelstein / Silberman (p.263).

All religious "reforms" indicated in the OT under the kings of Judah have to be put into question - this say Finkelstein / Silberman, because southern Reich of Judah is rated always as "good", and northern Reich of Israel is rated always as "bad" (p.270).

931-914 B.C.
Southern Reich of Judah under king Rehoboam: religious tolerance and punishment by Egypt invasion?

OT claims:

-- king Rehoboam is says having been the alleged son of the faked king Solomon, and it is said that under Rehoboam many fortresses were constructed (2d book of Chronicles 11,5-12) (p.255)

-- king Rehoboam is said having been a "sinner", and the inhabitants are said having constructed "heights" [altars for sacrifices on hill tops], and the inhabitants are said having copied the atrocities of the pagans (1st book of Kings 14,22-24) (p.251)

-- king Rehoboam is said having permitted sacrifices on all heights, and stony monuments and pictures of Ashera on all high hills and under all green trees (p.251)

-- king Rehoboam is said having permitted temple whore men and all other atrocities of the pagans (1st book of Kings 14,22-24) (p.251).

Punishment is said having come in 926 B.C. by an Egypt invasion against Jerusalem under Pharaoh Shishak, and it's said that the temple treasuries and the palace treasuries from the faked palace of David were taken for tribute (1st book of Kings 14,25-26) (p.251).

Documents and archeology about king Rehoboam

Archeology cannot find any fortress which is from the time of Rehoboam. But there are found many monumental buildings of the time of 200 year later (p.255).

914-911 B.C.
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Abia

OT claims:
-- the king Abia is said having been a "sinner" as his father, king Rehoboam (1st book of Kings 15,3) (p.251)
-- and as punishment some border clashes are said having been with northern Reich of Israel (p.251-252).

911-870 B.C.

Southern kingdom of Judah under king Asa

OT claims:

-- king Asa is said having been a "good" king and is said having ruled for 41 years (1st book of Kings 15,11) (p.252)

-- king Asa is said having constructed defensive works in the biblical town of Mizpa (today in Jordan) (1st book of Kings 15,22) (p.255)

-- under king Asa Jerusalem is said having saved by God of the attack of the northern Reich Israel under king Baesa, because Judah had plead for help with the king of Aram Damascus, so Damascus had attacked Israel in the North and Israel was forced giving up the siege of Jerusalem (p.252).

What documents and archeology say about king Asa

Archeology is investigating the hill of ruins of Mizpa (Tell en-Nasbe) and cannot find any fortress work which could be allocated to king Asa, but there are many ruins that can be allocated to a time of 200 years after (p.255).

870-846 B.C.
Southern Reich of Judah under king Josaphat
(analyzed: Jeho-shafat, in English: God has judged)

OT claims:
-- king Josaphat is said having ruled for 25 years copying the model of his father Asa in a loyal way to God
-- king Josaphat is said having made a peace agreement with the northern kingdom of Israel (p.252)
-- king Josaphat is said having organized a successful military offensive with the northern Reich of Israel against Aram and Moab (p.252).

According to the composed OT are following "good" and "bad" kings now, some times also both at the same time (p.252, 253).

851-843
Southern Reich of Judah under king Jehoram

OT claims:
-- king Jehoram is said having removed the stony monument Mazzebe of Baal and is praised for this in the OT
-- but king Jehoram is said having followed also the "sins of Jeroboam [with golden calves] (p.243)

-- king Jehoram is said having taken a wife from a "sinful" family of the royal family of northern Israel. He is said having married the princess daughter of Ahab and Jezebel Atalya

-- king Jehoram is said having introduced the cult of Baal in Jerusalem again

-- and as punishment for his "sins" the dependent state of Edom is said having performed a rebellion

-- and further punishment for the "sins" of Judah are said having the loss of rich agricultural territories in the western hilly countryside to the Philistines (p.252).

843-842 B.C.
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Ahaziah

OT claims:
Ahaziah is said having died during the quarrels about the succession in northern Reich of Israel during the coup of Jehu. Then his mother Atalya is said having been got the message of his death and is said having ordered the liquidation of all royal descendants of the house of David and is said having been enthroned herself (p.252).

842-836 B.C.
Southern Reich of Judah under queen Atalya (mother of Ahaziah)

AT claims:
Temple priest Joyada is said having waited for 6 years for a possibility for a takeover of the throne. Then he is said having claimed that a David descendant had been safed of the persecution of Atalya and presents Jehoash as a son of Ahaziah with another wife. When Jehoash was anointed, Atalya is said having been struck dead (p.252).

836-798 B.C.
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Jehoash (alleged son of Ahaziah)

OT claims:
-- it is said that king Jehoash ruled for 40 years in loyalty to God (2d book of Kings 12,3)
-- king Jehoash is said having renovated the temple (p.252) [but there is missing any finding of this first temple]

-- king Jehoash is said having paid a high tribute to king Hazael of Aram Damascus preventing an occupation of Aram Damascus (2d book of Kings 12,18-19) (p.252-253).

King of Hazael of Aram Damascus
vergrössern King of Hazael of Aram Damascus
Map with Assyria and Aram Damascus in 820
                        B.C. appr.
Map with Assyria and Aram Damascus in 820 B.C. appr.


798-769 B.C.
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Amaziah

OT claims:

-- king Amaziah is said having been a "good" king in loyalty of God, but "not that good like his father David" (1st book of Kings 14,3)

-- king Amaziah is said having organized a successful war against Edom (p.253)

-- then is said that northern kingdom of Israel had exploited the overspending of forces of southern Reich of Judah and had torn down the wall of Jerusalem [but there is no finding of the wall], and king Amaziah is said having been defeated and seized (p.253).

According to archeology the southern Reich of Judah has never fought any war until the northern Reich of Israel was destroyed (p.250).

785-733 B.C.
Southern Reich of Judah under king Uzziah

OT claims:
-- king Uzziah is said having been a "good" king
-- king Uzziah is said having "moved" the southern borderline to Edom to the south (p.253).

  
Map with Israel, Judah,
                        Ammon, Moab and Edom 722 appr.
Map with Israel, Judah, Ammon, Moab and Edom 722 appr.

759-743 B.C.
Southern Reich of Judah under king Jotham (son of Uzziah)
[there is no indication].

743-727 B.C.
Southern kingdom of Judah under king Ahaz

OT claims:

-- king Ahas is said having been a "bad" king, he is said "having migrated on the path of the kings of Israel", he is said having his son passed through the fire "according to the dreadful customs of the pagans", he is said having sacrificed sacrifices, he is said having fumigated on the heights and on the hills under all green trees (2d book of Kings 16,2-4)

-- as punishment for the "sins" of king Ahaz the Edomites are said having occupied Eilat on the Red Sea and king Rezin of Aram Damascus is said having performed a siege of Jerusalem together with king Pekahiah from the northern kingdom of Israel (p.253)

Tiglath-Pileser III., profile, location of
                        finding Nimrud.
Tiglath-Pileser III., profile, location of finding Nimrud.

  

-- king Ahaz is said having plead for help with Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 B.C.) and is said having given him presents from the temple in advance

-- and by this Tiglath-Pileser III is said having conquered Damascus and killed king Rezin (2d book of Kings 16,9) (p.253).

Documents and archeology speaking about king Ahaz

As a vassal with Assyria the kingdom of Judah is not isolated any more and begins the political game (p.263). King Ahaz prevents the confrontation so Judah can survive. In this way he can develop first beginnings of a public administration (p.292).

727-698 B.C.
Southern Reich Judah under king Hezekiah
The anointing of king Hezekiah is said having been a great event (p.270). In the beginning of reign of Hezekiah the southern kingdom of Judah has about 35,000 inhabitants (p.258).

And now this king is said having been a "good" one with no faults and only with merits (p.291).

720 B.C.
Collapse of the northern Reich of Israel, Assyrian occupation - and the southern Reich of Judah starts a new development


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Photo sources

-- map of Judah: David Rohl: Pharaohs and Prophets 1999, p.50
-- Lachish, hill of ruins (tell): http://www.bibleplaces.com/lachish.htm

-- king of Hazael of Aram Damascus: http://www.beth-aram.de/galerie.htm
-- map: Assyria with Aram Damascus in about 820 B.C.: http://history-world.org/maps%20ancientworld.htm
-- map with Israel, Judah, Ammon, Moab, and Edom: http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~juda102/images/landofisrael.jpg
-- Tiglath-Pileser III., profile, location of finding Nimrud: http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/Tiglath-Pileser-III.html



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