Kontakt / contact      Hauptseite / page
                      principale / pagina principal / home     zurück /
                      retour / indietro / astrás / back
D - ESPF  

Table about the persecution of the Jews: 6 million:
Tunnel systems, bunker constructioning and Stalin deportations, Red Army etc., and emigration - and not born Jewish children after 1945

by Michael Palomino 2003; last change: September 2013

Julius Hans
              Schoeps, Portrait  Yehuda Bauer,
              portrait  Nechama Tec,
              Portrait  Encyclopaedia
              Judaica, Lexikonbände  Benjamin
              Pinkus, Portrait  Arno
              Lustiger, Portrait  Martin
              Gilbert, Portrait
              Kloft, portrait  Michael
              Foedrowitz, portrait  Jean Ziegler, Portrait  Christian Gerlach, portrait  Joachim Kahl,
              Portrait  Bernhard Chiari:
              Book: Everyday life behind the front (orig. German: Alltag
              hinter der Front), cover  Zygmunt Frankel,

Summary about the persecution of the Jews 1933-1945 and the persecutions of the Germans since 1945:

Zionists and Hitler's regime were organizing the persecution of the Jews in common chasing Jews to Palestine. During the war (1939-1945) captives in German concentration camps were important for the war and they partly got more food than the civil population. Zionists could pass to all camps and control them, and since 1942 they invented the calumny with "murder by gassing". In 1945 some remaining concentration camps heavy and inhuman conditions developed because of the breakdown of the system and because of overcrowding. The allies only met the camps in 1945 and believed these had been also the conditions from 1933 to 1944. In 1945 Zionist Eisenhower organized the mass murder against Germans in the Rhine meadow camps. Photos with hungry and emaciated Germans and of German dead bodies were presented as Jewish and Hitchcock cut his films in the way thus it gave the "impression" that a mass murder against Jews had happened in the Reich. This is a big Zionist calumny and lie. But the following facts are right:
-- mass death behind the eastern front of the remaining local Jews who had not fled with the Red Army or as industrial staff to central Russia (the Zionists did not want to protect the East European Jews because they were nothing "worth" for Palestine)
-- mass death in the ghettos is only partly right because Zionists partly could manage the ghettos clandestinely
-- Stalin was deporting masses of capitalist Jews into the Gulag
-- there was a mass death of Jews in the Red Army
-- and Hitler and Stalin organized clandestine deportations of European Jews into the Gulag because Hitler simply did not want them any more
-- at the end of the war the German camp system collapsed, hunger and overcrowding and epidemics were spreading and sometimes hunger and death marches were organized as a revenge for the defeat
-- and after 1945 Jewish women were partly infertile or did not return from "Christian" farms or left Jewry
-- additionally one has to consider that the word "Holocaust" indicates "burnt victim" and this does not count for the Jews but for the Germans who were suffering fire storms in their town provoked by the allied bombs - and many Jewish houses were destroyed which could have been given back to the Jews after 1945, but the Zionist bosses of "U.S.A.", Roosevelt, Baruch and Morgenthau wanted to destroy Germany completely to destroy the home of the European Jews chasing them to Palestine - and an other criminal Zionist, Eisenhower, did it
-- the other Zionist goal of Roosevelt, Baruch, Morgenthau, Eisenhower, Einstein etc. to throw atomic bombs on Germany could not be performed because Germany was capitulating too fast
-- but criminal Zionist allies were succeeding in the mass murder of German soldiers in the Rhine meadow camps in summer 1945 and criminal Zionists Eisenhower and Hitchcock presented systematically emaciated Germans and German bodies as Jewish bodies giving the faked impression that there had been a mass murder against Jews. The calumny against Germany was done with photos and films depicting Germans of the Rhine meadow camps as Jews, and in this way the two criminals Eisenhower and Hitchcock manipulated the Nuremberg process against Germany and all other representatives of other states believed it...

The partition of the 6 million Jews (plus other people classified as "non Aryans": 1/2, 1/4 and 3/4 Jews) 1933-1948 incl. the Gorbachev documents:

1.Jewish casualties in NS territory with collaborators and gypsies
2.Jewish casualties in the SU and from 1945 on captivated Jews 3. surviving Jews beyond the Soviet Union (SU)
0. Since 1935/6 there was the definition of 1/2, 1/4 and 3/4 Jews which provoked the counting of about 50-70 % more Jews, and where the Nuremberg laws were put into force more people were affected [25]
emigration 1933-1939 [35]
- riots and emigration from Germany
emigration 1933-1945:
- emigration by Hilfesverein 1933-1941 [1]
- emigration by the  American Joint Distribution Committee [1]
- Marseille: emigration by the  Emergency Rescue Committee [2]

1a. mass death  by mass execution in gas wagon
1b. mass death in burning barn or synagogues
1c. mass death in the ghetto
1c1. death from starvation, from cold in ghetto
Survival without measures as non-available (Unabkömmlicher, uk)
1c2. death from epidemic in ghetto
Survival by collaboration
1c3. death by shooting in ghetto
Faked passports:
- survival by change of name
- survival by change of religion
1c4. normal death in ghetto Stalin deportations [23] - survival as stateless person [20]
1d. death during deportations 1940-1943 to Eastern Europe
2d. death on deportations 1940-1941 Escape routes with facilitator bands:
- PL-H-I-F-Sp/P-"America" [19a]
- D-CH-F-Sp/P-"America" [21]
1d1. death by hunger, cold on transport 2d1. death from starvation, by cold on transport
1d2. natural death on transport 2d2. natural death on transport - flight over the British Channel to England 

1e. mass death in camps (also gypsies) 2e. mass death in camps in Gulag Survival in hiding places [3]
1e1. death by hunger, cold in camps 2e1. death from starvation and by cold in camps Survival as guerrilla in the forest [4]
1e2. death by epidemic in camps 2e2. death by epidemic in camps Survival in camps [13]
1e3. death by shooting in camps 2e3. death by shooting in camps Survival in bunker constructioning
1e4. natural death in camps 2e4. natural death in camps
1e5. death by medical "experiment"
Categories of emigrants:
(cyclon B granulate: effect only with 27°C upwards) [32]
2f. Great flight from Barbarossa: Organized retreat of at least approx. 1 mio. Jews in 1941 to the center of the SU; many other and poor Jews do not flee, and arbitrary flight is blocked [24]; denunciation of Jews again [26]
- emigrants getting under NS governments again [6]
1f. death as fugitive (also gypsies) - emigrants getting under Communist regimes [7]

2g. "Shift" of Jews from Nazi Europe to Russia 1941-1943 [36]
1f1. murder of Jews in hiding places by collaborating population 2h. mass death in Siberian steppe [22]
- natural death as emigrant
1f2. murder of Jews during razzias and mass executions [27] 2h1. death from starvation and by cold in Siberian steppe - death by murder as emigrant:
e.g.: facilitators shoot Jews during the flight and rob them [19a
1f3. murder of Jews in hiding places by nationalistic guerrilla 2h2. natural death in Siberian steppe - or: facilitators take the money from the Jews and give them to the police and take money two times [19b]
1f4. natural death in hiding places 2i. Mass execution of 1.5 mio. of Jews as "agents" by NKWD [36]

And at the end follows the migration 1944-1948:
1g. death during "chase against Germans" 1944 collaborating with the Red Army during pull-out of the Wehrmacht [8] Many of the deported Jews are drawn for service in the Red Army  [22] - Bricha (Berihah): PL-Ö-H-Rum-It.- Zionist Jewish Agency IL [11]

- by the Black Sea [12]
1i. death at hunger march
Emigration after 1945:
1i1. murder at hunger march
- Joint: DP camps (until 1953) [13]
1i2. murder by enfeeblement, freezing
- Joint, ORT: directly "USA", Canada [14]

- directly to Australia
1j. mass death during return transport from Eastern Europa to Central Europa to the Reich's territory [9]
- GB fighting fugitive ships etc.
1j1. death by hunger, cold on return transport 2k. mass death (2-3 mio.) in the Red Army (RA) and in the guerrilla [10] - or: marriage, change of name, change of religion etc., by this the Jewish identity is concealed as a protection of prosecution
1j2. natural death on return transport
- or: change of name, new passport, by this the Jewish identity is concealed as a protection of prosecution

1l. death at air raids of villages and towns in NS territory
2l. death at air raids of villages and towns in "Soviet" territory

1m. mass death (about 1 mio.) in tunnel system and bunker constructioning for underground weapon production resp. during constructioning of rocket galleries [18]

1m1. death from starvation in tunnel system and bunker constructioning Survivors in SU [5]:
1m2. death by epidemic in tunnel system and bunker constructioning - survivors in the Siberian steppe Return migration from "America" and IL back to Europe
1m3. death by shooting in tunnel system and bunker constructioning - survivors in the SU arms industry - mainly to France
1m4. natural death in tunnel system and bunker constructioning - return settlement from SU in Eastern Europe  [24] - partly also to Germany

- return migration from IL to Italy
1n. overcrowded camps in the Reich and breakdown of the catering
2m. Wide-bodied prison Iron Curtain, imprisonment until Gorbi  
1n1. mass death from starvation in overcrowded camps without food
Further emigration from IL to Australia and to "America"
1n2. mass death by epidemics in overcrowded camps without food 2n. death by cols in Gulag ("religious", "national" and representative Jews) [16]

1o death by fault nourishment after the liberation of the camps 2p Russification of Jews behind the Iron Curtain, death of identities [17]

WJC is looking for Jewish children in "Christian" families until after 1953 [15]
1q soon death by late effects after 1945

total x1
total x2
total x3
plus x4 "non Aryans"
(1/2-, 1/4- and 3/4 Jews) [30]
plus x5 "non Aryans"
(1/2-, 1/4- and 3/4 Jews)
plus x6 "non Aryans"
(1/2-, 1/4- and 3/4 Jews)
and concerning NS territories: x7 not born Jewish children since 1945 by the death of the parents and by the loss of ability to give birth in the Third Reich by malnutrition for years of surviving Jewish women [33]
and: x8 not born Jewish children since 1945 in "Soviet Union" by the death of the parents and by the loss of ability to give birth by malnutrition for years of surviving Jewish women in "Soviet Union" [33]
and concerning Northern, Western and Eastern Europe: x9 not born Jewish children since 1945 because Jewish girls are not given back from Christian families and are christianized and give birth to Christians [34] and: x10 not born Jewish children since 1945 in "Soviet" territories because Jewish girls are not given back from Christian families and are christianized and give birth to Christians [34]
Basic numbers are indicated here: [31]
The number of victims of 4.5-6 mio. is right. Considering all circumstances with the not born children after 1945 the number of death victims is over 6 mio.
Within WWII has to be considered the destruction of Jewish immovable property by German and allied air raids (without sense) so the disowned immovable property could not be given back after the war: in Germany, Holland, France, Poland etc.

Bunker and tunnel constructioning

-- after Stalin's deportations of Jews in Eastern Europe 1940 / 1941 to Siberia a part of the resident Jews in Eastern Europa flew to the Soviet Union before the NS Russian campaign. The Jews who stayed who thought it would not be "that bad" were murdered in mass shootings during the NS occupation. Then the Jews of Western and Middle Europe were deported to Eastern Europe to replace the Eastern Jews. When there was no fast victory against Stalin's Soviet Union the Jews were brought into camps to work in the industry, the elder people and the children mostly working in agriculture. Resolution for underground weapon production was on 1940-10-10 when the first English airplane had reached Berlin, and then first tunnel constructioning with detainees began.

-- in 1943 the mass of the Jews in the camps in Eastern Europe were transported back into the tunnel and bunker constructioning. Many of them have died during blasting out the tunnel systems by hunger and starvation (there were about 1000 tunnel and bunker constructions realized with about 5 km length at an average, partly with three floors). Then technically experienced detainees were brought for the underground weapon production, when it was a tunnel construction for armament ("wonder weapons" jets and rockets etc.).
(see the film: "The underground Reich. The secret worlds of the Nazis"; orig.: Das unterirdische Reich. Die geheimen Welten der Nazis"; tel. hotline: 0049-(0)2542-95 13 13; fax: 0049-(0)2542-95 13 95).

-- at the end of the NS rule in some of the tunnel systems the detainees were locked up by blasting or were transported away or have survived by flight.
Informations about locked up Jews who were buried alive one can have from tunnel system historian Michael Foedrowitz, Berlin.

-- the number of fallen Jews in the Red Army was high, or the deported Jews by Stalin died in camps or by hunger

-- the few staying camps which rested on NS territory at the end of the war were absolutely overcrowded at the end and in catastrophic conditions with robbery, epidemics, hunger and mass death. Many of the Jewish children and elder people in the agriculture were hidden and after the Communist occupation they were presented as Christians or without religion. They replaced the fallen men on the farms. Jews with "relations" could forge easily their passports and after 1945 could realize an emigration in many cases which was organized by Zionist organizations. Stalin let come back a big part of the surviving Jews from Siberia to Eastern Europe. When Israel was founded with an alliance with the secret service of the "USA" Stalin blocked all Jews in the Soviet states their voyage to Israel.

Thesis: Tunnel constructioning and all other kinds of death replace cyclon B as murder weapon against prisoners

Cyclon B granulate as a weapon is not very probable because it's effect is only working from 27°C on, so it's surely not working in winter and in cool cellars of dead bodies. The rooms have to be built gas save what the cellars of dead bodies surely were not. And rough granulate hardly goes through the thin water pipes and through the little holes of the shower heads. Add to this cyclon B granulate was only hard to provide and the SS was keen on committing their murders without attracting attention as possible with the goal to steal the things from the Jewish suitcases in the camp storage room and to sell the valuables on the black market, among others in the "neutral" Switzerland. So cyclon B granulate as a weapon seems to be very unrealistic, see also footnote [32]. New kinds of death like the tunnel constructioning, mass death in the ghetto and above all in the Red Army are substituting the cyclon B granulate in the balance. Basically there are detected more and more tunnel systems the longer the research is going on. This is no denial of the persecution of the Jews. There exists freedom of belief, and research is going on. One can only hope that the stupid journalists and judges will accept this.

The aim of dictatorships is to profit from the working power of prisoners. Recording to Michael Foedrowitz (indication of 2006) there were 1100 tunnel systems, a part of them (10 % estimated) stuck in process of planning. So it seems that the tunnel constructioning altogether with all other kinds of death - above all the Red Army - are replacing cyclon B. About the dimensions of tunnel constructioning work a film by Kloft / Foedrowitz reports: "Das unterirdische Reich", with prisoners speaking three times coming from Auschwitz to the tunnel constructioning sites. The film can be ordered at: http://www.polarfilm.de, Tel.-hotline: 0049-(0)2542-95 13 13. The film of 2003 indicates 800 tunnel systems but this figure is not actual any more. In 2004 Foedrowitz indicated 1,000 tunnel systems, in 2006 1,100 tunnel systems, a part of them only in process of planning. Principally there are always more tunnel systems detected the longer the research is going on.

Gas chambers against lice in clothes - later delousing with short waves and DDT
Gas chambers had been erected for the application of cyclon B granulate against lice with a "gas floodgate" for the clothes for "delousing". The application of delousing with cyclon B granulate was possible only in summer with temperatures above 27°C, then it was absolutely dangerous and laborious. Under 27°C there is no effect, so in autumn, in winter, and in spring. That's why Siemens then developed the short wave delousing which was mostly employed in the Wehrmacht. In Auschwitz some "gas chambers" had not been finished, I think because from 1943 on a great part of the prisoners had been transported to the tunnel system constructioning for the underground weapon production. The "USA" developed DDT against lice which the NS side did not know. More indications about cyclon B granulate is here [32].

Why Nuremberg process of 1946 did not discuss about tunnel system constructioning? - Factor "USA" and robbery of the technique for "silver bullets" (mainly rocket technique)
The tunnel systems were robbed by the allies. All German weapon technique of the "silver bullets" (above all rocket technique) mainly came into the hands of the "USA" and was shipped secretly to the "USA" (a big part of it was Swiss technique, ABB etc.), with the rocket technicians like von Braun etc. inclusive. It can be assumed that the "USA" wanted to keep secret the tunnel system constructioning. Therefore - with the power of the atomic bomb in the background - there could be found another reason for the mass murder on the Jews: the cyclon B against lice. And only Germans should be guilty for the mass murder, Stalin not...

The criminal "revisionists" analyzed only the camps and have badly neglected to search for other locations of death of the Jews.

Too high population figures concerning Judaism: "Half Jews" and "Quarter Jews" etc. within
The high Jewish population figures of 1933 resp. of 1948 (Daily Telegraph, 24.3.1933, S.1: "Judea declares war on Germany": 14 mio. Jews worldwide, resp. N.Y.Times, 22 Feb 1948: "Armies for Palestine": 15-18 mio. Jews worldwide). These high population figures are to be seen as combat figures in a combat situation (1933 against Hitler Germany, 1948 against Arabs). I think there are included also "half-Jewish persons", "quarter-Jewish persons", "eighth-Jewish persons", "sixteen-Jewish persons" etc. who are asked to fight, so they are in the figures included.

Also the NS leadership is giving very high population figures about Judaism in Eastern Europe of 1941 where I think "half-Jewish persons" and "quarter-Jewish persons" have to be considered. NS leadership of 1941 seems not to have considered the Stalin deportations to Siberia and the Jewish flight movements to Inner Russia in 1941. Furthermore the Wehrmacht used high Jewish population figures to make certain circles "hot" against Jews.

One has really to admit that the Nazi estimations and also some Jewish estimations - from case to case - include also the 1/2, 1/4, 3/4, 1/8 and 1/16 Jews which in the official countings never are counted.

The word "Holocaust" means "burnt victim" and counts for Germans during the fire storms in their towns provoked by allied bombings but does not count for Jews in German concentration camps because these camps were well organized and controlled by Red Cross and by Zionists themselves.

On the contrary: There are missing "half Jews" and "quarter Jews" etc. in the balance of Middle and Western Europe, so according to Yehuda Bauer we have for Germany (about 260.000) and for Austria (about 150.000) alone about 410.000 pursued as Jews, and a part of them have to be placed into the table, and perhaps it's another million.

Concerning Jewish world population there is the following scenario:
-- considering Nuremberg laws of 1935/6 the number of Jews of 1933 with 14 million is rising in 1935/6 to 20 million persons counting as "Jews"
-- and in 1948 there are 15 to 18 million considering the Nuremberg laws, but without considering Nuremberg law stay only 11 to 12 million Jews.

These contradicting figures also appear in the yearbooks and have to be interpretated in this manner with or without "half Jews", "cuarter Jews" and "three cuarter Jews".

Add to all this in the cited figure of 1948 have also to be included the deaths of the persecution of the Jews because in the orthodox Jewish world the deaths are living in the prayers.

July 2006: The number of bunker systems is rising to 1100 - extrapolation for a minimal victim figure
Tunnel system historian Michael Foedrowitz told in July 2006 that he has found 1100 bunker and tunnel systems now, but some of them were never or only partly realized. The minimum number of victims is 1000 but one which is lower, and the maximum number is 20,000. So calculate yourself what the victim number in bunker and tunnel system constructioning could be, considering that some tunnel systems - perhaps 50 - were not or only partly realized, and considering that about 10 % were not Jews but socialists, communists and gypsies.

Projection without claim for correctness:

My personal estimation is a minimal average of 2000 dead victims per bunker system, so there would be a minimum of 2,200,000 dead victims, minus 10 % (220,000) and minus 100,000 (ca. 50 projects which were not realized). So, there comes out a minimum of about 1,880,000 dead Jews in the bunker constructioning.

May 2007 Public Prosecutor's Department: The persecution of the Jews is as bad enough with 4 or with 6 million dead victims
At the final interrogation at the Public Prosecutor's Department at Basel it was stressed clearly that the persecution of the Jews is not "less bad" when there are 4 or 6 million dead victims. There was stressed that the emigration and the Russian part of the persecution of the Jews must be taken earnest, and that the number of culprits is increasing. By this the persecution of the Jews gets fairly worse than before because the persecution of the Jews was coming from several sides, particularly also by the church which opened the registers to the NS regime and only by this the persecution of half Jews and quarter Jews etc. was possible.

June 2007: Scandal in the Public Prosecutor's Department of Basel: All is defined "pretended to be scientific" with "pretended proofs"
The Public Prosecutor's Department of Basel sends a bill of indictment of February 2007 where all my work about the persecution of the Jews is defined to be "pretended to be scientific" with "pretended proofs", and all my indications are said to be not true. By this the Public Prosecutor's Department is disposing of it's work to control the Jewish biographies, the tunnel constructioning and the proceedings in Russia, but at the same time the Department gets the full salary with 5 figures. That's the way in Switzerland: They make propaganda and do not work and the tax payer has to pay this, and there can only be true what uses to the department's employees, an absolute scandal against any historical work.

As it seems the "detectives" of the Basel Public Prosecutor's Department don't know where the university library is and where one could verify the legal books I used.

17.9.2007: Criminal Swiss justice: Judge Stephenson denies to all my proof requests
Prior to the trial at the tribunal of Basel judge Dr. J. Stephenson denies all my proof requests for the table of the persecution of the Jews

The arrogant judge Dr. Stephenson denies
                          to all my proof requests concerning my
                          Holocaust table.
The arrogant judge Dr. Stephenson denies to all my proof requests concerning my new table about the persecution of the Jews
By this judge Dr. Stephenson turns into Holocaust denier of my new table about the persecution of the Jews
he is not the only criminal judge of this criminal class.

9 Nov 2007: Tribunal at Basel simply says I cannot be taken earnest and that's why the new table about the persecution of the Jews would be a discrimination of races - the contradictions of judge Dr. J. Stephenson

On 9 November 2007 president of the court Dr. J. Stephenson from Basel tribunal decided that my new table about the persecution of the Jews could not be taken earnest because I only had studied 3 semesters history at a university. By this he let unconsidered that I am doing history analysis since 1992 and this without interruption until 2003, with 3 semesters at university 1998-1999, and the persecution for the Jews for 4 years.

Dr. J. Stephenson introduced the trial with a monologue about totally old fashioned court papers of 1999 which - one has to consider this - were from Germany. He could not be stopped to cite the foreign court papers which are absolutely old fashioned. It seems - like judge Stark at Freiburg im Breisgau - that he was stuck in the year 1999, and it seems that Dr. J. Stephenson even felt to be in Germany.

During the trial he let pass the thesis that above all the tunnel constructioning and mass death in the Red Army could replace cyclon B, but one hour later in his judgment then he condemned me. In his justification of his judgment he was arguing with single, isolated sentences of the scenario of the new table about the persecution of the Jews and of the added film. Therefore he pulled out single sentences from their context as it was done already by the judges at Freiburg i.Br.. That's an old terror principle of justice as it was in use also in the Third Reich.

And he made ridiculous my statistical projection for the tunnel systems constructioning. He took simply a little tunnel system and let unmentioned any other bigger tunnel system. And the fact that there are found always more and more tunnel systems he did not accept either.

By this Mr. Dr. (!) J. Stephenson was all other than "scientific" but he argued as on a beer table. And because I had psychological problems (but see, there is no problem in logical thinking), and because the persecution of the Jews would be such an important theme, and because I would be the only one with such a table I could not be taken earnest, too, he said, but I had committed race discrimination. He simply wanted to dictate me where I may make research and where not! This seems really to be a forgetful judge: Within an hour he turned his meaning around. And all indications at that what was said during the trial, and all indications that one must not isolate single sentences from a whole work had no use. At the end there remained only the outcry: "Sie sind ein Lügner!" ("You are a liar!") But judge Stephenson was all smiles and it seemed he had a giant joy that I was condemned.

And to go one better Dr. J. Stephenson added a penalty from criminal judge Stark from Germany within his judgment. Criminal judge Stark had controlled only the German part of the persecution of the Jews and had called me a "demagogue" without considering the Russian part and the emigration of the persecution of the Jews. Now Dr. J. Stephenson from Switzerland had also passed over any geographic juridical border. He really meant he would be in Germany. He run totally amok.

What judge Dr. J. Stephenson has done, is infringement of personality, deformation of works by presentation of single, isolated sentences, criminalization of the new table about the persecution of the Jews also when 4-6 mio. victims are indicated, and it's unanswered how cyclone B granulate material  could have a lethal effect during the Polish winter when cyclon B granulate has only an effect when it's 27 °C and more. He also violated the sovereign right of the country in a juridical matter. And judge Stephenson for himself had not one single figure to present. As it seems judge Stephenson had not at all controlled the table. The contradictions of a judge could not be worse.

As it seems nobody in the whole public prosecution department of Basel had ever controlled the table but the big majority of the service simply wanted to present the table with the most simple lies as unreliable. But the table with it's serious sources is standing. On 22 May 2007 there was a serious questioning but this was only pretended because the indictment had been written in February 2007 already, and then I got the indictment in June, and in this indictment my work was described as "seemed to be scientific" or "supposed to be an argument".

By this the research of the persecution of the Jews really has a hard stand. And the tax payer is paying for this "work" of the public prosecution service five-figure wages... The judges at Freiburg i.Br. like at Basel, they are fighting my new table about the persecution of the Jews with Nazi methods because they simply don't want to take it earnest. The Swiss judge is lying as the Germen judges are lying. They simply want that the table would not exist. But my new table about the persecution of the Jews is the only one showing the different regions of the persecution of the Jews (NS part, Russian part, emigration part) at a glance.

But as long as there is no wage cut for judges who are returning such beer table verdicts such abusive verdicts will be normal against new research, also when it's such an important theme like the persecution of the Jews. The terror of the judges against new data and proofs has not stopped...


There were added the indications about the not born Jewish children of after 1945 which are increasing the tragic of the persecution of the Jews unmeasurably.

And it's absolutely incomprehensible why this is not indicated in the common history books.

In March 2008 was added the destroyed immovable property by the bombings of the NS forces and above all by the allies into the table. All in all the mass bombings of towns did not have any effect to the industrial war production of the Third Reich because the industry had been shifted under ground in the country side (tunnel constructioning).

And in 2009 the Nuremberg laws were added in the table. and in 2011 were last corrections in the table and in the text.

                    oben / vers le haut / arriba / topnach oben / vers le haut /
                    arriba / top


1. Emigration 1930-1939

-- American Joint Distributed Committee; In: J.H.Schoeps (Ed.): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums); Bertelsmann 1998, p.46-47
Julius Hans
                Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German:
                Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover   Julius Hans
                Schoeps, Portrait
Julius Hans Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover
Julius Hans Schoeps: New lexicon of
                            Jewry (orig. German: "Neues Lexikon des
                            Judentums", page 46 with the beginning
                            of the article about the American Joint
                            Distribution Committee    x
Julius Hans Schoeps: Neues Lexikon des
                            Judentums, Seite 47, mit der Angabe:
                            "In den 30er Jahren half das American
                            Joint Distribution Committee deutschen Juden
                            bei der Emigration".
Text of page 46:

<American Joint Distribution Committee, founded on 27 September 1914 by prominent Jews of German Jewish decent Felix M. -> Warburg collecting funds to reliefing life for Jews in misery under war conditions. Was administrating the destribution aparatus of American Jewish Relief Committee (by Warburg, L.> (p.46)

(orig. German: <American Joint Distribution Committee, am 27. 11.1914 von prominenten Juden deutsch-jüdischer Abstammung wie Felix M. -> Warburg gegründet, um Gelder zur Erleichterung des Elends der Juden unter Kriegsbedingungen zu verteilen. Verwaltete den Verteilungsapparat des American Jewish Relief Committees (von Warburg, L. (S.46)

Mentioning the Jewish emigration from Germany:

Text of page 47:

<In the 1930s American Joint Distribution Committee helped German Jews to emigrate>

(orig. German: <In den 30er Jahren half das American Joint Distribution Committee deutschen Juden bei der Emigration.>
Julius Hans Schoeps: New lexicon of Jewry (orig. German: "Neues Lexikon des Judentums", page 46 with the beginning of the article about the American Joint Distribution Committee

Julius Hans Schoeps: New lexicon of Jewry (orig. German: "Neues Lexikon des Judentums"), page 47, with the indication of emigration of German Jews: <In the 1930s American Joint Distribution Committee helped German Jews to emigrate>

(orig. German: <In den 30er Jahren half das American Joint Distribution Committee deutschen Juden bei der Emigration.>)

--Y.Bauer: My Brother's Keeper: A History of the American Joint Distribution Committee. Philadelphia 1974, chapter 3, 4, 5 and 6, and "Conclusion" as well (p.303):
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper.
                  History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution
                  Committee 1929-1939", cover 01   Yehuda Bauer, Buch "My
                Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                Distribution Committee 1929-1939, Buchdeckel 02  Yehuda
                Bauer, portrait  
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", cover

Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's
                            Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                            Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page
                            303: 440,000 Jews could emigrate from
                            Central Europe 1930-1939 x
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's
                            Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                            Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page
                            334, with the source: "Based mainly on
                            R21, draft 1939 report" Text:

<JDC, together with HICEM and others, was involved in the emigration of some 440,000 Jews from Central Europe>(p.303).

<End note 1: "Based mainly on R21, draft 1939 report>
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 303: 440,000 Jews could emigrate from Central Europe 1930-1939

Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 334, with the source: "Based mainly on R21, draft 1939 report"

-- Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland ("Relief Organization of German Jews"), vol. 8, col. 480

Encyclopaedia Judaica, Lexikonbände

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                            Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden
                            [["Relief Organization of German
                            Jews"]], vol 8, col. 480: Between 1933
                            and 1941 the Hilfsverein assisted over
                            90,000 persons to emigrate to overseas
                            countries, with the exception of Palestine. Encyclopaedia Judaica, volume 8, colomn 480:

<Between 1933 and 1941 the Hilfsverein assisted over 90,000 persons to emigrate to overseas countries, with the exception of Palestine.>

(Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland ("Relief Organization of German Jews"), vol. 8, col. 480)

2. Example: Marseille is called "gate to freedom"
Marseille; In: J.H.Schoeps (Hg): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums); Bertelsmann 1998, p.549
Julius Hans
                Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaisms (orig. German:
                Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover   Julius Hans
                Schoeps, Portrait
Julius Hans Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaisms (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover

Julius Hans Schoeps (Herausgeber): Neues
                          Lexikon des Judentums, Buchdeckel   Julius Hans Schoeps, Portrait   Julius Hans Schoeps: Neues Lexikon des
                            Judentums, Seite 549
Julius Hans Schoeps (Herausgeber):  Neues Lexikon des Judentums, Buchdeckel
The article about Marseille indicates:

<During Second World War Marseille was the gate to liberty for many Jewish refugies (-> Emergency Rescue Committee). After the war Marseille was an important station for the following -> Aliya to Israel.>

(orig. in German:

<In Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde Marseille für viele jüdische Flüchtlinge das Tor zur Freiheit (-> Emergency Rescue Committee). Nach dem Krieg wichtige Station für die -> Alija nach Israel.>)

Concretely: Many Jews could emigrate with liners from Marseille to oversea countries and survived.

3. Example: Survival in hiding place
e.g. Nechama Tec: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (German.: Bewaffneter Widerstand. Jüdische Partisanen im Zweiten Weltkrieg). Bleicher publishing house, Gerlingen 1996; chronology: "Schtetl Bielsk" on this website, see holocaust-index
                Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter
                Widerstand), cover   Nechama
                Tec, Portrait
Nechama Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter Widerstand), cover

4. The creation of the partisan movement
Example: Survival in hiding place: e.g. Nechama Tec: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (German.: Bewaffneter Widerstand. Jüdische Partisanen im Zweiten Weltkrieg). Bleicher publishing house, Gerlingen 1996; chronology: "Schtetl Bielsk" on this website, see holocaust-index
                Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter
                Widerstand), cover   Nechama
                Tec, Portrait
Nechama Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter Widerstand), cover

5. The retreat of the Red Army of 1941: The "Big flight from Barbarossa"

According to Martin Gilbert 1.8 mio. Jews had been saved in the inner of the Soviet Union (Gilbert: Endlösung 1982, p.242). But from these Jews not all have survived!

Holocaust, Rescue from, in the U.S.S.R.; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica: Bd. 8, p.908
Encyclopaedia Judaica, volumes
Encyclopaedia Judaica indicates that by the Stalin deportations 1939-1941 and by the evacuation of the "burnt earth" in 1941 1.5 mio. Jews have been saved from the NS extermination of the Jews (volume 8, columns 907 to 910).

Copy: Encyclopaedia Judaica: Holocaust, Rescue from / Rettung vom Holocaust; vol. 8, col. 907 to 910

So one can estimate that at least about 1 mio. Jews have survived the Second World War thanks to the Stalin deportations or thanks to the flight in 1941 into the inner of the Soviet Union. One has to deplore deaths above all by the death by cold in Siberia and in the Red Army.

6. Jews taking refuge getting under NS regime again

-- e.g. in Belgium during the occupation of Belgium in 1940 where German and Polish Jews are coming under NS rule

-- e.g. in White Russia on the Eastern Front in 1941 when fast NS troops catch up with refugees etc.

7.  Jewish refugees who are getting under the law of the Communist regime
Mass deportations of "class enemies" from the border districts to the 3. Reich 1940-1941 to Siberia as it had been in 1914 when the Jews of the same region have been driven out already; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, articles of the respective states (Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, BSSR); and: In Eastern Poland 300,000-400,000 flighted Jews from Western Poland reject the SU passport and are deported to Siberia; article:  Holocaust, Rescue from, in the U.S.S.R.; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica: Bd. 8, p.908
Encyclopaedia Judaica, volumes

8. Death of Jews by the chase against Germans in 1944 during the retreat of the Wehrmacht
"Chase against Germans": Nechama Tec: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (German.:Bewaffneter Widerstand. Jüdische Partisanen im Zweiten Weltkrieg). Bleicher publishing house, Gerlingen 1996 , p.288-289
                Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter
                Widerstand), cover   Nechama
                Tec, Portrait
Nechama Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter Widerstand), cover

9. film reports, film documents

10. Jewish death victims in the Red army resp. in the Soviet Union

212,500 Jewish deaths in the Red Army, indicated by J.H.Schoeps (Hg) in the article "Militärdienst" ("Military Service") in his New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums); Bertelsmann 1998, p.567;
Julius Hans
                Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German:
                Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover   Julius Hans
                Schoeps, Portrait
Julius Hans Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover

contrary to this Benjamin Pinkus is estimating 2,5-3 million Jewish victims in the Soviet Union:
                Benjamin: The Soviet Government and the Jews 1948-1967.
                A documented study. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
                (Beer-Sheva); Cambridge University Press 1984, cover   Benjamin
                Pinkus, portrait

"I would estimate that the losses suffered by the Jewish population totaled between 12.5 % and 15 % of all Soviet war deaths (2.5-3 million out of the twenty million lost)." (p.23)

In: Pinkus, Benjamin: The Soviet Government and the Jews 1948-1967. A documented study. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Beer-Sheva); Cambridge University Press 1984, p.23; Chronology: "Pogrome, Diskriminierung, Kulturausrottung, Massenmord und Identitätsauslöschung an Juden in Osteuropa ab 1905" on this website

Arno Lustiger says:

                Redbook (orig. German: Rotbuch. Stalin und die Juden),
                cover   Arno
                Lustiger, Portrait
Lustiger: Redbook (orig. German: Rotbuch. Stalin und die Juden), cover

Arno Lustiger: Redbook (orig. German: Rotbuch. Stalin und die Juden); Edition Aufbau, Berlin,
-- hardback edition 1998, ISBN 3-351-02478-9;
-- pocket book edition 2000, ISBN 3-7466-8049-2

-- 500,000 Jews had been in the Red Army (hardback edition 1998 p.149)

and now there are two different indications:
-- 160,772 Jews got a decoration or an award (p.13)
-- but according to the JAFK (Jewish antifascist committee) from 4th April 1946 123,822 decorations (p.162),
-- and according to later statistics 160,772 decorations and 146 Jews were "Heroes of the Soviet Union" (p.163).

Lustiger gives no indication about killed Jews in the Red Army from 1941 to 1945. When there were 160,772 Jews with a decoration or an award, so it does not seem unlikely that two or three times as much have died in the Red Army, so this would be 321,544 to 482,316. So, the figure of 500,000 Jews in the Red Army seems to be too low.
(Conclusion Palomino)

11. Flight after 1945 by the Jewish organization "Bricha" (Berihah)

Bricha; In: J.H.Schoeps (Hg): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums); Bertelsmann 1998, p.142
Julius Hans
                Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German:
                Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover   Julius Hans
                Schoeps, Portrait
Julius Hans Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover

See also: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Berihah, Band 4:
Encyclopaedia Judaica, Lexikonbände
<The Berihah (Beriḥah) operation which, at the end of World War II, moved hundreds of thousands of survivors of the Holocaust across the frontiers of Europe to a new life in Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]].> (col. 623-624)

<Beriha's orientation was clearly [[racist]] Zionist, but there were refugees who declared their preference for migration to countries other than Palestine.> (col. 631)

<The total number of people who left eastern Europe between 1944 and 1948 can be estimated at about 250,000, and of these about 80% at least [[at least 200,000]] came with the organized Berihah (Beriḥah).> (col. 632)

So, there are many hundreds of thousands of survivors who emigrated by Berihah, to Palestine, and to other countries. Berihah brought the Jews from one war into another war, now against all Arabs. But other Jews wanted a more peaceful region and did not go to the war trap called Palestine. And these are only the Jewish migrants from eastern Europe. The surviving Jews from other European parts have to be added.

12. Flight of Jews in 1945 from Eastern Europe over Romania and the Black Sea

e.g. in: Nechama Tec: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (German.: Bewaffneter Widerstand. Jüdische Partisanen im Zweiten Weltkrieg). Bleicher publishing house, Gerlingen 1996, p.296
                Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter
                Widerstand), cover   Nechama
                Tec, Portrait
Nechama Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter Widerstand), cover

13. DP camps and DPs (until 1953)

-- Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism; Vol. 16, col. 1087

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, Vol. 16,
                    col. 1087 with the indications that there were
                    100,000s of Jewish survivors from the Nazi
                    concentration camps
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, Vol. 16, col. 1087 with the indications that there were
100,000s of Jewish survivors from the Nazi concentration camps

According to Jewish sources there were 100,000s of Jewish survivors from the concentration camps:

"The end of the war in Europe in May 1945 [...] was necessary to aid in the rehabilitation of hundreds of thousands of survivors of Nazi camps."

The complete paragraph:

<The end of the war in Europe in May 1945 was followed by the fall of Churchill. Labour, which replaced him, had in the past displayed great sympathy for [[racist]] Zionism, and its party conference had just confirmed its promise to help the development of the National Home by making room for it through "extending the present Palestinian boundaries, by agreement with Egypt, Syria, or Transjordan". This urgent need for action soon became clear with the disclosure that it was necessary to aid in the rehabilitation of hundreds of thousands of survivors of Nazi camps. This could only be done throuth Anglo-American cooperation.>

(from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Zionism; Vol. 16, col. 1087)

-- Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Zionism; Vol. 16, col. 1058

Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Zionism; Vol. 16,
                    col. 1058, with the indication that there were
                    "perhaps a million Jewish refugees" alive
                    in the camps in Europe in May 1945
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Zionism; Vol. 16, col. 1058, with the indication that there were
"perhaps a million Jewish refugees" alive in the camps in Europe in May 1945

In the camps in Europe there were about 1 mio. Jewish survivors:

"Perhaps a million Jewish refugees were alive in camps in Europe in May 1945"

(from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Zionism; Vol. 16, col. 1058)

Then the DP camps were installed. In the DP camps there was a great cultural Jewish activity:

-- see the article: American Joint Distribution Committee; In: J.H.Schoeps (Hg): New Lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums); Bertelsmann 1998, p.47
Julius Hans
                Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German:
                Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover   Julius Hans
                Schoeps, Portrait
Julius Hans Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover

14. Direct Jewish emigration to "USA" after 1945

American Joint Distribution Committee; In: J.H.Schoeps (Hg): New Lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums); Bertelsmann 1998, S.47
Julius Hans
                Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German:
                Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover   Julius Hans
                Schoeps, Portrait
Julius Hans Schoeps (editor): New lexicon of Judaism (orig. German: Neues Lexikon des Judentums), cover

15. Appeal of WJC in 1945 to give back Jewish children from Christian families

Appeal of WJC 1945; In: George Garai (Editor/Hsg.): World Jewish Congress. 40 Years in Action. A record of the world Jewish Congress 1936-1976, p.22, 1953: p.34

Garai (editor): WJC - 40 Years in
                            Action, cover
Garai (editor): WJC - 40 Years in Action, cover
Garai (editor): WJC - 40 Years in
                            Action, content with the indication of
Garai (editor): WJC - 40 Years in Action, content with the indication of Garai
Garai (editor): WJC - 40 Years in
                            Action, page 34
Garai (editor): WJC - 40 Years in Action,  page 34
<1953 [...] Congress  leads campaign for return to Jewish fold of orphaned Jewish children saved during war by Catholics in France, Belgium and Holland.>

16. Sovietization / russification of the Jews in the Soviet Union since 1948: Process waves, mass arrests, convictions for working camps, "Economic Processes"


Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The Soviet
                          government and the Jews 1948-1967. A
                          documented study    Benjamin Pinkus, Portrait

Pinkus, Benjamin: The Soviet Government and the Jews 1948-1967. A documented study. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Beer-Sheva); Cambridge University Press 1984, ISBN 0-521-24713-6:

-- process waves 1948-1953 ("The Black Years"): Pinkus, p.5,21,87,89,163,194-195,507,533;
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 5
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 5

<An even greater cause of disillusionment was initiated by Stalin's policy during 1948-53, the so-called 'black years' which will be examined in detail below.>

Stalin closed the Jews up in the "Soviet Union", and there were anti Semitism waves because the zionist racist state of Israel was collaborating with the Stupid States and with its secret services. Therefore the "Soviet Union" with Stalin felt encircled by the States and it's allies. And here are the mesures against the Jews in detail:

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 21
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 21

<However, the sad fact is that the most outstanding representatives of Yiddish culture in the Soviet Union were killed during Stalin's last years,

(End note 31: See chapter 5 and 7)

and those survivors who managed to return from the concentration camps were broken and discouraged.>

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 87
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 87
[The propaganda picture of the Jew in the "SU" 1948-1953]
<An examination of a large number of articles published during 1948-53, both 'serious' and 'humorous' (prominent examples of which are given in the documents to this chapter), reveals a completely distorted and falsified picture of the Jew. Before the eyes of the general public, including the Soviet intelligentsia, a most dangerous stereotype emerged, with the Jew portrayed to the reader as a generally corrupt person who regularly evaded military service, even at the most difficult time in the history of the Soviet Union (although sent to the front he, miraculously, always reaches the rear); he is not attached to any place (being an eternal wanderer incapable of attachment to a particular spot); he is unable and even unwilling to work, his ambition being rather to make an easy living (a parasite by nature). As soon as he has settled into a job, he peoples the establishment with members of his family or acquaintances (family and community nepotism); his certificates are acquired through false claims or sharp practices; his promotion at work is also the direct result of fraudulence and swindles. Thus portrayed as exploiter, swindler and operator, the Jew (whose origins are revealed by unmistakable innuendo rather than by direct reference) inevitably arouses loathing and revulsion, jealousy and anger.

From here it is only one step to the most dangerous outright hatred. The extent to which this propaganda was accepted, not only by the ordinary people but also by representatives of the more cultured classes, can be judged from the testimonies which have reached us.> (p.87)

(End note 24: <See Docs 32-34.>
Document 32: Evtushenko's memoirs of the Stalin era (1963)
(Source: E. Evtushenko: Avtobiografiya (Autobiography); London, Flegon Press 1964, pp. 88-89)
(End note 73: Evtushenko's 'Autobiography', from which Docs. 32 and 39 are drawn, was published first in the French journal L'Express on 21 February 1963 and the three following issues. The editors announced that, in the event that denials should come from either the author or the Soviet authorities, they possessed the author's manuscripts proving that he had indeed written the work. The only editorial additions were the sub-headings. After he had been severely upbraided by Khrushchev himself, Evtushenko announced that he had acted irresponsibly and made a serious mistake in publishing his 'Autobiography'. See: Le Monde, 29 March 1963).

Document 33: Khrushchev on Stalin
(p. 106-108)
(Source: Khrushchev Remembers; Boston, Little, Brown 1970, pp. 260-263)
(End note 78: For how Khrushchev's memoirs reached the West and an assessment of their probable authenticity, see J.L. Schechter in Khrushchev Remembers. The Last Testament, pp. xi-xix).

Document 34: Khrushchev on the Polish Leadership (1948-51)
(p. 108-110)
(Source: Khrushchev Remembers. The Last Testament; Boston, Little, Brown 1974, pp. 179-182)

<Also important are the testimonies of V. Grossman and A. Kuznetsov; see: V. Grossman: Vse techet (Forever Flowing), Frankfurt am Main, Posev 1970; A. Anatoli (Kuznezov): Babi Yar; New York, Pocket Books, 1971. To these can be added numerous accounts by new emigrants from the Soviet Union to the West.>
<There are many reasons why broad circles of the population were ready to absorb anti-Semitism from above. We have already pointed out that the anti-Semitic tradition in Russia, the Ukraine, Lithuania and other nations was reinforced during the war by venomous Nazi propaganda. The disastrous economic situation, housing shortage, difficult working conditions and fierce competition for promotion at work, at a time when expectations of better things had been cruelly disappointed, were all weighty factors which contributed to the growing hatred for foreigners, for strangers, and for all those whose situation was seen, whether rightly o wrongly, as superior. If we add to this the existence of a totalitarian regime which was deliberately creating an almost hysterical atmosphere of anti-intellectualism and extreme xenophobia, the circumstances were right for the Jew to become the ideal object of hatred.

We are obliged to ask, without being able to give an unequivocal reply, to what extent official anti-Semitism was a direct result of 'objective needs', if it can be so expressed, or whether this policy arouse, instead, from the strong personal anti-Jewish feelings of various Soviet leaders, especially of Stalin himself. There is no doubt that, despite the 'need' to find a scapegoat for the failures and the desire to assuage resentment by channeling it in a direction as far as possible removed from those really responsible, the government was strong enough to have coped without as drastic, extreme and potentially explosive a weapon as anti-Semitism. Because the government chose not to forego anti-Semitism, one cannot escape the conclusion that the subjective factor was of significance and ultimately, perhaps, decisive.> (p.87)

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 89
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 89

<However, it seems that the terror campaigns against Jews in Czechoslovakia and Romania were now initiated independently by the leaderships of these states and were not necessarily carried out under instruction from the Soviet policy-makers.>

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, pages 163
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, pages 163

<No less important, however, was the question of who was attacked in the anti-cosmopolitan campaign. For example, the victims of the attacks in the Ukraine and Belorussia were almost all Jews, while their percentage among those attacked was low in the republics of Central Asia. The reason for this contrast does not lie in the small number of Jews who lived in these latter areas or in the fact that they held relatively few key posts in literature, art and the sciences; a very significant variable here was the degree of indigenous anti-Semitism and the desire to exploit it for various purposes.

Thus, while in Central Asia and to a certain extent in the Caucasus (chiefly in Azerbaijan) the anti-cosmopolitan campaign was almost identical to the campaign against bourgeois nationalism - with the usual attacks on pan-Islamism, pan-Turkism and pan-Iranism

(End note 74: Mirzo Fursan-Zade: Protiv kosmopolitizma i paniranizma; In: Literaturnaya gazeta, 19 February 1949; Kh. Rasulev: Reaktsionnaya sushchnost panislamizma i panturkizma; In: Pravda Vostoka, 14 August 1952).

and the incessant calls for fraternity with the 'Great Russian brother' - in the European republics (particularly in the Ukraine) the campaign was utilized for other purposes by some of the local intelligentsia, apparently with the support of the authorities. Most important here was the attempt to break the stranglehold of Russification, without attacking Great Russian chauvinism head on, by using the golden opportunity presented by the campaign against 'cosmopolitans', whose attitude to Ukrainian or Belorussian culture was nihilistic and disparaging. And, under the circumstances then prevailing, it was obviously far safer to attack 'cosmopolitans' who were Jewish rather than Russian in origin. Moreover, it was possible to exploit the anti-cosmopolitan campaign to settle personal accounts with the Jews who held important posts in all spheres of culture and learning in these republics.

(End note 75: Among those who attacked cosmopolitanism in the Ukraine were the poets Rylsky and Tychyna, who were known to be personal friends of many Yiddish writers and sympathetic to the Jewish people. While it is likely that they were compelled to do so, the sharpness of Tychyna's attack, for example (see Doc. 67), leads one to believe that the chance to settle accounts with Jewish literary critics whom he personally loathed also played an important role).> (p.163)

Document 67: The Ukrainian Writers' Board attacks cosmopolitans (March 1949)
(Source: Do kontsa razgromit kosmopolitov-antipatriotov! (To Rout Utterly the Anti-Patriotic cosmopolitans); Pravda Ukrainy, 6 March 1949)
<If we accept  the view that the anti-cosmopolitan campaign became an out-and-out anti-Jewish campaign, the question arises, why? One of the principal reasons was the suspicion shared by Stalin and evidently by a sizable section of the Soviet leadership that the Jews were not completely loyal to their socialist motherland and could not be relied upon fully in the event of a war with the United States. This distrust apparently  induced Stalin to decide that it was necessary to fight not only 'Jewish nationalism' - those circles associated with Yiddish culture [[this nationalism was supporting racist Zionist Israel under racist Ben Gurion]] - but also 'cosmopolitanism' - the assimilated Jewish intelligentsia. In accordance with this inner logic, the sharp transition, at the end of 1948, from the first campaign to the second was natural enough, as was the apparently paradoxical fact that some persons were accused of both nationalism and cosmopolitanism consecutively or almost consecutively.

A more general but probably even more weighty consideration was the popularity which the regime could hope to gain by unleashing a thinly veiled campaign against the Jews, hated as they were by large sections of both the Russian and the non-Russian populations.

Finally, it seems that the anti-Jewish policy manifested in the anti-cosmopolitan campaign was further influenced by the internal struggles within the Party leadership, although even today it is difficult to pinpoint the particular group that supported it, or to what extent.> (p.163)

(End note 76: On the importance of Stalin's anti-Semitism in regard to this question, see Chapter 3).

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, pages 194   Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 195
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, pages 194 and 195
<This short period of hope [1945-1948 with the hope in Moscow that Israel will be a communist satellite at the end] was brought to an abrupt end in October-November 1948 [when it was clear that Israel would go with CIA against Soviet Union's policy]

(End note 4: See Erenburg's article in Pravda (Doc.7); see also Chapter 6. This was undoubtedly the first sign that the Soviet authorities had decided to sever the contacts between Soviet Jewry and [racist] Zionism and [racist Zionist state of] Israel).

when Soviet policy on the Zionist question shifted once again.>

[Soviet policy was in solidarity with the Muslim countries, and Stupid States were manipulated by the Jewish Zionists and were the gold monkey for racist Israel - until today (2011)].
Document 7: Erenburg's conception of Jewish consciousness (1948)
(p. 39-42)
(Source: I. Erenburg: 'Po povodu odnogo pisma' (Concerning a Certain Letter), Pravda, 21 September 1948)
(End note 66: We publish here the translation of Erenburg's article which appeared in Jewish Life, June 1949, pp. 25-27).

[Alexander R. from Munich complains about anti-Semitism since the foundation of racist Zionist Herzl Israel]
<I have received a letter from one Alexander R. in Munich. He writes:

'It may surprise you that I am writing to you, but I have read some of your books and I turn to you as a writer to help me solve what is to me a difficult problem. I am a German Jew, a medical student, and of course, an anti-Fascist. In 1938 I managed to get away to France. When the Nazis invaded France, I went into hiding, then fought for two years in the ranks of the Maquis, in the Gabriel Peri partisan detachment. I returned to Munich after the victory. I confess I was naive - I thought that Fascism had been wiped out. Now I am daily subject to insults. When Hitler was in power, I believed it was a temporary eclipse, I regarded anti-Semitism as one of the features of the "brown plague". But why must I still read disgusting inscriptions on walls? Why must I listen to fellow-students telling me, "Get out of here, go to Palestine"? Why was my friend not given a professorship, but was frankly told: "There's no room for Jews here"? You cannot imagine how intolerable are these insults to one's dignity. I long for a most simple thing, for the right to live without a brand of shame. The Nazis made us wear a yellow patch on our breasts. Now everything is more subtle, but it is the same nevertheless. Under the protection of the Americans the same Nazis are entrenched in all responsible positions. You probably know this, and I am not writing to complain or inform.'

[Alexander R. asks what's the attitude of the "SU" to racist Zionist Herzl Israel]
'I should like to know what is the attitude taken in the Soviet Union to the [racist Zionist] State of Israel. Can we see in it a solution to the so-called Jewish question? To me, these are not abstract reflections, but a matter of life. In your novel The Storm I read gruesome descriptions of the murder of Jews at Auschwitz and other places. My entire family perished at the hands of the Nazis [probably in tunnel constructioning]. What is to be done to prevent a repetition of those horrors? Yesterday I heard a colleague of mine say loudly: "The Jews ought to be finished off." I have never been a Zionist, but I am beginning to believe in the idea of a Jewish state. I am expecting an answer from you - for you are a writer of the country in which I believe with all my heart.'...

[Erenburg: "SU" was first who recognised Israel]
I think the question posed by my unknown correspondent is of interest not only to him, and not even only to Jews, but to all people of intelligence and conscience. I have therefore decided to answer, not in a private letter, but in a newspaper article.

Alexander R. wants to know what is the attitude taken in the Soviet Union to the State of Israel. This question can be answered briefly: the Soviet government was the first to recognise the new state, it protested energetically against the aggressors, and when the armies of Israel fought to defend their land from the Arab Legionnaires commanded by British officers, the sympathies of our people were all for the wronged, not for the wrong-doers. This is as natural as the fact that the Soviet people sympathise with the patriots of Vietnam and not with the French suppressors, with the patriots of Indonesia and not with the Dutch punitive forces.> (p.39)
[Erenburg: Capitalist oil interests in Israel]
<However, Alexander R.'s first question may be answered at greater length. The representatives of the Soviet Union in the United Nations have said that our people understand the feelings of the Jews who have experienced the greatest tragedy and have at last obtained the right to exist on their own land. Wishing the toilers of Israel success, soviet people do not close their eyes to the trials in store for all honest people in the young state. In addition to the invasion of Anglo-Arab hordes, Israel is exposed to another invasion - not so conspicuous, but no less dangerous - namely, the invasion of Anglo-American capital. To the imperialists Palestine is, first and foremost, oil. The competition between marauders - Standard Oil on the one hand and the Anglo-Iranian Petroleum Company and Shell on the other - intrudes in the life of the still frail state. Israel is threatened not only by King Abdullah's cutthroats, but by the interests of the Palestine Potash Company, the question of the Kirkuk-Haifa pipeline, American designs for concessions and military bases. The State of Israel is not headed by representatives of the working people. We have all seen how the bourgeoisie of European countries, with their great traditions and older state systems, have sold out the national interests for the sake of dollars. Is there any reason why Soviet people should expect the bourgeoisie of Israel to have more scruples or display greater foresight than the bourgeoisie of France or Italy? Hardly. We trust the people. But the fact that the people in Israel are fighting, and that they are fighting bravely, does not mean that the people there are in power. [...]>
[Obscurantist design the stereotype picture of the Jew]
<Obscurantists have since long ago invented fables designed to represent the Jews as some peculiar creatures different from the people around them. Obscurantists have maintained that the Jews live a separate life of their own, that they do not share the joys and sorrows of the peoples among whom they live; obscurantists have asserted that Jews have no sense of native land, that they are eternal wanderers; obscurantists have affirmed that the Jews of various countries are a unit, held together by some mysterious ties. All these inventions found their extreme expression in Hitler's foul book Mein Kampf and were repeated by the SS men who buried old Jews alive and flung Jewish infants down steep banks and into furnaces.

[Ghettos from Catholic fanatics - fanatics in every group]
Yes, the Jews kept to themselves and lived their own separate life when they were compelled to do so. The ghetto was not invented by Jewish mystics, but by Catholic fanatics. In those times, when the eyes of people were blinded by the mist of religion, there were fanatics among the Jews just as there were fanatics among Catholics, Protestants, Orthodox Christians and Moslems. But as soon as the gates of the ghetto opened, as soon as the mist of the night of the Middle Ages began to lift, the Jews of various countries joined the general life of the nations.

[Persecuted and spread Jews - other persecution and spread groups]
Yes, many Jews left their native lands and emigrated to America. But they emigrated not because they did not love their native land, but because violence and insults deprived them of that beloved land. And, were the Jews alone in seeking salvation in other countries? That was also what Italians did, what Irishmen did, what Slavs from the countries oppressed by Turks and Germans did, what Armenians and Russian non-conformists did. Jewish toilers, like all others, are strongly attached to the land where they were born and where they grew up. (p.40)

[The common bond of the Jews is anti-Semitism]
Jews live in different countries. Many of them live in lands in which their ancestors lived since time immemorial. The first Jewish memorials in Tunis, Georgia, Italy date back to ancient times. Obscurantists say that there exists little in common between a Tunisian Jew and a Jew living in Chicago who speaks American and thinks American. If there is a bond between them, it is anything but mystical; it is a bond created by anti-Semitism. If tomorrow a maniac appeared who proclaimed that all red-headed or snub-nosed people must be hounded and wiped out, we should see a natural solidarity of all red-headed or all snub-nosed people. The appalling atrocities of the German Fascists, their proclaimed policy of wholesale extermination of Jews, a policy which they put into effect in many countries, racial propaganda, insults followed by the furnaces of Maidanek - all that gave rise to a sense of a deep bond among the Jews of various countries. It was the solidarity of offended and indignant people.>
[Nationality: Example Tuwim: "I am a Pole, because..."]
<The splendid Polish poet Julian Tuwim

(End note 67: Julian Tuwim (1894-1953), Polish poet and translator, was born in Lodz into a Jewish family. His first poems were published in 1913. In the 1920s, he ran literary clubs in Warsaw. During World War II he lived in Romania, France, Portugal and the USA. He returned to Poland in 1946. He expressed his view on the Jewish question, which closely resembled that of Erenburg, during the war. Jewish subjects also find expression in some of the poems. Erenburg returns to Tuwim's article again and quotes extensively from it in his memoirs. See: Novy mir, 1961, no. 9, pp. 102-103; I. Erenburg: Memoirs 1921-1941, New York 1963, pp. 32-34).

wrote an article during the war entitled: 'We Polish Jews'. He wrote of his patriotism: 'I am a Pole, because I was told this in Polish in my father's home; a Pole because I was fed on the Polish language from infancy, because my mother taught me Polish verse and Polish songs, because, when I was young, when I was shaken by the first tremor of poetry, it burst forth in Polish words. I am a Pole, because it was in Polish that I confessed the anxieties of my first love, and in Polish that I murmured of its happiness. I am a Pole also because I am fonder of the birch and the willow than of the palm and the cypress, and Mickiewicz and Chopin mean more to me than Shakespeare and Beethoven - for reasons which I cannot explain. I am a Pole because I was born and grew up in Poland, because I was happy and unhappy in Poland, because it is to Poland that I want to return from my exile, even if I were assured heavenly bliss elsewhere. I am a Pole because I want Polish soil, and none other, to swallow me up when I am dead.'

[Tuwim: The explanation of the "blood" connection]
Julian Tuwim then went on to explain what bound him to the Jews: 'Blood exists in two forms: the blood that flows in the veins and the blood that flows out of the veins. The study of the first belongs to the realm of physiology. Those who, beside physiological characteristics, attribute to blood some other properties, some mysterious force, those, as we now see, reduce cities to ashes, massacre people, and, as we shall soon see, lead their own nation to ruin. The other blood is the one which the ringleader of international Fascism is extracting from the veins of humanity in order to prove the triumph of his blood over my blood. It is the blood of millions innocently slain, the blood of Jews, and not "Jewish blood". Why do I say, "We Jews"? Because of blood.'>
[Erenburg: Jews of the "SU" build up the "SU" - model for Israel]
<Of course, there are nationalists and mystics among the Jews. They produced the programme of Zionism. But it is not they who have settled Palestine with Jews. Jews went to Palestine because of the ideologists of misanthropy, the votaries of racism, the anti-Semites who drove people from their homes and made them migrate to distant lands in search - not of happiness so much as of the right to their human dignity. We all remember the epic of the 'Exodus', the ship which carried to Palestine refugees from Western Germany - people who by chance had escaped the furnaces of Auschwitz and Maidanek and then found themselves fired on by British soldiers. The State of (p.41)

Israel is something like that ship - an ark, a raft, holding people overtaken by the bloody flood of racism and Fascism. [...]

Let my correspondent, Alexander R., ponder over the events of the past decade, and he will realise that there is only one way to solve the 'Jewish question'. It is to abolish the 'Jewish question'.

We sympathise with the struggle of the toilers of Israel, they have the sympathies not only of the Soviet Jews, but of all Soviet people - there are no admirers of Glubb Pasha in our country. But every Soviet citizen is aware that a state is judged not only by its national character, but by its social system as well. A citizen of socialist society regards the people of any bourgeois country, and that means also the people of the State of Israel, as wanderers in a dark forest who have not yet found their way out. [...]

A citizen of socialist society can never envy the fate of people who carry the yoke of capitalist exploitation.

The future of the Jewish toilers of all countries is bound up with the future of socialism. Soviet Jews, along with all Soviet people, are working to build up their socialist homeland. They are not looking to the Near East - they are looking towards the future. And I believe that the working people of the State of Israel, who do not share the mysticism of the Zionists, are now looking northward, to the Soviet Union, which is marching in the van of mankind towards a better future.> (p.42)

[Of course Erenburg does not mention the concentration camp system of Gulag in Soviet Union which exists since 1919 - with more dead persons than under Hitler...]
But Erenburg's propaganda is going on:

<Although the shift had begun earlier, it became clearly visible in November 1948, and the new repressions against all those who showed affinity for the State of Israel - who dared express publicly their joy in its establishment or their desire to aid the new state - lasted until Stalin's death in 1953.> [But the word "Gulag" is missing].

(End note 5:
[Reasons for imprisonment against Jews 1948]
<In the information received from a Soviet Jew by the Israel legation in Moscow in 1949, it was stated: 'The law courts pervert judgement and maliciously stiffen penalties against Jews. This year, many have been thrown into prison and sent to camps for sympathising with Israel or showing a desire to emigrate to Israel or for taking part in street demonstrations last year in honour of our legation'; Namir: Shlihut be-moskvah, pp. 307-308. Among those imprisoned he named Mordekhai Dubin, one of the leaders of Agudat Yisrael in Latvia. Many immigrants who arrived in Israel in recent years were imprisoned for Zionism in this period, for example, Meir Gelfond, Vitaly Svechinsky, Mikhail Margolis).

Those who had any contact with Israeli diplomats were subject to particularly draconian sentences.> [in the Gulag].

(End note 6:
<An important document in this connection refers to the case of a Jew who, at the beginning of 1953, was sentenced by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union to 25 years' imprisonment in labour camps. Upon appeal the sentence was mitigated to 10 years. Among other things, the judgement stated that the defendant 'has been found guilty in that, out of anti-Soviet motivations and nationalistic attitudes and a hostile attitude towards the Soviet regime, he came into criminal contact with - of the Diplomatic Representation of the State of Israel in Moscow in autumn 1949, to whom he gave oral consent to collect and submit information of a classified nature on the condition of the Jews in the USSR'; Namir: Shlihut be-moskvah, (p. 331).

Most of the Jews imprisoned on the charge of Zionism were sentenced secretly, before the Special Board (Osoboe Soveshchanie), to lengthy prison terms.>

(End note 7:
[Death penalty abolished in 1947 - reintroduced in 1950]
<The death penalty, which had been abolished in 1947, was reintroduced in January 1950. The almost standard sentence handed down by the Special Boards of the MDG in this period was ten years of forced labour under harsh conditions, with the possibility of a further five-year extension) [in the Gulag concentration camp system].

The authorities also took a variety of administrative actions such as dismissal from place of  (p.194)

residence and internal exile, against those charged with Zionism.>

(End note 8:
[Example: 12 Jewish workers dismissed and tried and exiled to Siberia in 1952]
<See, for example the case of the Jewish workers in the 'Serp i Molot' factory in the city of Kharkov, 12 of whom were dismissed from their jobs in February 1952 and who were tried and exiled to Siberia immediately after).

There were also reports, though it is difficult to judge their authenticity, of arrests among Jewish officers who had served the Soviet Union in various military and civilian duties in Eastern Germany. They were now charged with expressing pro-Zionist views.> (p.195)

(End note 9:
[Example: 3 Jewish colonels arrested]
<This report appeared in the Yiddish newspaper Morgn zhurnal, 17 July 1949, as quoted in the American Jewish Yearbook, 1951, p. 533. Among those arrested were Colonel Grisha Feldman (who served as editor of the newspaper Tägliche Rundschau), Colonel David Noidorf and Major Vladimir Blokh.>

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 507
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 507
[Arrestation of writers and cultural functionaries in December 1948 and January 1949]
<12. Most of the writers and cultural functionaries (such as Zhits, editor of the journal Eynikeyt, and Y. Strongin, director of the publishing house 'Der emes'), were arrested in December 1948 and January 1949. Also arrested then were Leyb Kvitko, David Bergelson, Der Nister, Itsik Fefer, Perets Markish, Itsik Kipnis, Haim Loytsker and many others. See: Pomerants: Di sovetishe harugey malkhes.

15. Among those arrested were Itsik Fefer's wife (in 1949) and sister; the wived of Leyb Kvitko, Binyamin Zuskin, David Bergelson, Perets Markish and Aharon Kushnirov (Kushnirov himself was not arrested because of his illness). The arrests and exiles occurred, in the main, at the end of 1952 and the beginning of 1953, that is after the trial and execution of their husbands; see: Pomerants: Die Sovetish harugey malkhes; Markish: Le Long Retour, pp. 209-218.> (p.507)

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 533
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 533
[Arrest of Fefer in 1949 and execution of Fefer in 1952]
<Together with the actor Mikhoels, Fefer went to the USA and elsewhere on behalf of the Committee. He was deputy editor of the newspaper Eynikeyt. Arrested at the beginning of 1949, Fefer was executed on 12 August 1952.>

-- mass arrests: Pinkus, p.216:

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 216
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 216
[Mass arrest for other nationalities]
<At the same time, a steady stream of mass arrests got under way, mainly among Jews who were not Soviet citizens. The anti-Semitic line was already clear to everybody, and then the arrest of the members of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee took place. That was the beginning of a total campaign against Jews and Jewish culture in the Soviet Union. The main witness against those arrested, when they were accused of Jewish nationalism and Zionism, was Ilya Erenburg. He also played a part in the arrests of many other Jews, especially his intimates, probably with the aim of saving his own skin. Even Lozovsky, his closest friend, he handed over to the NKVD.

As Fefer himself told me, he was additionally accused of having been closely linked with Bund leaders Erlich

(End note 84: Henryk Erlich (1882-1941)

and Alter

(End note 85: Victor Alter (1890-1941)

when they lived in Kuibyshev, although he had been in Tashkent at the time. Besides that [?] he was accused of collaboration with Zionists and Bundists during his visit to New York.> (p.216)

<Henryk Erlich (1882-1941), journalist and Bundist leader in Poland, was born into a well-to-do family in Lublin. He received a Jewish education at home. Erlich joined the Bund in 1903, when he was a student at the University of Warsaw. He graduated from the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. He was arrested several times. During the 1917 October Revolution, Erlich played an important role in the Petrograd Soviet. He returned to Poland in 1918, where he became active in the Bund. Erlich edited the central organ of the Polish Bund, Di folkstsaytung. Following the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, he made his way to the Soviet Union, where he was arrested and sentenced to death for subversive activity and spying. The sentence, however, was commuted to ten years' imprisonment. He was released in September 1941, following the amnesty which was declared for Polish citizens in the same month. The Soviet authorities suggested to Erlich and Victor Alter that they set up a Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee; they agreed and set about implementing the programme, but they were re-arrested on 4 December 1941 in Kuibyshev and executed.> (p.514)

<Victor Alter (1890-1941): Bundist leader in Poland, was born into a well-to-do Hasidic family in Mlawa. He graduated from a technical college in Lodz in 1910, began working as an engineer, and joined the Bund in Warsaw in 1912. Between the two world wars, Alter was one of the leaders of the Bund and the trade-union movement. He was also a delegate to the Warsaw City Council. He fled from Poland to the Soviet Union in September 1939, where he was arrested with Erlich, released, re-arrested and executed on 4 December 1941).> (p.514)

[Torture of Fefer and Bergelson]
<Both Fefer and Bergelson, as well as other Jewish Communists, were tortured in the most abominable ways in the course of interrogations. Fefer told me that he had seen Lozovsky during a confrontation in the Lubyanka. Lozovsky's arm was broken and his face was black and blue and looked like a great wound. There were rumours that Lozovsky had committeed suicide in prison. But Fefer rightly pointed to the fact that suicide in the Lubyanka was impossible, as everything that could be used for suicide was taken away from the prisoners. Without any possibility of doubt, Lozovsky was tortured to death in just the same way as many others who fell victim to the cruel tortures and torments inflicted on them.>

[Torture with a two-legged stool]
<Bergelson told me that, besides everything else, they had used the notorious method of making him sit on a two-legged stool. He had to sit on it for 20 hours a day. With the least movement he would lose his equilibrium, fall from the stool and would be hurt and bruised from falling on the stone floor. But he had to sit on the stool again, and he would fall again. More than once the stool broke, then another one was brought, and so it went on for days ans weeks. In the end, a new unbreakable material was found for the stools. As for the broken limbs of the human victim, the inquisitors, of course, spared them no thought.> (p.216)

-- Verurteilungen zu meist 10 Jahren "Arbeitslager": Pinkus, S.196;

Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 196
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 196
<The overwhelming majority of those arrested were sentenced to 10 years in forced labour camps, mainly on charges of bourgeois nationalism, slandering the Soviet Union by spreading reports that anti-Semitism existed in the country and espionage on behalf of Western powers. A small number - including the most important writers and literary critics, the Director of the Yiddish Theatre in Moscow, the former Deputy Foreign Minister and distinguished scientists, all of whom were leaders of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee - were interrogated over a lengthy period, presumably in preparation for a large show trial.> (p.196)

(End note 19:
<While we have no conclusive proof that such a trial was indeed planned, it is a reasonable assumption based on the following facts:
(a) the history of the thirties and forties indicates that there was no need for prolonged investigations for conviction by secret trial (for example, the trials of the heads of the army and of the Communist Party leadership in Leningrad);
(b) a number of defendants, unable to endure the lengthy interrogations undertaken to extract confessions, died;
(c) some charges from this trial were transferred to the one which was to take place on 18 March 1953 (see below, on the 'Doctors' Plot').>

-- "Economic processes" and allegations: p.197-198
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 197   Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 198
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, pages 197 and 198
<Economic trials of Jews
It can be established that the phenomenon of economic trials in the USSR dates from the very inception of the Soviet regime. However, the types of economic crime for which people were indicted, how they were fought and the harshness of punishment have varied in different periods. Thus, it is natural that the Jews of the Soviet Union, like citizens of other nationalities, would sometimes be involved in crimes of this type in numbers proportionately lower than their statistical weight in the population, and at other times  in proportionately higher numbers. Economic, social, geographic and perhaps even psychological factors work to create these variations.

However, in a system characterised by the politicisation of every sphere of life, by highly elitist and centralised control and by the regime's almost untrammelled power to exploit any situation or phenomenon for its own aims, trials for economic crimes have assumed a totally new dimension. For, when the Soviet authorities have so desired, they have been transformed from what we have called 'ordinary' trials into political trials in the full sense of the term.

From the relatively few reports of such trials which appeared in the Soviet press during 1948-51,

(End note 25:
The most prominent examples are to be found in the documents to this chapter, but see also Pravda Ukrainy, 11 January, 21 October, 19 November and 3 December 1948, and  3 February 1949; Pravda Vostoka, 10 July and 1st and 15 September 1948; Sotsialisticheskaya zakonnost, 1948, no. 10; Vechernyaya Moskva, 5 September 1949, 7 June 1950; Izvestiya, 24 June 1951).

and from the many more articles from the second half of 1952 and early 1953,

(End note 26:
See Vechernyaya Moskva, 7 June 1950, 24 December 1952; Pravda Ukrainy, 28 December 1952; Izvestiya, 30 January 1953; Pravda, 1 and 6 February 1953)

it is clear that many Jews were accused of the economic crimes of theft or sabotage of state property, speculation, giving and taking bribes, evasion of work and other fraudulent practices. Moreover, in those trials mentioned in the press, the number of Jews exceeded that of non-Jews. And while the 'map' of economic crime covered all the Soviet republics, a particularly high percentage of Jews were tried for such crimes in the Ukrainian Republic.

The Ukrainian Republic was also the scene of the most serious economic trial, which took place in November 1952.

(End note 27:
See Pravda Ukrainy, 29 November 1952. Reports also reached the Israeli Embassy that at the beginning of 1952 Jews accused of economic crimes had been exiled from Ukrainian cities (Poltava, Kharkov, Lvov and Dneproderzhinsk) to labour camps in Birobidzhan).

This trial was unusual in that the defendants had not been tried by the regular People's or District Court, but by a military court,

(End note 28:
The competency of the military courts extended to offenses involving military personnel (espionage, sabotage, treason, acts of terror, disclosure of state secrets, theft of arms, the sale and purchase of arms). See: D. Karev: Organizatsiya suda i prokuratury v SSSR (Court and Prosecution Organisation in the USSR); Moscow, Gosyurizdat 1954, pp. 146-147)

as in the secret trial of the Jewish writers, which had been conducted by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union, the highest military court. Moreover, the indictment was in accordance with Articles 54/VIII and 54/IX of the Ukrainian Criminal Code, which referred to 'activity of counter-revolutionary sabotage' in the sphere of commerce and supply, carrying a maximum penalty of death. The execution (p.197)

of three of the five defendants in this trial was intended to serve as a severe warning for the future. And, finally, the fact that all three of those executed were Jews was also of special significance.

However, the clear tendency to exploit economic trials for political ends, by emphasising the Jewish nationality of the defendants, only emerged after the announcement of the 'Doctors' Plot' on 13 January 1953. The press began the campaign by noting  the Zionist, Bundist or bourgeois-nationalist past of the accused and implicating them for having aided American and British spies to penetrate Soviet factories. The many feuilletons published in the Soviet press then took up and elaborated on these themes.

(End note 29: On this, see the example given in Doc. 49).

Most of the Jews involved were factory and shop managers, warehousemen, doctors and lawyers, the latter two categories being attacked with particular ferocity and their 'criminal' acts painted in especially sombre colours.> (p.198)
Document 49: On the embezzlement of state property (February 1953)
(Source: V. Ardamatsky: 'Pinya iz Zhmerinki' (Pinya from Zhmerinka); In: Krokodil, 1953, no. 8)
End note 116:
<Many immigrants to Israel from the USSR recalled this particular feuilleton as evidence of official anti-Semitism in the USSR.>

[The boss is a magician: Pinya Paltinovich]
<Before me lies a pile of documents. Dry numerical calculations, bills, analyses cover each piece of paper. And when all this has been examined, the following questions arise involuntarily in one's mind: 'Is it possible to build a house out of shoe polish? or out of soda? Can one eat one's fill on nails?'

And it turns out, that all this is possible. For this, all one has to do is to go to Zhmerinka and win the confidence of Pinya Paltinovich Mirochnik. What a magician he is! A magician who knows no equal. The star of the State Circus, Kio, with his mysterious chest in which the circus's resident invisible lady vanishes, is nothing in comparison with Pinya! But, forgotten by the State Circus, Pinya Paltinovich Mirochnik is forced to remain at the tedious post of head of an industrial combine of the Zhmerinka District Union of Consumers. And he has to do without any applause or enthusiastic notices.>

[The crew of Pinya Paltinovich]
<Remembering that in his time Kio used to appear with 75 assistants, Pinya Paltinovich has also surrounded himself with reliable assistants, though, to give him his due, he did not manage to reach the figure of 75. Not far short, but he didn't quite manage it. Pinya Paltinovich appointed David Ostrovsky as head of the chemical shop of his industrial combine. David's son became, correspondingly, an agent of the supplies section. Rakhil Palatnik occupied the desk of the chief book-keeper. Accordingly, her son-in-law, Shaya Pudel, became her deputy. Roza Gurvich was made economic planner, and her husband was put in charge of the supplies (p.133)

section. Zyama Milzon, Pinya's brother-in-law, was given a position in a utensils shop. Yasha Dainich, Bunya Tsitman, Shunya Mironchik, Munya Uchitel, Benya Rabinovich, Isaak Paltin and others were appointed to other positions.

It is not difficult to imagine what conjuring tricks could be demonstrated with such a disposition of forces. Especially if one takes into consideration that the Zhmerinka District Procurator, Comrade Lanovenchik, was so carried away by the continued spectacle of these manifestations that he completely forgot his most immediate duties.>

[Pinya Paltinovich's carreer]
<Pinya Paltinovich did not become a magician all at once. At first he was far from successful in all his undertakings. For instance, in 1936 he was expelled from the Party for performing a religious rite, as well as for a number of frauds. By 1941 he had become more experienced, and he managed, though being in the best of health (as he has been since), to fall ill precisely at the end of June 1941. His illness made it possible for him to leave in a direction quite the opposite of the front lines. After the war, Pinya made his home in Zhmerinka. In 1946, he joined the Party once more, cleverly concealing the fact that he, quite by chance, had already been a Party member.

Pinya Paltinovich has a family of six, not counting his wife's two brothers who live abroad, which is quite silly of them when they have a brother-in-law such as Pinya. Pinya's family lives in a richly furnished four-room flat. Not one of his five dependants does any work anywhere, though the doctor has not forbidden them to work. Every year, Pinya's wife takes her offspring to salubrious health resorts. And, indeed, why should they work when Pinya can afford to keep the house in grand style? Truly, when you know the size of his wage-packet, this becomes somewhat difficult to understand, but, then, if everybody could understand the magician's tricks, there would be no magicians.>

[The profit with market products - state's price - market price]
<I have no wish to describe in detail the tricks of Pinya Paltinovich and his devoted assistants because, as the readers have probably guessed, all these tricks are simply sharp practices. These tricks are accurately noted down in detail in statements, reports, certificates and other documents. Everything is described there. They tell how David Ostrovsky and Munya Uchitel agreed to write off 56,800 tins of shoe polish as scrap and how those very tins, ceasing to be scrap, filled with shoe polish, appeared in the hands of profiteers. Oh, but how wonderfully noble David Ostrovsky's conduct was during that commercial transaction! It turns out that he sold the tins which had been written off for waste to Benya Rabinovich, purveyor to the District Consumers' Union, for 30 rubles in cash and handed all that money in to the cashier of the industrial combine. What honesty! And what sleight-of-hand at the same time!

At the market in Zhmerinka (and not only in Zhmerinka) it's always possible to buy a little packet of drinking soda from someone for 3 rubles. The state price for that packet is exactly 45 kopeks ... The soda is packed and released for sale by the industrial schemer Pinya Paltinovich; and in what quantities! In 1952 alone he released almost a 10,000 packages! It emerges from the documents that all this soda has been sold through the District Consumers' Union in Zhmerinka. But then how did it fall into the hands of the profiteers not only of Zhmerinka District but also of many other districts of Vinnitsa Province? And can it be that inhabitants of Zhmerinka (p.134)

developed such a liking for Pinya's soda that they were devouring it in tablespoonfuls from morning till evening!? Is it possible that the population of the entire district is constantly suffering from heartburn? Of course not; the soda business was the result of another trick. The former director of the inter-district base, Oknyansky, and his deputy, Dartman, could have explained it. But, as they are not interested in explaining it, all that is left for us is to have a look at the fenced-off private residence that Dartman bought for 56,000 rubles. As his wages were in the region of 910 rubles a month, it could not have been easy for him to put such a sum aside. He probably went hungry, poor soul!

And if one happens to be passing through Zhitomir, one can also have a look at the house which Oknyansky, since fired from the Zhmerinka trade base, acquired for 50,000 rubles. His position is much more difficult than that of Dartman, who is already working as deputy director of the Zhmerinka food combine, whereas Oknyansky, poor thing, has been unemployed for over a year. He probably exists on bread and water.

Indeed, the rogues in Zhmerinka have a free and easy life. They romp under the very nose of the District Procurator! Let us take for instance the case of the metal that was delivered to make nails for construction work. But who the devil cares about construction if the private shoemakers moan and groan and are ready and willing to pay any price for shoe nails. The industrial schemer, Pinya Mirochnik, pours tons of shoe nails on to the market. By the way, the Zhmerinka procurator has become somewhat pinned down by these shoe nails and has even opened a special case on them. But he has not handed the case over to the courts. He is said to be studying the documents. For a whole year already. The procurator in Zhmerinka is a very serious man, indeed; only it's a pity that he is no danger to the local rogues.

The hand of the Zhmerinka conjurers are soiled with just about everything. With shoe polish, blueing, halva[h], sunflower-seed oil, honey and treacle. The rogues became brazen-faced. Not long ago Dodik Ostrovsky declared: 'Give me the money and I will get you a moving excavator in a jiffy.' Luckily Pinya does not need a moving excavator, so one may rest assured that he will not give Dodik the money.

Comrades from the Vinnitsa Province Consumers' Union! Our last lines are addressed to you. We have read some of your resolutions concerning the activity of Pinya Paltinovich's gang. To tell you the truth, we became tired of reading your decisions scattered there: 'to reprimand', 'to point out', 'to suggest', etc. Doesn't it seem to you, comrades, that you overestimate the educational significance of these resolutions of yours? And, anyway, whom are you trying to re-educate? With such touching forbearance, too? would it not be better to hand this affair over to the procurator's office of Vinnitsa Province at long last? They ought to know there how to treat swindlers.> (p.135)

-- further process waves in 1953 and in 1955 after Stalin: Pinkus, p.207,208
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 207  Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, page 208
Benjamin Pinkus, book: The Soviet government and the Jews, pages 207 and 208
<Anti-Zionist political trials
While the post-Stalin period did not witness a repetition of secret trials such as that of the Yiddish writers in 1952 or of great show trials like the Doctor's Trial planned for 1953, the ready resort to accusations of espionage and international conspiracy did recur frequently and ominously in that period.

In 1956, trials of [racist] Zionists and of Jewish religious figures (such as heads of religious congregations, synagogue officials, circumcisers and cantors) began to be held in various parts of the Soviet Union.

(End note 62: Between 1955 and 1967, such trials took place in Moscow, Kiev, Leningrad, Minsk, Riga and other cities).

But only in isolated instances were they reported in the Soviet press, and then in only the most modest manner. The most important trial, which was briefly reported in a local journal

(Docs. 86, 87)

was that of Pechersky, Dynkin and Kaganov, leading members of the Leningrad religious community. The defendants were accused of maintaining contact with the embassy of a capitalist state. The (p.207)

report did not actually specify that it was the [racist Zionist] State of Israel. It was only seven years later in 1968 - that is, after the Six-Day War when diplomatic relations between [racist Zionist] Israel and the [gulag] Soviet Union were severed - that this old trial was dredged up again and it was explicitly stated that Pechersky, Kaganov and Dynkin had agreed to work on behalf of the Israeli security services [Mosad] and to distribute anti-Soviet literature in the Soviet Union. The indictment of the defendants in accordance with Articles 64 and 70 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and the harsh sentences (ranging from four to twelve years' imprisonment) were intended to deter future contacts with Israeli Embassy personnel.

It seems that there were many such trials in the fifties and sixties, but authoritative data on their extent and the number of people involved are not yet available.

(End note 63: On the reasons for these trials and the objectives in holding them, see Chapter 6).

One trial, with extremely serious charges, which did receive publicity was held in February 1967.

(End note 64: V. Dyachenko: Padenie: In: Izvestiya, 24th February 1967)

The defendant, Dolnik, who had a Zionist past and was a regular synagogue attender, was accused of transmitting to David Gavish of the Israeli Embassy classified information of value not only to Israel but also to the security services of other countries. Dolnik was further charged with working with an accomplice to prepare false photographs in which the Nazi swastika was seen drawn on monuments in the USSR, in order to defame the Soviet Union abroad.> (p.208)

Document 86: Trial of Perchersky, Dynkin and Kaganov (I)
(Source: 'V Leningradskom gorodskom sude' (In the Leningrad City Court); In: Leningradskaya pravda, 11 November 1961)

<Not long ago, the Criminal Law Division of the Leningrad City Court heard the case of G.R. Pechersky,

(End note 105: Gedaliyahu Pechersky (1901-75), was born into a tanner's family in the small town of Babinovichi, Vitebsk Province. He attended a heder [Jewish religious school]. After the Revolution, he tried to join a hakhsharah (training) farm [preparing the Zionist emigration to Palestine] near Vitebsk and the Tiferet bahurim Society founded by the Habad (Hasidic) movement. At the end of the [liberal policy of Soviet Union] NEP period he was arrested for avoiding payment of taxes. He studied to be a dental technician and worked in this profession. Pechersky began to take an interest in public affairs during World War II. Even during Stalin's lifetime, he sent unsigned letters to the authorities concerning the religious community of Leningrad. He was appointed gabai (synagogue official) in 1954, a post which he decided to leave in 1956 as a result of pressure from those in charge of religious matters in the city. Pechersky emigrated to [racist Zionist] Israel in 1972).

E.Sh. Dynkin and N.A. Kaganov. It was (p.225)

established  by the preliminary investigation and in court that the accused had had criminal connections for a number of years with some workers of the embassy of a capitalist state accredited to Moscow. The workers of the embassy had visited Leningrad many times for this special purpose.

Pechersky, Dynkin and Kaganov had regularly passed on information used abroad to harm the Soviet State. In their turn, the accused had repeatedly received from the workers of the embassy anti-Soviet literature and undertook to distribute it.

The court found Pechersky and Dynkin guilty  of crimes under Articles 64, point 'a', and 70, section I, and Kaganov under Article 70, section I, of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR. Pechersky was sentenced to 12 years and Kaganov to 7 years of imprisonment, Dynkin, who sincerely repented and condemned his own criminal activities, received a lighter sentence - 4 years of imprisonment.> (p.226)
Document 87: Trial of Pechersky, Dynkin and Kaganov (II)
(Source: K. Viktorov: 'Otravlennoe oruzhie (Ob ideologicheskikh diversiyakh imperialistov)' (Poisoned Weapons (On Ideological Sabotage of the Imperialists)); In: Moskovskaya pravda, 22 November 1968)

<The imperialist intelligence services often use the same agents for spying and for carrying out ideological sabotage. Thus, during the trial in Leningrad of the Soviet citizens Kaganov, Dynkin and Pechersky, who agreed to work for the Israeli intelligence service, it was established that they had not only collected and passed on intelligence information, but that they also spread rumours and fabrications defaming the Soviet State and social order. These people distributed anti-Soviet literature, which they received from the Israeli Embassy. The agents of the foreign intelligence service also admitted that they had intended to send the tapes (subsequently confiscated), the contents of which slandered Soviet reality, to their chiefs abroad, who were going to use them for anti-Soviet propaganda.

Subversive propaganda and misinformation are the weapons of the imperialist states. They spend huge efforts and sums on it. Soviet people must be most vigilant and resolutely unmask the lies and slanders of the bourgeois 'knights' with their poisoned weapons.> (p.226)

-- further show trials against Jews 1961-1963: Martin Gilbert: www.martingilbert.com;
Martin Gilbert: Karte der Sowjetunion über die
                  antijüdischen Schauprozesse 1961-1963     Martin Gilbert, Portrait
Martin Gilbert: Map of the Soviet Union with the anti Jewish show trials 1961-1963

17. Sovietization / russification by extermination of the Jewish culture

Pinkus describes here how the "Soviet Union" was changing it's politics against the Jews after the foundation of racist Zionist state of Israel which had a regime collaborating with the Stupid States and with CIA against "Soviet Union":

Benjamin Pinkus:
                          Buch: The Soviet government and the Jews
                          1948-1967. A documented study    Benjamin Pinkus, Portrait

Pinkus, Benjamin: The Soviet Government and the Jews 1948-1967. A documented study, ISBN 0-521-24713-6:

-- robbing the identity by the liquidation of Jewish institutions: Pinkus describes this on p.1, 310, 372
Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The Soviet
                              government and the Jews, Seite 1
Benjamin Pinkus: book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page1

<At the same time, the years 1948-9 witnessed the murder (by the secret police) of the famous Yiddish actor, Shlomo Mikhoels; the closing of the Jewish Anti-fascist Committee; the liquidation of all the institutions responsible for Yiddish culture; and the launching of the anti-cosmopolitan campaign. This dichotomy revealed as never before, and in their most extreme form, the contradictions inherent in Soviet policy towards its Jewish population.>)
Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The Soviet
                              government and the Jews, Seite 310
Benjamin Pinkus: book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 310

<Secondly, with the liquidation during 1948-9 of all the Jewish institutions in the Soviet Union, the Jewish religious congregations remained the one surviving form of Jewish institution.>)
Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The Soviet
                              government and the Jews, Seite 372
Benjamin Pinkus: book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 372

<But it was not long before Jewish hopes for the establishment of a 'sovereignty' within the USSR were dashed. In the years 1948-9, the Kaganovich Yiddish Theatre, the Jewish publishing house, the periodical Birobidzhan, the rich library of Yiddish and Hebrew books, and the Jewish research institutions and schools were all closed down.>)

-- there were imprisonments, closings and the liquidation of Jewish press: Pinkus describing it on p. 150 (concerning the daily Shtern), and on p.263 (concerning the daily Eynikeyt)
Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The Soviet
                            government and the Jews, Seite 150

Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The Soviet government and the Jews, Seite 150

<Since the leading Jewish writers, literary critics and theatre workers had been arrested at the end of 1948 and the beginning of 1949 - which meant in fact that the wheel of liquidation directed at the nationally oriented Communist Jewish intelligentsia had come full circle - the bulk of the campaign against nationalism was redirected against the assimilated Jewish intelligentsia. The last cases of public attacks known to us from the first half of 1949 - on Jewish personalities and on institutions then in the process of liquidation - were those directed against: David Bergelson, one of the best-known Yiddish writers who was, it seems, already under arrest at this time;

(End note 27: Vysoko nesty prapor radyanskogo patriotyzma; In: Vitchyzna, 1949, no. 3, p.16; as quoted in: B. Choseed: Jews in Soviet Literature; In: Simmons (ed.): Through the Glass of Soviet Literature, p.148)

the critic Model who wrote in praise of the Jewish playwright Goldfaden; the stage director Golovchiner, who produced 'harmful and anti-patriotic plays' at the Yiddish Theatre in Minsk (as a result of which the theatre was closed);

(End note 28: Vysshe znamya sovetskogo patriotizma; In: Literaturnaya gazeta, 12 March 1949; V. Seduro: The Belorussian Theatre and Drama; New York, Research Programme on the USSR, 1955, p.225; Similar accusations were voiced by the secretary of the Belorussian Communist Party, N. Gusarev, who, as has recently come to light, was involved in the murder of Mikhoels in January 1948. See: Sovetskaya Belorussiya, 17 February 1949, as quoted in: Namir: Shlihut be-moskvah, p.281).

and the journal Der shtern [Star], which appeared in Kiev, and had been closed down at the end of 1948 (Doc. 57).> (p.150)

Here is an example of a campaign article against Shtern:

Document 57: Ukrainian writer criticises Der shtern (February 1949)
(Source: 'Za bolshevistskuyu partiinost sovetskoi kultury. Na sobraniipisatelei Kieva' (For the Bolshevik Party Spirit of Soviet Culture. At a Meeting of Kiev Writers); In: Pravda Ukrainy, 8 February 1949)
(End note 104: Der shtern, literary almanac of the Soviet Jewish writers of the Ukraine. Beginning with the second issue, the sub-title was changed to 'Almanac for Literature and the Arts, Organ of the Soviet Writers' Union of the Ukraine'. The almanac's editor (from the second issue) was H. Polyanker. In the years 1947-8, seven issues were produced in all, although apparently the last issue (no. 7) was not distributed.)

<The vicious methods practised by the editorial board of the Yiddish almanac, Der shtern, can be explained only by the neglect of Bolshevik Party principles and the dulling of vigilance. The works published in it were ideologically pernicious, permeated with national narrow-mindedness, and depicted the Soviet people in a distorted way. The editorial board of the almanac did not direct the attention of the Jewish writers to the urgent themes of today, and lagged behind the decisive offensive of Soviet literature against the survivals of bourgeois nationalism in whatever form they might appear.> (p.172)

Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The
                            Soviet government and the Jews, Seite 263
Benjamin Pinkus: book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 263

<Thus, the Committee founded the newspaper Eynikeyt, its official organ until it was closed down on 20 November 1948; it concentrated Jewish writers, journalists and artists previously scattered throughout the Soviet Union in Moscow.>)

-- dying of synagogues in Soviet Union: p.316
Benjamin Pinkus: Buch: The Soviet
                              government and the Jews, Seite 316
Benjamin Pinkus: book: The Soviet government and the Jews, page 316
<In 1926, there were still 1,103 synagogues in the Soviet Union;

(End note 32: See J. Rothenberg: Jewish Religion in the Soviet Union; In: Kochan (ed.): The Jews in Soviet Russia Since 1917, pp. 180-181)

by 1954 apparently only 100 remained.

(End note 33: See Yodfat: Jewish Religious Communities in the USSR, p.66)

If this latter figure, given by Rabby Shlifer, is accurate, there was then a definite increase in the number of synagogues between 1954 and 1959. According to a Soviet report submitted to the UN, there were as many as 450 synagogues in 1959,

(End note 34: Ibid. [Yodfat: Jewish Religious Communities in the USSR, p.66])

but another Soviet statement of 1960 put their number at only 150.

(End note 35: American Jewish Yearbook, 1961, p.287)

This last figure appears more realistic, and will serve as a basis for a comparison with the data for the years 1961-5. In January 1964, Radio Moscow announced that 150 synagogues were functioning in Soviet Union, half of them in the Ukraine and Moldavia. But in that same year, P. Dogorozhny, Deputy Chairman of the Soviet Council for the Affairs of Religious Cults, stated that 100 synagogues were open in the Soviet Union.

(End note 36: Ibid. [American Jewish Yearbook, 1961], p.367)

The data we have for the years 1963-5 are of ninety-six

(End note 37: Ibid. [American Jewish Yearbook, 1961], p. 269)

and ninety-seven

(End note 38: Conquest (ed.): Religion in the USSR, p.116)

synagogues. However, according to various estimates, the number of synagogues left in the Soviet Union by the late 1960s was between 62 and 70, about 30 of which were in the Caucasus and Central Asia.

(End note 39: Rothenberg: Jewish Religion in the Soviet Union, p.180; and: Yodfat: Jewish Religious Communities in the USSR, p. 66. Rothenberg's book "The Jewish Religion in the Soviet Union" (p.47), sites the following figures: Caucasian Republics - 19 synagogues; RSFSR - 17; Central Asian Republics - 11; Ukrainian Republic - 8; Latvian and Lithuanian Republics - 2 each; and Belorussian, Moldavian and Estonian Republics - 1 each. On the situation in Birobidzhan, see Doc. 148)>
Document 148: Survey on religious faith among Birobidzhan Jews (1967)
(Source: A. Vinokur: Ugasanie drevney very (The Dying Out of an Ancient Faith), Nauka i religiyaq, 1967, no. 1, pp. 41-43).

<Not long ago, in order to ascertain how widespread Judaism was among the Jews of Birobidzhan, about 300 people were questioned in a survey - men and women, workers, office-workers, doctors, teachers, housewives, pensioners, all living in different parts of the city. The questionnaire was at the same time directed mainly at those people whom there was every reason to consider as believers. Only 8 people however referred to themselves directly as believers.> (p.383)
<Even if we take into account only the official data, more than 50 synagogues were closed between 1959 and 1965, principally in the Ukraine and the RSFSR (in Lvov, Zhitomir, Chernovtsy, Zhmerinka, Belaya-Tserkov, Sverdlovsk, Kazan, Pyatigorsk, Grozny and other cities). But the Soviet authorities often denied that they were conducting a plan to reduce the number of synagogues.

According to Soviet law, a synagogue (like a church, a mosque, etc.) may be closed down under the following conditions:

(End note 40: Aleksandrov: Mestnye sovety i zakonodatelstvo o kultakh, p.59)

If there are not enough believers desirous of maintaining their own house of worship, that is, if the religious association dissolves; if the association has violated Soviet law on religious observance; if it has failed to observe the conditions of the contract signed between it and the state body; if it has refused to fulfill the legal directives of the state bodies; if the house of worship is too old or stands in the way of the construction plans of the city or village where it is located; if it proves necessary to expropriate the house of worship in order to use the building for alternative public purposes. It is thus clear that when the authorities decided to close down a house of worship they had no particular difficulty in finding a suitable article in the law.

The way in which they prepared the ground for the closure strongly recalled the style used in the twenties. First, the local press conducted an extensive campaign against the (allegedly) criminal and illegal activities of the synagogue leaders, who were accused of exploiting the synagogue to conduct shady business deals or of engaging in Zionist propaganda. Then, the press began to publish articles and letters 'from all sectors of the public' - including believers and former synagogue leaders - who categorically demanded that the 'nests of corruption' be liquidated and their community purged of the 'abomination of religion' (see Doc. 132). In the end, the authorities 'responded' to these pleas and closed the house of worship. Moreover, during the campaign against the synagogue, the police would often make arrests among members of the 'committee of 20' and the synagogue staff, accusing them of grossly misusing their positions; of conducting shady business deals; or of having contacts with representatives of capitalist states (tourists or Israeli Embassy personnel; Doc. 132).> (p.316)
Document 132: Chernovtsy synagogue charged with being Zionist centre (1960)
(Source: Get darmoidiv i nosiiv mrakobissya (Down With Parasites and Carriers of Obscurantism); Radyanska Bukovyna, 9 September 1960).

The Soviet peoples, led by the Communist Party [with its Gulag], are engaged in the successful building of Communism, a society which will meet all the material and spiritual needs of mankind, while delivering human beings from the superstitions of the past [with the Gulag system]. The great majority of the workers have already been liberated from the harmful survivals of the past and are actively participating in the building of Communism [with the Gulag system]. Everywhere there are big building projects, state farms on virgin lands, factories and kolkhozes - the Soviet peoples are working with inspiration in creative work and are exerting themselves in fulfilment of the great plans of the 21st Congress of the CPSU, to bring nearer the bright day of mankind - Communism [with it's Gulag system].

However, we still find, here and there, people who, under the mask of religious functionaries, for instance, do not participate in the production of material welfare, live on the account of trustful believers and are occupied in affairs far from godly.

[The newspaper] Radyanska Bukovina has, on numerous occasions, published information on the shady affairs conducted in the synagogue at 53 Ruska Street. In our country nobody forbids believers to perform religious rituals. But the indignation of the town's population, its Jewish believers and non-believers, has been roused by the foul activities of the synagogue leaders. It is universally (p.334)

known that the leaders of what is known as the 'Committee of Twenty', Raish, Zilber and Barenboim, have on more than one occasion come to blows when dividing the takings. They attract to the synagogue even Orthodox Christian believers from the neighbouring villages, promising them happiness in life in return for their money. Money for everything. Money is everything in life for them.

The anger of all honest people has been aroused by the feuilleton 'Jerusalem Skull-Caps' in [the newspaper] Radyanska Bukovyna.

(End note 81: See M. Shvartsman: 'Erusalymski yarmulky'; In: Radyanska Bukovyna, 26 August 1960).

Soviet people are always happy to welcome guests. A great number of tourists from all corners of the earth visit our country. When they come with good intentions we greet them with a sincere 'Welcome!' But the intentions of the official from the Israeli Embassy in Moscow, Yaakov Reuveni, were far from genuine when he went to Chernovtsy. The synagogue-goers sized him up. They not only refused the gifts brought by Reuveni - prayer shawls, prayer-books and post-cards of Israel - but even threw him out of the synagogue.

Everybody was infuriated by the activities of Raish, Zilber and Barenboim, who gave a hospitable welcome to the Israeli preacher of Zionism. Many Jewish workers, believers and non-believers, sent letters to the editorial board in which they requested the closure of the synagogue, this hotbed of religious obscurantism, this refuge of parasites.

We publish several of these letters below.

Close the hotbed of harmful ideology
We, scientists of the chernovtsy Medical Institute, were terribly angered by the hostile propaganda activities of Yaakov Reuveni, the Israeli Embassy representative. Reuveni did not choose the synagogue in Ruska Street accidentally. This building has long ago become a place for shady affairs and the diffusion of various anti-Soviet rumours,  refuge for suspects, a place used less for the performance of religious rituals than for anything else.

In his feuilleton 'Jerusalem Skull-Caps', Comrade Shvartsman presents the synagogue in its true light, as a site of fights, rows, 'business meetings', speculations, diffusion of anti-Soviet propaganda and praise of imperialist Israel.

We lecturers, as men responsible for the education of youth, regard this situation as intolerable and raise our voices against the religious hypocrisy of Judaism, against the hostile and false bourgeois propaganda, and regard it as imperative to close the hotbed of harmful ideology. We are infuriated by the improper behaviour of the Israeli Embassy representative, whose activities do not conform with the performance of diplomatic functions. Professors:
Ya. D. Kirshenblat
(End note 82:
N.B. Shchupak
S.A. Kats
(End note 83:

V.I. Triger
V.L. Khenkin
(End note 84:
Reader: L.N. Zamansky
Candidate of Medical Sciences: M. I. Kleiman.
... (p.335)

I am leaving the 'Committee of Twenty'
I sometimes went to the synagogue on Ruska Street, but was not an active parishioner. I was, nevertheless, elected to its 'Committee of Twenty'. I have never agreed with the shady affairs conducted in the synagogue. The last incident, when its leaders hospitably welcomed an Israeli diplomat who arrived in Chernovtsy with hostile intentions, literally infuriated me.

I do not wish to participate in such filthy affairs of the synagogue and have consequently decided to retire from the 'Committee of Twenty'. As a Soviet citizen, I wish to live and work honestly.
Menash Elkin
Worker of Industrial Artel 'Nove Zhytya'. (p.336)

18. Bunker constructioning: Construction of tunnel systems for underground production of NS weapon systems

Film "The underground Reich - the secret worlds of the Nazis", film of the historians Michael Kloft (with it's assistant Mr. Genztaler (SpiegelTV in Hamburg, Tel. 0049-40-301 08 663) and with  Michael Foedrowitz, Berlin (Tel. 0049-30-36 40 98 34): "The underground Reich - the secret worlds of the Nazis" (orig.: "Das unterirdische Reich - die geheimen Welten der Nazis"

Spiegel TV: Film on DVD: The
                            underground Reich [orig. German: Das
                            unterirdische Reich - die geheimen Welten
                            der Nazis], cover
Spiegel TV: Film on DVD: The underground Reich [orig. German: Das unterirdische Reich - die geheimen Welten der Nazis], cover
Michael Kloft, portrait
Michael Kloft, portrait
Michael Foedrowitz, portrait
Michael Foedrowitz, portrait

Searching words to find bunker constructioning on websites are: Bunkerbau Düsenjäger, Bunkerbau Atombombe, Bunkerbau Eulengebirge, Bunkerbau Jonastal, Bunkerbau Thüringen, Bunkerbau Panzer etc.

The subject "bunker constructioning" is very developing so the situation can change daily. The international media are requested to report about it internationally because the persecution of the Jews procedure and the places of the persecution of the Jews and the persecution of the Jews is changing in it's base.

-- about Hitler's resolution for bunker constructioning and bunkers against air raids in Northern Germany: Michael Foedrowitz: "Bunker worlds.  Air raid protection plants in Northern Germany" (orig.: "Bunkerwelten. Luftschutzanlagen in Norddeutschland"), on http://www.bunkernetzwerk.de , also with a link to the "bunker literature" (orig.: "Bunkerliteratur")

-- a summary of the bunker constructioning of the arms industry of Germany (look also the underground tanks production plants) and Poland can be seen in http://www.team-delta.de by Wolf-Dieter Holz, Peter Müller, Annett Jantzen and Jörg Waga, central telephone number: 0049-(0)721-151504289 (furthermore military bunkers in Czechia and in Switzerland are described)

-- a summary of the bunker constructioning in Second World War on the territory of the ancient German Democratic Republic GDR gives us Patrick Wagner, Chemnitz, on http://www.bunkernetzwerk.de/nuke/index.php with a recommendation of the book "Secret bunker plants in the GDR" by Stefan Best

-- there are ex Auschwitz detainees in bunker constructioning in the "Eulengebirge" in Silesia reported, e.g. they had to dynamite until 8 m high halls out of the mountains, in the Eulengebirge until 50 % death rate, partly the halls are decorated with wood; from: Spiegel TV http://www.spiegel.de: film of the historians Michael Kloft (with it's assistant Mr. Genztaler (SpiegelTV in Hamburg, Tel. 0049-40-301 08 663) and with  Michael Foedrowitz, Berlin (Tel. 0049-30-36 40 98 34): "The underground Reich - the secret worlds of the Nazis" (orig.: "Das unterirdische Reich - die geheimen Welten der Nazis"; In: VOX, 9.1.2004, 22:05-0:00; Buy the film on DVD:  http://www.polarfilm.de , or directly at Polarfilm Germany, Tel. 0049-(0)2542-95 13 13; ordering no.: 7058; the text of the film is on the internet on this website on holocaust-index

-- informations about constructioning of rocket galleries in France and in Austria and about the bunker constructioning in Silesia and Austria etc.:  "Verein der Berliner Unterwelten", Brunnenstr. 180a, D-13355 Berlin, Tel. 0049-(0)30-49 91 05 17; http://www.berliner-unterwelten.de ; historian: Jürgen Müller.

-- information about the entire bunker and gallery system on NS territory (1000 plants on German territory): historian Michael Foedrowitz (already mentioned); Mr. Foedrowitz said to me in 2004 that many survivors before the pull-out had been dynamited in the galleries and so they had been buried in masses when they lived yet. There is a wide search for hidden entrances to the hidden gallery systems in Poland (Eulengebirge) and in Saxony too.

-- summary of the bunker constructioning on German NS territory and links to sighting tours: Harald Faeth (?), Frankfurt: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1325/ (Website from 23.5.1997; e-mail: Harald-Faeth@frankfurt.netsurf.de

-- summary of the codes of all bunker and gallery plants: Harald Faeth (?), Frankfurt: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1325/codes.txt

-- plans for bunker and gallery plants "Dachs I", Dachs IV", Barbe, "B7"/"Esche": same: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1325/pics.htm

-- on http://www.turbo.at/geheimprojekte/b_kammler you find links with plans and fotos of bunker and gallery plants: "B1": "Zement"; "B8": Bergkristall; "B9": Quarz (with a book presentation of Markus Schmilzberger: "What the US army at the alps fortification really was looking for. A theory about pseudonyms of the plant "Quarz" in Roggendorf near Melk" (orig.: "Was die US Army in der Alpenfestung wirklich suchte. Eine Theorie zum Decknamen der Anlage "Quarz" in Roggendorf bei Melk"), ISBN 3-930219-79-4; "B10": "Quarz II":

-- excerpt of "mystery Jonastal" about bunker and gallery constructioning "S111" und "Olga" with kilometers of tunnel systems: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1325/raetsel.txt

-- the website http://www.amberroom.org of 2003 means the Amber Room would be hidden in the tunnel systems of the Jonastal in Thuringia; organized guidance to the tunnel systems

-- under the searching word "Jonastal" you will find a summary of the bunker constructioning in Thuringia, e.g. http://www.jonastal.de; about the authors Harald Fäth and Ulrich Brunzel with the "rocket for America" and the atomic bomb in an article of the East Prussian newspaper (orig. "Ostpreussenblatt") of 2000-05-20: http://www.webarchiv-server.de/pin/archiv/00/2000ob34/htm (in July 2005 broken link); the book of Harald Fäth "The atomic bombs of Hitler" (orig.: "Hitlers Atomwaffen") you can order at http://www.jonastal.biz at Exploratory publishing house, Königsfeld, Tel. 07725-91648-12; author Andreas Vogt about atomic bombs which had been transported by "US" troops when the population had to barricade the windows: http://www.reformnetz.de/Vortrag/jonastal.htm ; Joachim Hess and Regine Liebich tell there had been 1000s of dead detainees during bunker constructioning only in the Jonastal: http://www.mdr.de/doku/421998.html

-- another book about Hitler's atomic bomb is offered by Rainer Karlsch on http://www.factorfake.de/article97.html

-- Bunker- and gallery constructioning in the Eulengebirge in Silesia: Joachim Köhler: http://www.akademie-rs.de/publikationen/hp56_koehler.htm (not working any more).

19a Flighting Jews are shoot and robbed by people smugglers

e.g. flight of Jews over the Pyrenees. Late in the war the Jews were murdered and robbed by the facilitators; In: Ludger Tewes: "France during the occupation period 1940-1943. The sight of German eye witnesses" (orig.: "Frankreich in der Besetzungszeit 1940-1943. Die Sicht deutscher Augenzeugen"). Bouvier publishing house, Bonn, 1998, p. 179; chronology: "Deutsche Besetzung Frankreichs 1940 - Deutsche Besatzungsmacht in Frankreich 1940-1944" on this website in the 3R-index.
or: Also in the region of the Lake of Geneva are Jews murdered and robbed by facilitators; witness in the film "Nazi gold and Jewish gold" (orig.:  "Nazigold und Judengold"; Swiss Television SF DRS, 1997-07-03

19b Jews pay for the flight, the people smugglers hand over the Jews to the police and profit twice

e.g.: French facilitators in the region of the Lake of Geneva give shelter to the Jews before the border crossing into Switzerland and betray them at the police; witness in the film "Nazi gold and Jewish gold" (orig.:  "Nazigold und Judengold"; Swiss Television SF DRS, 1997-07-03

20. Stateless Jews

example: From mids of 1942 on the German occupation power is looking for "stateless" Jews in France, with the support of the French  civil boards and with the support of the French police; In: Ludger Tewes: "France during the occupation period 1940-1943. The sight of German eye witnesses" (orig.: "Frankreich in der Besetzungszeit 1940-1943. Die Sicht deutscher Augenzeugen"). Bouvier publishing house, Bonn, 1998, p. 89

21. Flight 1940-1942 from Switzerland over France, Spain / Portugal to the "USA"

                Ziegler, Portrait    Jean
                Ziegler: Book: Switzerland, the gold and the dead (orig.
                German: Die Schweiz, das Gold und die Toten).
Jean Ziegler: Book: Switzerland, the gold and the dead (orig. German: Die Schweiz, das Gold und die Toten).

Example: Between midst of 1940 and end of 1942 the not NS occupied railway line from Geneva to Port Bou makes it possible for the Swiss aliens' police to permit the emigration of one sealed goods wagon with Jewish emigrants from Switzerland to Lisbon;
(In: Jean Ziegler: "Switzerland, the gold and the dead" (orig.: "Die Schweiz, das Gold und die Toten", Bertelsmann publishing house 1997, p.69; chronology on this website: "Die Bankgeheimnis-Schweiz für das 1000-jährige Reich" on ch-index).

22. Stalin deportations from Poland to Siberia

Example of a Jewish family from Eastern Poland which was deported to Siberia: Zygmunt Frankel: "Siberian Diary":

Zygmunt Frankel:
                              Siberian Diary, Webseitentitel    Zygmunt Frankel, retrato

23. Example of Stalin deportations from Eastern Poland / Western Belorussia during "sovietization" (1940 - 1941)

                Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter
                Widerstand), cover   Nechama
                Tec, Portrait
Nechama Tec: Book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter Widerstand), cover

Stalin lets eliminate politically the Polish ruling classes and other ruling classes by deportation to Siberia. From Eastern Poland / Western Belorussia this are
all in all 1,5 mio. people, according to estimations parted into
50 % Poles, so 750,000
30 % Belorussians and Ukrainians, so 450,000
20 % Jews, so 300,000, above all Zionists and leading Jewish representatives (p.32).

Nechama Tec:
"[...] 1,5 million [...] According to estimations among this were 50 % Poles, about 30 % Belorussians and Ukrainians, and 20 % Jews [...] The persecution of the Jews by the Soviets was performed selectively, but was constantly rising during the occupation period. From the beginning the Russians declared the Zionist movement as a forbidden political organization. This step was followed by random imprisonments of leading Jewish personalities without respect if the affected were in fact Zionists or not." (p.32)

orig. German:
"[...] 1,5 Millionen [...] Nach Schätzungen handelte es sich dabei zu 50 % um Polen, zu ungefähr 30 % um Weissrussen und Ukrainer und zu 20 % um Juden [...] Die Verfolgung von Juden wurde von den Sowjets zwar selektiver durchgeführt, nahm jedoch während der Besatzungszeit konstant zu. Von Beginn an erklärten die Russen die zionistische Bewegung zur verbotenen politischen Organisation. Diesem Schritt folgten willkürliche Verhaftungen von führenden jüdischen Persönlichkeiten, ohne Rücksicht darauf, ob es sich bei den Betroffenen tatsächlich um Zionisten handelte oder nicht." (S.32)

(from: Nechama Tec: Bewaffneter Widerstand. Jüdische Partisanen im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Bleicher Verlag, Gerlingen 1996; orig.: "Defiance, the Bielski Partisans". Oxford University Press, Inc., New York 1993)

More data:

                Redbook (orig. German: Rotbuch. Stalin und die Juden),
                cover   Arno
                Lustiger, portrait
Lustiger: Redbook (orig. German: Rotbuch. Stalin und die Juden), cover

Arno Lustiger: Rotbuch. Stalin und die Juden; Edition Aufbau, Berlin,
-- hardback edition 1998, ISBN 3-351-02478-9;
-- pocket book edition 2000, ISBN 3-7466-8049-2

Deportations of Jewish refugees from West Poland to Siberia

According to Arno Lustiger
-- the sovietization leaded to a total nationalization and to the destruction of the Jewish commerce, so some few Jews were fleeing from the Soviet part to the NS part of Poland
-- from Western Poland fled 600,000 men to Eastern Poland, from these 600,000 would be 350,000 Jews
-- there were 3 deportation waves of Stalin deportations
-- at the third deportation wave everybody was taken "who had no documents accepted by the Soviet administration" and in this deportation wave a big part was from the 350,000 Jewish refugees which had fled from Western to Eastern Poland (hardback edition 1998, p.95), because these refugees had refused to admit the Soviet passport (Encyclopaedia Judaica: Holocaust, Rescue from).

"Before the frontier was cosed at the end of 1939 the refugees were sent back to the German zone from case to case. And at the exchange of population groups (Ukrainians to the East, Germans to the West) the Soviet offices only accepted 'pure' Ukrainians, no Jews."

(orig. German
"Bevor Ende 1939 die Grenze abgeriegelt war, wurden Flüchtlinge mitunter in den deutschen Bereich zurückgeschickt. Beim Austausch von Bevölkerungsgruppen (Ukrainer nach Osten, Deutsche nach Westen) akzeptierten die sowjetischen Stellen nur 'reine' Ukrainer, keine Juden." (Lustiger, hardback edition 1998, S.95).

End of 1940 to June 1941
Baltic states, Bessarabia and Bukovina: Stalin deportations of 10,000s like in Eastern Poland
Lustiger: Deportation of "tens of thousands" from the Baltic states, beneath them many Jews. The deportations of family members of the elites to the Gulag are performed to destroy any potential resistance against the Soviet regime, above all of the middle social classes with many Jews. These Stalin deportations happen in the Baltic states (p.108), in the Baltic states, in Bessarabia and in Bukovina (S.152).

It can be estimated when only for Eastern Poland 300,000 Jews are deported - that all Stalin deportations from 1940 to 1941 could involve about 500,000 to 700,000 deported Jews:
-- from Baltic states
-- from Eastern Poland
-- from Bukovina
-- from Bessarabia;

and see also a map of Martin Gilbert "Flight and Expulsion" from his Soviet History Atlas from 1972 p.56:

Map of Martin Gilbert about the
                              deportations and flight movements in
                              Eastern Europe 1939-1945  
Map of Martin Gilbert about the deportations and flight movements in Eastern Europe 1939-1945.
Martin Gilbert, portrait
Martin Gilbert, portrait

The map says for no. 1:
<1,700,000 Baltic peoples and Poles deported to Siberia after the Soviet annexations 1939-1940.>

This map is not complete:
-- In this deportation figure are also Jews, can be estimated at least 200,000 to 300,000.
-- Bukovina and Bessarabia are also occupied by Soviet Union 1940-1941 and there are also Stalin deportations for no. 1 which are missing (quoted in Lustiger, see above)

24. Retreat of Jews with the Red Army to the inner Russia (Big Flight from Barbarossa)

Only even for White Russia there are estimated 150,000-180,000.
(in: Gerlach, Christian: "Calculated Murders" ["Kalkulierte Morde"] 1999 p.92 footnote 338)].
                Gerlach: Calculated murders (orig. German: Kalkulierte
                Morde), cover   Christian
                Gerlach, portrait
Christian Gerlach: Calculated murders (orig. German: Kalkulierte Morde), cover

Considering the whole front from which the Red Army had to retreat (from Baltic states to the Black Sea) and considering that Martin Gilbert indicates a total figure of 9 mio. Russians, Poles, Ukrainians and Jews (Soviet History Atlas (1972), p.56) so a figure of 1 mio. Jews who have saved themselves with the Red Army to the inner of the Soviet Union does not seem to be improbable. (conclusion Palomino).

See also: Encyclopaedia Judaica, article "Holocaust, Rescue from",
Encyclopaedia Judaica, volumes

and see also a map of Martin Gilbert "Flight and Expulsion" from his Soviet History Atlas from 1972 p.56:
Map of Martin Gilbert about the deportations and
                  flight movements in Eastern Europe 1939-1945   Martin Gilbert, Portrait
Map of Martin Gilbert about the deportations and flight movements in Eastern Europe 1939-1945: According to Gilbert in 1941 9 mio. Russians, Poles, Ukrainians and Jews flee to the inner Soviet Union and mostly come back in 1946.

Martin Gilbert indicates in his book "Final solution" (German edition: "Die Endlösung", p.242) concerning the Big flight from Barbarossa:

<Besides the 300,000 survivors of the concentration camps survived almost another 1.5 mio. European Jews.>

Projection without claim for correctness:

So, an estimation that 1 mio. Jews were fleeing in 1941 does not seem to be too much. Among them were many skilled workers who were not drawn into the Red Army, but many were also drawn into the Red Army.

But one has to consider that a self-made flight of Jews is not possible any more since 24 June 1941. These are Jews who are not "important for the war", who are poor or who did not believe that there will be an outbreak of the war, and their flight finds an end at least at the Russian border line. The Russian authorities simply don't let them pass the border.

This can be seen in the book of Tec:
Nechama Tec: Bewaffneter Widerstand,
                          Buchdeckel   Nechama Tec, Portrait
Nechama Tec: book: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (Bewaffneter Widerstand), cover

Nechama Tec: Defiance. The Bielski partisans (German.:Bewaffneter Widerstand. Jüdische Partisanen im Zweiten Weltkrieg). Bleicher publishing house, Gerlingen 1996

Tec indicates that many Jews can join the flight of the Red Army, but many also stay because of family connections who don't want to fly, and therefore there are many Jews not taking the flight first.


<Therefore many thought it would be better joining the retreat of the Red Army ["Flight of Barbarossa"].

There are for example Estelle and Joshua Bielski surviving the war in the interior of Soviet Union. But most of them did not perform their flight projects. This was in cases of family members who resigned accompaning the flight of the people who wanted to fly.

There was for example Riva Reich of a wealthy family in Stolpce urging their family members for the flight joining the retreat of the Red Army. But her mother had taken the flight during the First World War already and resigned a second flight fate in her life. Riva implored her husband for the flight with the baby but also he could not be convinced - and therefore the whole familystayed in Stolpce at the end.>

(original in German:
So hielten es viele für sicherer, sich dem Rückzug der Roten Armee anzuschliessen ["Flucht vor Barbarossa"].

Zu den wenigen, die auf diese Weise in der UdSSR den Krieg überlebten, gehörten Estelle und Joshua Bielski. Den meisten gelang es jedoch nicht, ihre Fluchtpläne in die Tat umzusetzen. Hinderungsgrund waren in vielen Fällen Familienangehörige, die sich weigerten, die Aufbruchswilligen zu begleiten.

Die aus einer wohlhabenden Familie in Stolpce stammende Riva Reich drängte ihre Verwandten, sich dem Rückzug der Roten Armee anzuschliessen. Ihre Mutter jedoch, die bereits während des Ersten Weltkriegs zur Flucht gezwungen worden war, weigerte sich, das Flüchtlingsschicksal ein zweites Mal zu durchleben. Riva flehte ihren Mann an, mit ihr und dem Baby zusammen davonzulaufen. Doch auch er liess sich nicht überzeugen - die ganze Familie blieb schliesslich in Stolpce).

Nechama Tec: Buch:
                            Bewaffneter Widerstand, S. 42 (01)
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter Widerstand, S. 42 (01)
And add to this Jews undertaking their flight privately cannot reach far because of destroyed streets (p.42).


<But even where there was the will for a flight, the flight only succeeded in rare cases. Many Jews were forced to go back because all streets of the regions were destroyed by bombs.>

(original in German:
Aber selbst dort, wo der Wille zur Flucht vorhanden war, gelang diese nur selten. Viele Juden wurden zur Umkehr gezwungen, weil alle Strassen der Umgebung von Bomben zerstört waren).
Nechama Tec:
                            Buch: Bewaffneter Widerstand, Seite 42 (02)
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter Widerstand, Seite 42 (02)
And when self-made flight Jews reached the Russian border their immigration was forbidden by Soviet authorities. But Bielorussians can cross the border.

<Who could reach the Russian border was stopped there at least. The Soviets wanted to reduce the Jewish stream of refugees into Soviet Union. The journalist Hersh Smolar e.g. who was a convinced communist and had been for 7 years in Polish prisons because of forbidden political agitation, he says that Stalin's suspicion to foreigners was the cause for this policy. His meaning is:

The Russians were murderers. The ordered the Jews digging trenches and let them there. Also I had this fate. The Red Army simply ran away without taking me with them. I sent a report about this to Moscow. But the government suppressed this kind of messages.

It seemed that during this retreat without order the Russians favored the Bielorussians. During the Soviet occupation there had been many Bielorussians who had gone to military service of the Red Army voluntarily, and others were cooperating with the Communist administration. At the beginning of the German Russian war all Bielorussians who wanted to fly to the Russian interior received the permissions for an immigration. [...]

But the Jews were desperate and looking for solutions, and when the Red Army was going on with it's retreat or was dissolving, the attacks of the Germans were going (p.43) on.> (p.44)

(original in German:

<Wer den Durchbruch zur russischen Grenze schaffte, wurde in der Regel spätestens dort gestoppt. Die Sowjets versuchten den Zustrom jüdischer Flüchtlinge in die UdSSR zu unterbinden. Der Journalist Hersh Smolar, der als überzeugter Kommunist wegen verbotener politischer Agitation sieben Jahre in polnischen Gefängnissen einsass, macht Stalins Misstrauen gegenüber Ausländern für diese Politik verantwortlich. Sein Urteil lautet:

Die Russen waren Mörder. Sie befahlen den Juden, Schützengräben auszuheben und liessen sie dann dort zurück. Auch mir erging es so. Die Rote Armee rannte einfach davon, ohne uns mitzunehmen. Ich schickte einen Bericht darüber nach Moskau. Doch die Regierung unterdrückte diese Art von Meldungen.

Es schien, als begünstigten die Russen selbst bei ihrem ungeordneten Rückzug noch die Weissrussen. Während der sowjetischen Besatzungszeit hatten sich viele Weissrussen freiwillig zum Dienst in der Roten Armee gemeldet, andere kooperierten mit der kommunistischen Verwaltung. Mit Beginn des deutsch-russischen Krieges erhielten fast alle Weissrussen, die sich in die UdSSR absetzen wollten, die Genehmigung zur Einreise. [...]

Während die Juden noch verzweifelt nach Auswegen suchten, während sich die Rote Armee auf dem Rückzug oder in Auflösung befand, hielten die Angriffe der Deutschen unvermindert (S. 43) an.> (S.44)

Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter
                            Widerstand, Seite 43
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter Widerstand, Seite 43

Estimations about the number of Jews taking the flight with the Red Army at the whole front: 1 million

This is an estimation without requirement to be right:

Considering the whole eastern front (from the Baltic states to the Black sea) where the Red Army had to retreat, and considering that the historian Martin Gilbert indicates a total number of 9 million Russiand, Poles, Ucrainians and Jews (in Soviet History Atlas of 1972, p.56), so a number of 1 million Jews retreating with the Red Army to Soviet interior seems probable (conclusion of Palomino).

Conclusion of Palomino: The organized "big flight" was successful - but the private self-made "big flight" was without success

The organized flight of estimated 1 million Jews at the "Big Flight" were above all "war important" experts who were not torn to the Red Army from 1942 to 1944, and Jews who could organize their flight with the Red Army. Many more Jews would have liked a flight, but family members hindered them, or the streets were in bad conditions after the bombings hindering the flight, or Soviet Union did not let in the private flight Jews and let them at the border line. With this any contradiction about the "Big Flight" is cleared. An organized flight and a self-made private flight movement has to be destinguished in this "Big Flight".

Further literature about the Big Flight from Barbarossa (indications from Hans Gerlach)

-- Mordechai Altshuler: Escape and Evacuation of Soviet Jews at the Time of the Nazi Invasion: Policies and Realities; In: Lucjan Dobroszycki / Jeffrey S. Gurock (Ed..): The Holocaust in the Soviet Union; Armonk and London 1993, p.77-104

-- Dov Levin: The Fateful Decision: The Flight of the Jews into the Soviet Interior in the Summer of 1941; Yad Vashem Studies 20, 1990, p.115-142

25. Church opens church books to the NS state to issue "Aryan identity cards" - and for the persecution of Christian spouses

Joachim Kahl: Buch: Das Elend des
                          Christentums, Ausgabe 1976   Joachim Kahl, Portrait
Joachim Kahl: Buch: Das Elend des Christentums.

Joachim Kahl: Book: The misery with Christianity (orig. German: Das Elend des Christentums), cover of the edition of 1976,  ISBN 3-499-11093-8

Joachim Kahl: Buch: Das Elend des
                            Christentums, Seite 41 (Ausgabe 1976)
Joachim Kahl: Buch: Das Elend des Christentums (la miseria del cristianismo), p 41 (edición 1976)

<Statal Arian paragraph was accepted and assigned to the functionaries of the church. By this there were thousands of pastorates rendering a service to the murder machinery giving out the data about the marriages for Arian permits for non-Jews, and by this also rendered the service detecting who was not member of this master race sending them to their doom.>

(original in German:
Der staatliche Arierparagraph wurde hingenommen und vielfach auf kirchliche Funktionäre übertragen. Tausende von Pfarrämtern leisteten der Mordmaschinerie Handlangerdienste, indem sie auf Grund ihrer Kirchenbücher die Ariernachweise für die Nichtjuden erbrachten und damit zwangsläufig diejenigen ans Messer lieferten, die nicht zur Herrenrasse zählten).

The church opens the church books where the marriages are indicated. By this it's possible to distribute Aryan permits. But at the same time it's also said who is not an "Aryan", and by this 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 Jews are defined and pursued.

(See: Joachim Kahl: Das Elend des Christentums oder Plädoyer für eine Humanität ohne Gott. Reinbek 1968, p.51, ISDN 3-499-11093-8; in the edition of 1976 it's p.41)

Cronology of Michael Palomino: Rassistische, gewalttätige, gierige, antisemitische Kirche (by Kahl)

More precise indications about figures of "non-Aryans", half Jews, quarter Jews and 3/4 Jews is giving e.g. Yehuda Bauer:

-- Yehuda Bauer: My Brother's Keeper: A History of the American Joint Distribution Committee. Philadelphia 1974, ISBN  0-8276-0048-8
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper.
                  History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution
                  Committee 1929-1939", cover 01   Yehuda Bauer, Buch "My
                Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                Distribution Committee 1929-1939, Buchdeckel 02  Yehuda
                Bauer, portrait 
Yehuda Bauer, book: "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", cover

1/4-, 1/2- and 3/4 Jews in Germany ("Old Reich") in 1935:
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's
                            Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                            Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page
                            114: 499,682 Jews plus 292,000 half, quarter
                            and 3/4 Jews, are 760,000 people which are
                            persecuted in 1935.
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 114: 499,682 Jews plus 292,000 half, quarter and 3/4 Jews, are 760,000 people which are persecuted in 1935.

By the Nuremberg laws from 1935 not only 499,682, but 760,000 people are persecuted as Jews (52 % more). The so called "non-Aryans" consist of 80,000 quarter Jews (one of four grandparents are Jewish), 210,000 half Jews (two of four grandparents are Jewish), and 2000 3/4 Jews (three of four grandparents are Jewish) (p.114).

<The total number of Jews in Germany in 1933 was officially listed as 499,682. However, this included only people who had declared themselves as Jews by religion. Additional tens of thousands of people were Jewish by Nazi definition.

There were 50,000 individuals who were sons and daughters of Jewish parents but did not belong to the Jewish community living in Germany at that time, an estimated 35,000 of whom were partners in mixed marriages.

So-called three-quarter Jews (that is, people who had only one non-Jewish grandparent but did not belong to the Jewish community) numbered about 2,000.

Half Jews (that is, people who had two non-Jewish grandparents) were estimated at 210,000 people,

and quarter Jews were estimated at 80,000 individuals.

This meant that what the Nazis considered to be the non-Aryan population of Germany - that is, Jews, three-quarter Jews, and half Jews - numbered together about 760,000 people.> (p.114)
-- Yehuda Bauer, Buch "My
                              Brother's Keeper. History of the American
                              Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
                              1929-1939", page 179: 185.246 Jews in
                              March 1938 in Austria

1/4-, 1/2- and 3/4 Jews in Austria ("Ostmark") in 1938:
After the German invasion in Austria in spring 1938 to the 185,246 Jews (p.179) are added at least 150,000 persons as "non-Aryans" (quarter Jews, half Jews, 3/4 Jews) who are persecuted in Austria as Jews. The number of the persecuted amounts to 335,246 persons (81 % more).

This can be found in the book of Yehuda Bauer "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 179: 185.246 Jews in March 1938 in Austria

<In March 1938 Hitler conquered Austria by a Blumenkrieg, that is, the only things that were thrown at the German soldiers upon their entry into Austria were flowers. Austrian Jews, 185,246 of them, and an unknown number of persons considered Jewish by Nazi criteria found themselves trapped.> (p.179)

-- Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 179: 185.246 Jews in March 1938 in Austria
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's
                              Keeper. History of the American Jewish
                              Joint Distribution Committee
                              1929-1939", page 228: At least
                              150,000 more Jews
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 228: At least 150,000 more Jews


<converted Jews or descendants of Jews who fell under the definition of a Jew by Nazi standards. There were at least 150,000 of these in Austria.> (p.228)

-- Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 228: At least 150,000 more Jews

If the Nuremberg laws were applied also in other NS countries has to be investigated.

In the states which were NS occupied since 1941 like White Russia and Ukraine there was no persecution of half Jews, quarter Jews and 3/4 Jews possible because the churches had been destroyed since 1921, and because the Red Army had taken all documents to the inner Russia during the "Big Flight from Barbarossa". In the Baltic states the church books could have existed yet because there was only a short communist occupation there (information on telephone from Bernhard Chiari from 26th September 2007).

26. Denunciation of Jews in the NS occupied Eastern Europe 1941-1944

                Chiari: Book: Everyday life behind the front (orig.
                German: Alltag hinter der Front), cover
Bernhard Chiari: Book: Everyday life behind the front (orig. German: Alltag hinter der Front), cover

The church in Eastern Europe which had been destroyed under Communism (sovietization) was waiting for Hitler's invasion against Communism and against the Jews and then was preaching for Hitler's victory.

(See e.g. in White Russia: Bernhard Chiari: Everyday life behind the front (orig. German: Alltag hinter der Front. Besatzung, Kollaboration und Widerstand in Weissrussland 1941-1944). Edition Droste Düsseldorf, 1998, p.104-105).

But there was no denunciation wave in White Russia by church documents:

According to a direct information from Bernhard Chiari by telephone (26th September 2007) there was more an oral denunciation in White Russia to find out Jews than a denunciation by church documents. First: Churches in communist states were destroyed and the marriages were performed only by the state. Second: The Red Army took all administration books with the withdrawal April-June 1941. Third: Where the withdrawal was too slow - or where the NS invasion was too fast, the administration books were destroyed by bombs.

The Baltic states had not such a long communist regime like White Russia and it can be that the church structures had not been destroyed. And Ukraine had 10 days more time for the withdrawal of the Red Army because the NS invasion in the South began 10 days later than in the middle and in the north.

So, the NS administration - above all in the countryside - had not administration books and there was a huge oral denunciation to be Jewish - surely in White Russia and in the Ukraine with criterions like
-- which language you speak
-- what form is your nose or your ears
-- stature and walking

So it can be admitted: A big part of the Jews who had stayed had been executed in three execution waves 1941-1942. When there were depths at a Jew there was enough to denounce the Jew and the depths ended in smoke. And for every denunciation there was a reward by the NS administration. But the 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 Jews could better go into hiding because there was no pursuit by documents, and they were hardly affected by the executions.

For White Russia and the three execution waves see: Bernhard Chiari: Every day life behind the front [orig. German: Alltag hinter der Front. Besatzung, Kollaboration und Widerstand in Weissrussland 1941-1944]. Edition Droste Düsseldorf, 1998:

-- July 1941 (p.245, 246 and others)
-- September-November 1941 (p.237, 238, 248, 250, 257 and others)
-- March-August 1942 (p.240, 247, 248, 253, 257, 266, 267 and others)

27. Mass execution waves

A big part of the Jews who had stayed (not organized Jews, poor, Jews who did not want to leave their parents etc.) were executed in three execution waves 1941-1942.

The extermination of the Jews in NS Eastern Europe was performed step by step in different execution waves and "big actions", according to the spots at different times.

At the end the few lasting Jews were concentrated in an administration building as a night prison etc.

Examples are shown here from Bielorussia:

Nechama Tec: Bewaffneter Widerstand, Buchdeckel   Nechama
                Tec, Portrait
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter Widerstand (Defiance), cover

Nechama Tec: Bewaffneter Widerstand. Jüdische Partisanen im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Bleicher Verlag, Gerlingen 1996; orig.: "Defiance, the Bielski Partisans". Oxford University Press, Inc., New York 1993; ISBN 3-88350-036-4

-- there is a first execution wave in summer 1941 (in whole Eastern Europe in July and August 1941), with death squads for whole Eastern Europe (p.51),
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter
                              Widerstand, S. 51
Nechama Tec: book: Bewaffneter Widerstand, p. 51

<When in Summer 1941 the Germans occupied the Russian part of Poland, Berlin was already preparing the so called final solution. Accelerating the destruction of all Jews [who had not taken the successful flight], self-operating special task forces were formed which consisted in 3,000 persons of SS members who were specially prepared for killing the Jews and other "enemies" of the Reich. This killing commands formed the rearguard of the invasion troops. It was their strategy isolating the Jewish population hermetically before the victims had time for taking their flight. The following mass executions were also executed by parts of the Wehrmacht and local collaborators.>

(original in German:
Als die Deutschen im Sommer 1941 den russisch besetzten Teil Polens überfielen, hatte man in Berlin bereits mit der Durchführung der so genannten Endlösung begonnen. Um den Prozess der Vernichtung aller Juden zu beschleunigen, wurden selbständig operierende Spezialeinheiten zusammengestellt. Diese "Einsatzgruppen" bestanden aus 3000 gezielt für die Ermordung von Juden und anderen "Feinden" des Reichs ausgebildeten SS-Angehörigen. Die Tötungskommandos bildeten die Nachhut der Invasionstruppen. Zu ihrer Strategie gehörte, jüdische Bevölkerungszentren hermetisch abzuriegeln, bevor den überraschten Opfern Zeit zur Flucht blieb. An den sich anschliessenden Massenexekutionen beteiligten sich auch Teile der Wehrmacht und einheimische Kollaborateure).

-- example of the first execution wave in Lida (p.63)
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter
                              Widerstand, S. 63
Nechama Tec: book: Bewaffneter Widerstand, p. 63

<In Lida the first mass execution of Jews had happened already on 5 of July 1941. Almost 200 prominent Jewish citizens were killed. Realists meant that this massacre would be only the beginning of the destruction wave. Others had the argument that these murders had happened because it was war and would be a singular event. But soon rumors followed telling about more mass executions and rumors about the installation of ghettos, and therefore the second theory soon was found false.>

(original in German:
In Lida hatte die erste Massenexekution von Juden bereits am 5. Juli 1941 stattgefunden. Fast zweihundert prominente jüdische Bürger fielen ihr zum Opfer. Realisten waren der Meinung, dass dieses Massaker nur der Auftakt einer verheerenden Vernichtungswelle war. Andere argumentierten, dass die Morde in der Hitze des Gefechts geschehen seien und deshalb ein einmaliges Vorkommnis darstellten. Bald jedoch führten Nachrichten über weitere Massenerschiessungen und Gerüchte über die Errichtung von Ghettos letztere Theorie ad absurdum).

-- first "big actino" in Novogrodek (second executino wave) on 7 December 1941 (p.62)
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter
                              Widerstand, S. 62 (02)
Nechama Tec: book: Bewaffneter Widerstand, p. 62 (02)

<On 7 December 1941 the newly installed ghetto of Novogrodek had an "action" murdering 4,000 Jews.>

(original in German:
Am 7. Dezember 1941 wurde im neu gegründeten Ghetto Nowogródek eine "Aktion" durchgeführt, die mit der Ermordung von 4000 Juden endete).

-- second "big action" in Novogrodek (within the third big execution wave), on 7 August 1942, and only stay some 100s of Jews (p.98)
-- the ghetto in Novogrodek is "filled up" with other Jews from the region on about 10 August 1942 (p.98)
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter
                              Widerstand, S. 98
Nechama Tec: book: Bewaffneter Widerstand, p. 98

<A short time after o 7 August 1942, there was the second big actino in Novogrodek. The guetto then was almost without people and was filled up again with Jews from the region.>

(original in German: ur
Kurz darauf, am 7. August 1942, fand in Nowogródek die zweite grosse Aktion statt. Das beinahe menschenleere Ghetto wurde anschliessend mit Juden aus den umliegenden Gemeinden gefüllt).

-- at the beginning of 1943: Most of the Jewish communities do not exist any more, e.g. in Mir, Nieswiez, Ivye, Zoludek and Zdziencio (p.160)
-- since the beginning of 1943 the ghetto is eliminated step by step (p.160)
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter
                              Widerstand, S. 160
Nechama Tec: book: Bewaffneter Widerstand, p. 160

<At the beginning of 1943, most of the Jewish communities in White Russia did not exist any more, with them Mir, Nieswiez, Ivye, Zoludek and Zdzienciol, only mentioning some of them. (The gueto of Zoludek was liquidated on 9 May 1942, the guetto of Nieswiez on 22 July 1942, of Zdzienciol on 6 August 1942. After a mass outbreak of about 300 persons also the guetto of Mir was liquidated. In Ivye the guetto was destroyed on 20 January 1943). The guettos of Lida and Novogrodek existed yet at the beginning of 1943, but were decimated by the Germans [and their colaborators] systematically step by step. [...]

(original in German:
Anfang 1943 existierten die meisten jüdischen Gemeinden Weissrusslands nicht mehr, darunter Mir, Nieswiez, Iwje, Zoludek und Zdzienciol, um nur einige zu nennen. (Das Ghetto Zoludek wurde am 9. Mai 1942 liquidierte, Nieswiez am 22. Juli 1942, Zdzienciol am 6. August 1942. Nach dem Massenausbruch von etwa 300 Insassen erfolgte am 13. August 1942 die Liquidierung des Ghettos Mir. Iwje wurde am 20. Januar 1943 ausgelöscht). Die Ghettos von Lida und Nowogródek existierten Anfang 1943 zwar noch, wurden von den Deutschen [und den Kollaborateuren] jedoch kontinuierlich dezimiert. [...]

Zu Beginn des Krieges gab es in Nowogródek etwa 6000 Juden, nach der zweiten grossen Säuberungsaktion vom 7. August 1942 nur noch wenige hundert).

-- in spring 1943 a resettlement of the remaining concise 500 Jews is performed installing them in the building of the court which gets 12 policemen as a guard (p.281).
Nechama Tec: Buch: Bewaffneter
                              Widerstand, S. 281
Nechama Tec: book: Bewaffneter Widerstand, p. 281

<Until spring 1943, the number of Jews in Novogrodek was coming down to hardly 500. This group was kept in the court building in very narrow conditions. This guetto was guarded by day and night by 12 policemen. Add to this the territory was framed by a two meters high wall and a barbed wire. But despite all this some groups succeeded with their flight. As a reaction on this outbreak the Germans [and their colaborators] reinforced the guards.>

(original in German:
Die Zahl der Juden war in Nowogródek bis zum Frühjahr 1943 auf knapp 500 gesunken. Diese Gruppe wurde im ehemaligen Gerichtsgebäude auf engstem Raum gefangen gehalten. Das Ghetto wurde Tag und Nacht von 12 Polizisten bewacht. Zusätzlich war das Gelände von einer zwei Meter hohen Mauer und einem Stacheldrahtzaun umgeben. Dennoch gelang vereinzelten kleinen Gruppen die Flucht. Als Reaktion auf jeden geglückten Ausbruch verstärkten die Deutschen ihre Wachmannschaft).

And when the Jews were killed in the mass executinos, the depts of the "Christians" ended in smoke:

Bernhard Chiari: Buch: Alltag hinter
                            der Front, Buchdeckel
Bernhard Chiari: book: Alltag hinter der Front (Daily life behind the front), cover

Bernhard Chiari: Alltag hinter der Front. Besatzung, Kollaboration und Widerstand in Weissrussland 1941-1944 (Daily life behind the front. Resistance in Bielorussia 1941-1944). Edition Droste, Düsseldorf, 1998

Viele Bevölkerungskreise sind bei Juden verschuldet und freuen sich, dass durch die deutschen Massaker sich die Schulden in Luft auflösen (S.2).
Bernhard Chiari: Buch: Alltag hinter
                              der Front, S.2
Bernhard Chiari: Buch: Alltag hinter der Front (Daily life behind the front), cover, p.2

<Mischievously he explained how many neighbors had many depts with the Jews.>

(original in German:
Verschmitzt erklärte er, viele seiner Nachbarn seien bei den Juden verschuldet gewesen).

And until autumn of 1943 hardly Jews were living in Eastern Europe, e.g. in the General Commissionary of "White Ruthenia", the core Bielorussia occupied by nazi troops (p.263).
Bernhard Chiari: Buch: Alltag hinter
                              der Front, S. 263
Bernhard Chiari: book: Alltag hinter der Front (Daily life behind the front), p. 263

<Until autumn of 1943, the Jews of the General Commissionary [of White Rughenia / Bielorussia] mostly had been killed.>

(original in German:
Bis zum Herbst 1943 waren die Juden im Generalkommissariat [Weissruthenien / Weissrussland] grösstenteils getötet worden).

In 1946 Stalin lets remigrate a part of the deported Jews to Eastern Europe who had been deported to Siberia from 1939 to 1941.

28. Mass death in Polish ghettos: Preparation of the mass death by long lasting Polish anti-Semitism before 1939

-- Yehuda Bauer: My Brother's Keeper: A History of the American Joint Distribution Committee. Philadelphia 1974, ISBN  0-8276-0048-8, p. 189
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper.
                  History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution
                  Committee 1929-1939", cover 01   Yehuda Bauer, Buch "My
                Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                Distribution Committee 1929-1939, Buchdeckel 02  Yehuda
                Bauer, portrait  
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", cover

The mass death in the ghettos in Poland 1939-1942 was provoked also by anti-Semitism of the Polish government before 1939. The Jewish population in anti-Semitic Poland already before 1939 was partly very undernourished and even in 1936 50 % of the Polish Jews were living like living skeletons.

Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's
                            Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                            Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page

Yehuda Bauer in his book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 189:

<The deterioration of Jewish economic life led to serious social and medical consequences. Sholem Asch, the famous Jewish writer, claimed that "people made the impression as if they were buried alive. Every second person was undernourished, skeletons of skin and bones, crippled, candidates for the grave".

(End note 33: "The Mourner at the Marriage Fete", October 1936; In: WAC, Box 366 (c)

It should be remembered that this was written three years before World War II [in Europe] began.>) (p.189)

Conclusion Palomino:
The undernourishment of the Polish Jews already before September 1939 was one of the main causes that then from 1939 to 1941 the Polish Jews under the NS regime in the ghettos were affected by contaminous diseases in masses. They had no reserves and power of resistance and by this they were dieing in masses. It seems very strange that Polish anti-Semitism and it's effects are more or less a taboo in the media until now.

29. Flight over the British Channel to England

Yehuda Bauer, Buch "My Brother's Keeper.
                  History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution
                  Committee 1929-1939", Seite 271   Yehuda Bauer, Buch "My Brother's Keeper.
                  History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution
                  Committee 1929-1939", Seite 331
In: Yehuda Bauer, Book: "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", page 271 and end note on page 331

<During the last months before the outbreak of war, illegal immigration was attempted even into Britain on a small scale. It is symptomatic that British sailors were reported to have facilitated such immigration and that British judges were inclined to recommend that such immigrants not be deported. (p.271)

End note 131: 31-Germany, refugees, 1939-42, 2/21/39, Adler to Borchardt> (p.331)

Thesis Palomino:
It's probable that the escape route over the British Channel was opened also 1940-1945 because since 1941 the war concentrated to the Eastern Front and the English and the "American" Air Force dominated the airspace over the channel totally.

30. Non-Aryans: Half Jews, quarter Jews, and 3/4 Jews

-- Yehuda Bauer: My Brother's Keeper: A History of the American Joint Distribution Committee. Philadelphia 1974, ISBN  0-8276-0048-8, p. 189
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper.
                  History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution
                  Committee 1929-1939", cover 01   Yehuda Bauer, Buch "My
                Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint
                Distribution Committee 1929-1939, Buchdeckel 02  Yehuda
                Bauer, Portrait 
Yehuda Bauer, book "My Brother's Keeper. History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1929-1939", cover

In Germany (the Old Reich) the number of persecuted people is rising from 499,682 to 760,000, so there are 260,000 Non-Aryans who are persecuted within the persecution of the Jews as half Jews, quarter Jews or 3/4 Jews according to the Nuremberg laws (p.114) Text original

In Austria there is the same persecution going on since April 1938: At least 150,000 humans are counted as Non-Aryans under the Nuremberg laws, half Jews, quarter Jews or 3/4 Jews who are also persecuted within the persecution of the Jews (p.228).
Text original

31. Numbers about the persecution of the Jews

Number of Jews worldwide 1937: 16 million

"By 1937 the dispersion of the 16 million Jews in the world"
(from: History; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, Vol. 8, col 733, here)

Approx. 50 % of the Jews are living on the "American" continent.

"After the Holocaust about 50% of the Jews were living on the American continent.")
(from: History; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, Vol. 8, col. 733, here)

Number of Jews worldwide 1970: 14 million.

"Among approximately 14 million Jews in the world in 1970" [...] Western Europe in 1970 numbered more than one million Jews, of whom about half a million were living in France and about 450,000 in Great Britain. The Soviet Union numbered approximately three million Jews;
(from: History; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 8, col. 733, here)

32. Cyclon B granulate has effect from 27°C on - and more factors for other kinds of death

in: Jean-Claude Pressac: "Auschwitz" (1997)

and it's not important if there is 1 kg or 100 kg of cyclon B granulate, the effect is working only from 27°C on (27 degrees Celsius).
(Jewish ex officer of the Swiss army in a conversation with the author)

Granulate is coarse-grained and has got an irregular surface so the coarse-grained corn can get stuck very easily in pipe curves. So, the probability that cyclon B granulate was falling down by the thin water pipes into shower heads is not very probable.
(Jewish ex officer of the Swiss army in a conversation with the author)

The granulate is said have been fallen by the shower heads what is not possible because the granulate grain cannot pass the little holes in the shower head.

For gassing there is needed a gas proof room so the gas cannot escape. A basement of the dead or a mass shower room don't seem to be made gas proof, and nowhere is mentioned that they had been made gas proof.

Gassing of detainees by cyclon B granulate is said having been performed in cold basements half under the earth where it's hardly 27°C war in summer. By this use of cyclon B granulate for mass killing gets more unreal. These basements were former basements of dead bodies which were particularly built in a way that they would never get warm.

According to the Auschwitz films of the 1970s the main part of the mass killings in Auschwitz by cyclon B granulate had been performed during the Polish winter 1944 / 1945 when a temperature of 27°C is even less probable. During the Polish winter there can be admitted a medium temperature of minus 10 °C. Cyclon B granulate does not have any effect.

All in all there is missing any staging of the scenery with animals with measuring of temperatures.

But all other kinds of death are safe and proved and the result is also 4.5-6 mio. or over 6 mio. death victims. Mass death by forced labour on the territory of the Third Reich is much more probable and does not depend on temperatures considering tunnel constructioning. This also would correspond to the efficiency of the Third Reich and is proved by documents. Until now it's not clear why the access to the camps has never been bombed because also the safe kinds of death in the camps have been horrible enough: mass shootings, death by cold, death by hunger, death by epidemics. And Auschwitz is also with these kinds of death a center of the persecution of the Jews and of the persecution of the Jews. Add to this one has to take into consideration a much higher death rate in the Red Army and all other parts of the new table about the persecution of the Jews.

The attorneys, women attorneys, and the judges and women judges are all together too unbileaving, too lazy or too overcharged to become acquainted with the new literature about the persecution of the Jews. Further education is not paid by the state. The humans of justice keep cyclon B granulate as the central means of death of the persecution of the Jews because they cannot imagine that the mass death could have been passed also in another way. So, the humans of justice are defending their history books of their history teachers. Justice is also interspersed by a certain group pressure. The censorship is absolute. Justice simply resigns to all proofs for other kinds of deaths. As long as the salary is all right for them justice does not feel stimulated to change this pigheaded practice of justice.

By this further people is persecuted because of cyclon B granulate although this would not be necessary at all.

(conclusion Palomino by political persecution)

33. Not born Jewish children because of the death of the future parents or because of infertility of Jewish women survivors

Indication in the author's circle of acquaintances.

When people is living on a minimum through years the body is changing it's functioning and the women don't have their menstruation any more. If this is happening for years there can be corporal damages which stay forever. By this many Jewish women were not capable any more to give birth to a child after the war.

As every year the number of Jewish children which had not been born is rising there cannot be made any estimation.

Projection without claim for correctness:

When one estimates that only 500,000 Jewish girls and women who died as children resp. in prolific age or became fruitless had had 5 Jewish children, of these statistically 2.5 girls, from these 2 again had had 5 children, so this would be 1 mio. fold 5, so 5 mio. Jewish children by whose Jewry was reduced after 1945 in two generations.

34. Not born Jewish children since 1945 because Jewish girls who are not given back by Christian families will not give birth to Jews any more

Conclusion by the author.

During the prosecution of the Jews many Jewish families gave their children to Christian families so the children would not be under the persecution of the Jews. By that the children got a Christian education and after 1945 they often were not given back because the parents had died or had emigrated. The Red Cross was mediating in the latter and other cases. Jewish organizations often were appealing in vain that the children should be rendered. The children - often now under new Christian names - grew up christianized and when they were parents they got Christian children instead of Jewish children.

Projection without claim for correctness:

As every year the number of Jewish children which had not been born is rising there cannot be made any estimation, too. The number of not rendered Jewish children could be given by the Jewish organizations. When one estimates 50,000 Jewish daughters who had been christianized by that, and every daughter had had 5 Jewish children, statistically 2.5 would be girls again and 2 of them again 5 children, this would be 100,000 fold 5, are 500,000 Jewish children by whose Jewry was reduced after 1945 in two generations.

35. Emigration movement from NS Europe 1933-1939

Hitler organized pressure on Jewish congregations and by this about half of German Jews in Third Reich emigrated between 1933 and 1939 from Germany, partly to oversea destinations ("USA", Palestine, Caribbean, South "Ameria" etc.). The indications in the article "Germany" of the big Encyclopaedia Judaica in volume 7 col. 491 are generally the following:

[Table with Jewish emigration 1933-1939: Numbers of the emigration of the Jews from Nazi Germany]
Emigration of Jews from Germany in the Period April 1933 to May 19391, including Areas occupied by Germany by May 19391 [[with Austria]]
1Estimated figures
Country of Reception
No. of German [[Jewish]] immigrants
Great Britain
South Africa
Other European countries
Other South American countries
Far Eastern countries

from: from: Germany; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7, col. 491

The original sheet of Encyclopaedia Judaica with this table can be seen here:

The text excerpt of Encyclopaedia Judaica with the organization of emigration by Jewish organizations, with Haavara agreement and with emigration table is here:

Haavara agreement from August 1933 in detail can be seen here:

Another table in Yehuda Bauer's book about the Joint Distribution Committee indicates the emigration of the Third Reich territories from 1929 to 1939 indicating 440,000 official Jews emigrated under HICEM and the Joint, look here:

And the article "Migration" of Encyclopaedia Judaica is fixing clearly that there was a big emigration wave from Nazi Europe:

Emigration was going on also after 1939, a little bit less, but steadily, and from 1944 emigration movement was beginning again, directly from Eastern Europe by Black Sea or since 1945 by Central Europe to oversea countries. Add to this there were big flight movements, in 1939 in Poland to the Eastern zoviet zoone of Poland. In 1940 there was a big flight movement in Western Europe to South of France of Pétain and to the Italian zone of France. From 1940 to 1941 there were Stalin deportations of class enemies in Soviet occupied territories of 1939, and in 1941 there was the Big Flight of Barbarossa to central Soviet Union. All these emigration and flight movements are absolutely denied by German, Swiss, and French justice until today (2010) claiming 6 mio. murdered Jews under Hitler (emigration denial).

The inofficially emigrated persons under other organizations are not included in the Bauer table. At the same time emigrated refugees who only reached neighbouring countries of France and Benelux states were deported since 1942/1943 yet after German occupation of whole France which is missing in the tables too. And in Switzerland there were cases of Jewish refugees who were handed to Nazi Germany again by immigration authorities. These cases must be subtracted from the emigration to Switzerland, may be appr. 2,000 cases. Precise figures have local historians of Switzerland.

Precise examples of emigration of NS territories 1933-1939

The courts of Germany, of Switzerland, and of France are denying until today (2010) the emigration of a part of the Jews from 1933 until 1939. There are precise examples with emigration indicated in literature. But German, Swiss and French ustice are concealing this in a criminal manner. So, justice is refusing further education. Here are some examples of Jewish emigration from 1933 to 1939 and furter on until 1941, and again since 1944/45, compiled from two volumes of Encyclopaedia Judaica, the volumes no. 11 and no. 12. Since 1948 many Jews have moved to Palestine in their Israel euphoria. But it never had been possible any foundation of Israel when there had not been many Jews emigrating since 1933. Many detectives and judges never have read any sheet of Encyclopaedia Judaica in their hands until today (2010), because they are rejecting any further education, because they mean that this would not be important, and because their salary is paid also without further education, also when their judgements about the persecution of the Jews are false. Of course this "manner of work" is a skandal, and all this is paid by the tax payers - and by all this it's a doubled skandal...

Emigration from Luxembourg
There is e.g. the article about LUxembourg:

During the invasion of Wehrmacht there is a Big Flight to France:

"At the time of the invasion of Luxembourg on May 10, 1940, over 1,000 of the 4,000 Jews in the grand duchy (among them about 1,000 refugees) managed to flee to France."

This flight mostly headed to South of France under Pétain. Then Luxembourg was aryanized:

<After the German annexation, discriminatory racial laws operating throughout the Reich were extended to the grand duchy (Sept. 5, 1940), and 335 commercial enterprises were handed over to "Aryans".>

Then the NS regime made pressure for more emigration against the Jews who were staying in Luxembourg yet, and further Jews were emigrating:

"On Sept. 13, 1940 the *Gestapo announced that all the Jews would be deported on the following Day of Atonement if the consistory did not succeed in arranging their emigration prior to that date. Due to the consistory's efforts, particularly through a petition sent to *Himmler, this measure was postponed, but emigration remained the sole road to survival. Between Aug. 8, 1940 and May 26, 1941, when Rabbi Serebrenik was forced to leave in peril of his life, 700 Jews possessing more or less authentic visas fled overseas. In another operation, about 1,000 people were secretly evacuated to France in small groups."

Now there were 850 Jews yet in Luxembourg, and from these, another 127 were emigrating, and at the end there were 723 Jews deported, and 35 Jews are indicating having survived:

"After these rescue operations the consistory became the Aeltestenrat der Juden and administered the remaining 850 Jews. Of these, 127 emigrated in January 1942 and the rest were deported: only 35 of the latter survived."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonne 591)

But the number of survivors can be higher because after 1945 many Jews have not returned any more to their homelands, but they have emigrated by DP camps or directly from Eastern Europe to oversea countries resp. to Palestine, in many cases with new names or as "Christians". How many of the Luxembourg Jews have been deported in South of France since 1943/43 is also not indicated. It can be that these were 30% of the refugees having fled to South of France.

Emigration from Lübeck
In the article about Lübeck the indications for a big emigration movement since 1933 is clear with the following figures:
1913: 700 Jews
1937: 250 Jews
depoted Jews: 85.

The text:

"The Jewish population in the city rose from 522 in 1857 to 700 in 1913, but after the advent of the Nazis declined to 250 in 1937. The last 85 Jews were deported to Riga in 1941-42."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Lübeck Band 11, Kolonne 556)

There is missing the word "emigration" which seems strange, concealing the emigration.

Emigration from Lüneburg
In the article about Lüneburg there is the same thing:
1010: 145 Jews
1936: 36 Jews
1938: synagogue is closes
deported Jews: 11.

The text:

"The Jewish population increased slowly from 27 in 1811 to 145 in 1910. Between 1927 and 1930 the large synagogue, consecrated in 1894, was repeatedly desecrated and bombed by local anti-Semites and Nazis. By Oct. 1, 1936, only 36 Jews remained and on Oct. 30, 1938, final services were conducted in the synagogue which was then closed down. During World War II, 11 Jews were deported and lost their lives."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Lüneburg, Band 11, Kolonne 558)

When there are little towns there is probably not a complete emigration of all who have left, but: one part of the people who has left has emigrated, another part was forced to settle in other bigger towins, and some were captured. But it can be sure that one part of them has emigrated. The indication that the 11 deportees all had lost their lives probably also is not right because somebody who has not returned does not have died, but he can be emigrated after the war without coming back to his homeland, by DP camps or directly by Black Sea to ouversea countries or Palestine, in many cases with other names or as a "Christian".

According to Encyclopaedia Judaica there is a huge emigration movement between 1933 and 1939, although there is a big influx from the countryside, and this influx partly comes from forced resettlement from little towns. This means that the emigration had really enormous demensions.
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Mainz, Band 11, Kolonnen 791-792)

Also for Mannheim there are figures from Encyclopaedia Judaica which assume big emigration:
1931: 6402 Jews
1933: 6400 Jews
1938: 3000 Jews
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Mainz, Band 11, Kolonnen 887-888)

In Marburg the number of Jews was falling heavily between 1933 and 1939, there were deportations in 1941 and in 1942, and since 1948 there was another emigration again, probably to new founded Herzl Israel. The text of Encyclopaedia Judaica:

"In 1933 there were about 325 Jews in Marburg. On Nov. 10, 1938, the synagogue was burned down. By May 17, 1939, only 143 Jews remained; ten survived the war, while the rest left or were deported in 1941-1942. About 300 Jews lived in Marburg between 1945 and 1948, but by 1959 only 50 remained."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Marburg, Band 11, Kolonne 941)

Probably the indication that only 10 Jews had survived the war is not right because many survivors after 1945 emigrated to oversea countries or to Palestine by DP camps or directly from Eastern Europe to Black Sea, often with new names or as "Christians".

The article about Mecklenburg is hiding any Jewish emigration movement from 1933 to 1945.

Minden (W. Germany)
The numbers suggest an emigration from 1933 to 1939. But it's a little town, so a part of it can be also a forced resettlement to bigger towns.
1787: 65 Jews
1810: 81 Jews
1840: 193 Jews
1880: 267 Jews
1933: 192 Jews
1939: 107 Jews

The text:
"After emancipation, when Minden reverted to Prussia, the small community grew steadily, from 65 in 1787 to 81 in 1810, 193 in 1840, and 267 in 1880. Their numbers later decreased to 192 in 1933 and 107 in 1939, when there were 228 Jews in the district of Minden. During World War II, 179 Jews were deported from the town and district. The Memorbuch of the synagogue from the 17th and 18th centuries has been preserved. The synagogue built in 1867 was destroyed in 1938. After World War II a small community was reconstituted which had 44 members."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Minden; Band 12, Kolonne 4)

The article about Munich presents clear figures for the Jewish community:
1910: 11,000 Jews
1933: 10,000 Jews
1933-1938: emigration of 3,574 Jews
1939-1945: deportation of 4,500 Jews
1945-1950: 120.000 Jews passing Munich as refugees and DPs on their way to racist Herzl Israel.

The text:

"By 1910 20% of Bavarian Jews lived in the capital (11,000). There was also a steady immigration of Jews from Eastern Europe, mainly from Galicia, which lasted up to World War I. [[...]]

In the postwar years of economic and political upheaval, Munich was a hotbed of anti-Semitic activity and the cradle of the *Nazi party; many Jews from Eastern Europe were forced to leave Munich. Sporadic anti-Semitic outbursts characterized the years till the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, when Rheinhold *Heydrich and Heinrich *Himmler took control of the police; the first concentration camp, *Dachau, was erected near Munich. At the time the community numbered 10,000 persons, including an independent Orthodox community, and many cultural, social, and charitable organizations. Munich Jewry was subjected to particularly vicious and continuous acts of desecration, discrimination, terror and *boycotts, but responded with a Jewish cultural and religious revival.

Between 1933 and May 15, 1938, 3,574 Jews left Munich. On July 8, 1938, the main synagogue was torn down on Hitler's express orders. During the Kristallnacht two synagogues were burned down, 1,000 male Jews were arrested and interned in Dachau, and one was murdered. The communal center was completely ransacked.

During the war a total of 4,500 Jews were deported from Munich (3,000 of them to *Theresienstadt); only about 300 returned; 160 managed to outlive the war in Munich.

A new community was founded in 1945 by former concentration camp inmates, refugees, displaced persons, and local Jews. In the following five years about 120,000 Jews, refugees, and displaced persons passed through Munich on their way to Israel. The community increased from 1,800 persons in 1952 to 3,522 in January 1970 (70% of Bavarian Jewry)."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Munich; Band 12, Kolonne 523)

The presented figures about Muenster suggest a big emigration movement from 1933 to 1939:

"During the Nazi era the community was reduced from 558 Jews (0.4% of the population) in 1933 to 308 (0.2%) in 1939. The first deportation from Muenster city and district (to Riga) took place in December 1941 (403 persons); in 1942 the last large-scale transport went eastward, followed by individual deportations in 1943 and 1944. After World War II a new congregation was founded, which included besides Muenster the Jews of Ahaus, Beckum, Borken, Burgsteinfurt, Coesfeld. This new community of Muenster numbered 142 members in 1970."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Muenster; Band 12, Kolonne 505)

The text of Encyclopaedia Judaica about Niederstetten clearly indicates an emigration of a big part of the Jews before 1942:

"The community numbered 215 in 1854, decreased to 163 in 1900, and to 81 in 1933. In the 20th century Jews were active as wholesale merchants in leather and wine, and as shopkeepers. They also engaged in textile manufacturing and banking. They were active in political and cultural  life of the town, and one Jew was a member of the municipal council during Weimar Republic. In 1933 Jewish merchants were subject to the Nazi *boycott and some leaders of the community were physically assaulted. This resulted in large-scale Jewish emigration.

During the general destruction on Kristallnacht in 1938, the synagogue itself was preserved, but eight Jewishmen were sent to concentration camps. Between 1941 and 1942, 42 Jews were deported to extermination camps, never to return.

In early 1945 the synagogue was destroyed as a result of the war. The ritual objects of the community were saved, however, and turned over to a U.S. army chaplain when the war ended. All that was left in 1970 of a once active community in Niederstetten was the Jewish cemetery."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Niederstetten; Band 12, col. 1150)


It's possible that some of the 39 emigrated Jews have reached neighboring countries only and were deported at the end, resp. that they were handed over to SS in Switzerland. The synagogue was destroyed "as a result of the war", this means probably bombed and destructed by the "allies". Probably not all deportees have died because some of them have emigrated directly after 1945 to oversea countries or to Palestine, by DE camps or from Eastern Europe directly passing Black Sea, often with new names or as "Christians". Or they were shifted to Soviet Union. It seems that there was not founded any Jewish community any more after 1945, or when there was any, so the members had emigrated since 1948 to Palestine in the general Israel euphoria. This big emigration movement to Middle East war zone since 1948 can be watched world wide. It seems strange that this is not mentioned in this article. That's why that there are no Jews any more in Niederstetten in 1970.

This article especially mentiones emigration of 1933-1939:

"In 1925 the community numbered 438, in 1933 it had 394 members, five cultural and philanthropic organizations, and a religions school. In 1939, under the pressure of Nazi persecution and consequent emigration, the number of Jews declined to 128, and the community came to an end during World War II."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Nordhausen, Band 12, Kolonne 1215)


Also here have to be considered the connections for little towns: Probably not all people who have left have emigrated, but: a part of them has emigrated, another part was resettled in bigger towns, and some Jews were captured. But it is sure that there was emigration, and a little part of them only reached neighboring countries and yet was deported.

The text of Encyclopaedia Judaica indicates:
1899: 489 Jews
1913: 314 Jews
16 June 1933: 186 Jews
1933-1941 leve 145 Jews the town
since 1942: deportation of the rest of the Jews: 41.

Encyclopaedia Judaica indicates that 186 Jews were living in Noerdlingen in 1933, and before 1942 145 Jews have left the town, an indication that there was probably a strong emigraton movement:

"A community with 25 families was organized in 1870, dedicated a new synagogue in 1885, and formed a hevra kaddisha [[jüdische Bestattungsorganisation]] in 1898. It numbered 489 persons in 1899, and 314 (3.8% of the total) in 1913. By June 16, 1933, only 186 remained; 145 of them left before 1942, when the remnants of the Jewish community were deported. The mayor of the city prevented the destruction of the synagogue in 1938, and in 1952 it was sold to a Protestant group as a community center."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Noerdlingen; Band 12, col. 1206)


From Noerdlingen itself were deported 41 Jews. The Jews who left before were emigrating or resettling in bigger towns and it can be that a little part of them was also deported. Noerdlingen synagogue never was destroyed.

Jewish figures about Nuremberg indicate clearly a big emigration wave 1933-1939:
1933: 9,000 Jews
1939: 2,611 Jews.

The text:

"The Jewish population of Nuremberg increased from 11 in 1825, to 219 in 1858, and 3,032 in 1880. It continued to rise from 5,956 in 1900 to 8,603 in 1915, and 9,000 in 1933, making the second largest community in Bavaria. [[...]]

In 1939 only 2,611 Jews remained. A total of 1,601 were deported during the war (Dr. Benno Martin, head of the police, rescued many Jews from death and alleviated the suffering of others); the three main transports were 512 to *Riga on Nov. 29, 1941 (16 survived), 426 to *Izbica on March 25, 1942 (none survived), and 533 to *Theresienstadt on Sept. 10, 1942 (27 survived).

About 65 of the former inhabitants returned after the war and a community was reorganized, which numbered 181 in 1952 and 290 in 1970."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Nuremberg, Band 12, Kolonne 1279)

Also the figures about Oppenheim suggest an emigration wave from 1933 to 1939:

"The community numbered 20 families in 1807, 257 in 1872, 189 in 1880, and 56 in 1933. Of the 17 Jews who remained during World War II, 16 were deported. In 1970 no Jews lived in Oppenheim."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Oppenheim, Band 12, Kolonne 1418)


But Oppenheim is a little town and it's possible that a part of the Jews who had left Oppenheim was resettled in big towns, or that the emigrated only had reached neighboring countries and had deported from there.

The article about Osnabrueck clearly indicates an emigration movement before 1939:

"The community subsequently grew from 138 in 1871 to 379 in 1880 and 450 in 1925. A large synagogue was consecrated for the community of wealthy merchants in 1906. Anti-semitic movements flourished in Osnabrueck and in 1927 the synagogue and cemetery were desecrated. Between 1933 and 1938 about 350 Jews emigrated; on May 17, 1939, only 119 remained. On *Kristallnacht the synagogue was set on fire and shops and homes were looted. During the persecution of the Jews 102 former citizens of Osnabrueck lost their lives. During the war 400 Jewish Yugoslav officers were placed in a special P.O.W. camp in Osnabrueck. In August 1945 services were renewed in a prayer room. In 1969 a synagogue and community center for the community of 69 persons were consecrated."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Osnabrueck; Band 12, Kolonne 1501)


It can be that the indications of the dead victims during the war are not precisely right because some survivors of 1945 have not come back to their home town but have directly emigrated to oversea countries or to Palestine, by DP camps or from Eastern Europe directly passing Black Sea, often with new names or as "Christians". But it's also possible that a part of the emigrated have reached neighboring countries only and were deported yet.

Flight movements in England leaving London - and Jewish refugees from NS territories

In England the Jews had to leave London evading German bombing.

The article about the town of Lincoln is indicating the following:

"A small Jewish community existed again in Lincoln at the beginning of the 19th century. There was a small community of evacuees during World War II."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Lincoln, Band 11, Kolonne 257)

These "evacuees" probably are from bombed London.

The text of Encyclopaedia Judaica about Nottingham indicates Jewish refugees from NS Europe:

"By 1880 there were about 50 Jewish residents, though a synagogue was not built until 1890. The Nottingham lace-curtain industry was founded by a Jewish immigrant from Germany, Lewis Heymann. By 1939, the community had increased to 180, but World War II brought an influx of of new residents."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Nottingham, Band 12, Kolonne 1234)

All in all there was an immigration movement between 1933 and 1939 allready, and between 1940 and 1945 there were further Jewish refugees in Notthingham finding shelter. Nottingham was bombed by German Air Force, and it can be admitted that some Jews have died by German bombs. It seems strange that German bombing is missing in the article.


In the article of Encyclopaedia Judaica of Lyon is said that Lyon was declared a Free Town and turned into a center of racist Zionism and of resistance.

In the article of Encyclopaedia Judaica of Limoges is said that the town of Limoges turned into a center of Jewish refugees from Alsace.

Marceau, Marcel
Later clown Marcel Marceau helped bringing Jewish children to Switzerland during Second World War:

"Marceau worked for the French underground, helping Jewish children to cross the border into Switzerland."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Marceau, Marcel; Band 11, Kolonne 941)

Flight to South of France: Montpellier
Big Flight to the South is mentioned in the article of Encyclopaedia Judaica about Montpellier, but emigration from Montpellier to oversea countries and eventual deportations of 1942-1943 are missing in the article:

"Holocaust and Contemporary Periods. After the 1940 armistice, Montpellier, which was in the unoccupied zone, became a center for Jewish refugees from the occupied part of France. After the latter was occupied by the Germans, Montpellier became an important relaying station for the Jewish partisans. After the liberation the community was reorganized and by 1960 had 600 members. The arrival of Jews from North Africa [after the independencies in North Africa] increased the number to 2,000 in 1969."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Montpellier, Band 12, Kolonne 283)

Flight to South of France from Mulhouse
The article from Encyclopaedia Judaica about Mulhouse indicates clearly a big flight to South of France during France campaign:

"Holocaust and Contemporary Period: Under German occupation in World War II the Jews who had not managed to escape were expelled on July 16, 1940, along with the Jews in the rest of Alsace and Moselle. The synagogue which had been partially damaged was saved from total destruction when the edifice was requisitioned by the municipal theater. In 1970 Mulhouse had 1,800 Jewish inhabitants and a well-organized and active Jewish community."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Mulhouse; Band 12, Kolonne 518)

Unfortunately precise figures are missing to see who many Jews had fled to France of Pétain, and how many were expelled, who many have succeeded emigrating to oversea countries or were deported after NS occupation of France of Pétain. There is missing also the influx of Jews in the 1960s from North Africa because of independences and passport questions - to be Algerian or French.

Flight to South of France: Nîmes
Nîmes is in South of France, and in 1940 there came some Jewish refugees from North of France. The text:

"From the close of the 19th century, the community diminished steadily in number. Although 40 families were recorded in 1941, some of these were refugees from the interior of France. In 1970 the community of 1,200 persons, mainly of North African origin, possessed a synagogue and a community center."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Nîmes, Band 12, Kolonne 1165-1166)

Here some indications are missing, above all precise figures for 1933 and for 1940. The number of 40 families for 1941 seems to be very little considering the Big Flight to the South of 1940. Also deportations of 1942/43 are missing in the article. In 1945 some Jews returned founding a new community. Since the 1960s there was an influx of Jews from North African countries because of their independences because many wanted to keep the French passport and left North Africa.

Flight to South of France: Nice
This article of Encyclopaedia Judaica shows clearly the many Jewish refugees after their flight to the South living first under Italian occupation and deported after Nazi occupation in 1943-1944. At the same time civil resistance facilitated concealing and the flight of thousands. Precise figures are missing. There are also missing indications of emigration to oversea countries. This seams to be strange. The text:

"During World War II Nice came under Italian occupation which was for less severe than the German. Therefore thousands of Jews took refuge there. For a while the city became an important center for various Jewish organizations, especially after the landing of the Allies in North Africa (November 1942). However, when the Italians signed the armistice with the Allies, German troops invaded the former Italian zone (Sept. 8, 1943) and initiated brutal raids. Brunner, the SS official for Jewish affairs, was placed at the head of units formed to search out Jews. Within five months, 5,000 Jews were caught and deported [[with the help of French Railway SNCF and French Police]]. A great number of others were martyred in Nice itself. The courage displayed by resistance and Jewish youth movements, however, along with the sympathy of the vast majority of the population and clergy, helped save thousands who were either hidden or helped to escape.

After the liberation several hundred Jews, including original inhabitants of Nice and refugees, reestablished the community. With the influx of Jews from North Africa in the 1960s, the Jewish population in Nice and the vicinity increased from 2,000 to 20,000 by 1969."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Nice, Band 12, Kolonne 1136)


Jewish refugees in Italy: Milan

Die Encyclopaedia Judaica schreibt über Mailand, dass die Stadt 1933-1945 ein jüdisches Flüchtlingszentrum war, und nach 1945 sind Juden sogar aus Israel wieder nach Mailand zurückgekehrt:

"In 1900, 2,000 Jews resided there and in 1931, 6,490. [A.MIL.]

Holocaust Period. After Hitler assumed power many refugees arrived from Central and Eastern European countries; this flow continued illegally during the first year of war. [[During the German occupation 1943-1944]] about 800 Jews were deported from Milan during the war. Many were captured and killed by the Germans [[and the right-wing Italian police guards]] in the towers and villages where they had taken refuge. During the autumn of 1943, the Germans carried out an anti-Jewish raid, in the course of which the community synagogue was destroyed.

Contemporary Period. At the end of the war, 4,484 Jews were living in Milan and were joined temporarily by many refugees from camps in Lombardy. A number of Jewish immigrants came to Italy after 1949 from Egypt and, to a lesser degree, from other Arab countries; 4% came from Israel."

(Deutsch: Im Jahre 1900 wohnten 2000 Juden hier und im Jahre 1931 waren es 6490. [A.MIL.]

Holocaust-Zeit. Nach der Machtübernahme Hitlers kamen in Mailand viele Flüchtlinge aus Zentral- und Osteuropa an; dieser Zustrom ging im ersten Kriegsjahr illegal weiter. Ungefähr 800 Juden wurden während des Krieges aus Mailand deportiert. Viele wurden von Deutschen [[und den rechtsgerichteten italienischen Polizeigarden]] in Türmen und Dörfern gefangengenommen, wo sie sich versteckt gehalten hatten. Während des Herbst 1943 führten die Deutschen [[mit italienischen Garden]] eine anti-jüdische Razzia durch, bei der auch die Gemeindesynagoge zerstört wurde.

Heutige Zeit. Zu Kriegsende lebten in Mailand 4484 Juden, und dazu kamen vorübergehend viele Flüchtlinge aus Lagern in der Lombardei. Eine Anzahl jüdischer Einwanderer erreichte ab 1949 Italien. Es waren Juden aus Ägypten und zu einem kleineren Teil aus arabischen Ländern; 4% kamen aus Israel.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Milan; Band 11, Kolonnen 1545-1546)

Jüdische Flüchtlinge 1933-1945 in Spanien und Portugal und Süd-"Amerika"

Im Artikel Madrid werden klar auf Flüchtlinge aus Zentraleuropa erwähnt:

"In the early 1930s there was an addition of refugees from Nazi Germany. During the Spanish Civil War, the community underwent much suffering and most of its members dispersed."

(Deutsch: "In den frühen 1930er Jahren waren ausserdem Flüchtlinge aus Nazi-Deutschland festzustellen. Während des spanischen Bürgerkriegs litten die Gemeinden schwer und die meisten Mitglieder verstreuten sich über das Land.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonne 684)

Auch im Artikel Lissabon werden klar jüdische Auswanderer erwähnt, wobei die Zahl von 45.000 eher klein erscheint angesichts der 5 1/2 Jahre Krieg:

"During World War II, about 45,000 refugees from Nazi persecution arrived in Portugal, and passed mainly through Lisbon, on their way to the free world. In Lisbon they were assisted by a relief committee headed by M. Bensabat *Amzalak and A.D. Esagny. The Jews of Lisbon numbered 400 in 1947 and 2,000 in 1970."

(Deutsch: "Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs erreichten ungefähr 45.000 Flüchtlinge der Nazi-Verfolgung Portugal, hauptsächlich über Lissabon, auf ihrem Weg in die Freie Welt. In Lissabon wurden sie von einem Rettungskomitee unter Leitung von M. Bensabat *Amzalak und A.D. Esagny betreut. Die Juden in Lissabon selber machten 1947 noch 400 Personen aus, 1970 waren es 2000.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonne 303)

Und auch für Lima sind jüdische Flüchtlinge erwähnt:

"The next mass influx occurred during World War II."

(Deutsch: Der nächste massenhafte Zulauf fand während des Zweiten Weltkriegs statt.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonne 250)

Verschwiegene Auswanderung aus England aus London und Liverpool in andere Überseeländer

Eigenartig ist dagegen der Artikel über Liverpool, wo die Nazi-Zeit und der Zweite Weltkrieg total unterschlagen werden. Liverpool war einer der Haupthäfen für die Auswanderung in die "USA". Das wird in der Encyclopaedia Judaica planmässig unterschlagen.

Eigenartig ist auch der Artikel über London, wo die Bombardements kaum Erwähnung finden, sondern es wird nur gesagt, dass die Juden sich mehr aufs Land verteilt haben. Eine Totenzahl wird nicht genannt. Dabei gab es eine jüdische Totenzahl in mindestens dreistelliger Höhe.

Russia: Stalin-Deportationen 1940-1941 und die Grosse Flucht vor Barbarossa von 1941 in die zentrale Sowjetunion

Nur vereinzelt sind in der Encyclopaedia Judaica Hinweise auf Stalin-Deportationen 1940-1941 und auf die Grosse Flucht vor Barbarossa von 1941 anzutreffen, weil die russischen Städte kaum behandelt sind. Aber da ist z.B. der Artikel über Omsk:

"There were 4,389 Jews in the province of Omsk in 1926 and 9,175 Jews in 1959. In 1970 the Jewish population was estimated at about 10,000."

(Deutsch: In der Provinz Omsk lebten im Jahre 1926 4389 Juden, und im Jahre 1959 waren es 9175 Juden. Im Jahre 1970 wurde die jüdische Bevölkerung auf 10.000 geschätzt.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: Omsk (Siberia); Band 12, Kolonne 1391

Die Tatsache, dass die Anzahl Juden durch den Krieg nicht abgenommen, sondern zugenommen hat, macht stutzig. Heute nach der Perestroika weiss man genau, was in der Sowjetunion stattfand:
-- Stalin liess nach den neuen Besetzungen von 1940 einen Teil der Juden 1940-1941 nach Sibirien deportieren, auch Juden, die von Westpolen nach Ostpolen geflüchtet waren, aber den polnischen Pass behalten wollten und deswegen wegen "Illoyalität" zum sowjetischen Staat nach Sibirien deportiert wurden
-- in den Monaten vor Barbarossa fand eine grosse Fluchtbewegung unter Leitung der Roten Armee statt, darunter viele Juden
-- gleichzeitig sind in der Roten Armee viele Juden umgekommen
-- 1942-1943 wurden Juden aus Zentraleuropa heimlich nach Russland deportiert, und diese Deportationen wurden 1945 von den Alliierten unterschlagen, um zu behaupten, diese Juden seien alle unter dem Nazi-Regime vernichtet worden
-- und ab 1948 wurde in Russland systematisch eine antisemitische Politik gegen alle Juden betrieben, weil Israel ein Satellit der "USA" und nicht der Sowjetunion geworden war
-- 1959 fand eine Volkszählung statt, wo Juden ihre Religion eintragen konnten, aber viele haben ihre Religion aus Angst vor Repressionen nicht angegeben, d.h. die Zahl von 9175 ist viel zu niedrig
-- im Jahre 1970 fand eine weitere Volkszählung statt, wo ebenfalls viele Juden aus Angst vor Repressionen ihre Religion nicht angegeben haben, und die jüdischen Stellen konnten nur schätzen, wie viele Juden effektiv in Russland lebten.

Eigenartigerweise steht von all diesen wichtigen Vorgängen nichts im Artikel über Omsk, um Stalin als "Sieger" nicht als Täter darzustellen.

Auswanderung in die "USA" nach 1945

Die zionistische Journalistik behauptet auch immer, es habe nach 1945 keine Auswanderung in die "USA" mehr stattgefunden. Nun, der Artikel über Miami spricht eine andere Sprache:

1925: 2,000 Juden
1930: 3,500 Juden
1940: 7,500 Juden (Greater Miami), "with the greatest increase in Miami Beach, where a new congregation was established"

(Deutsch: "mit dem grössten Anstieg in Miami Beach, wo eine neue Gemeinde eingerichtet wurde")

und in den 1960er Jahren sind es plötzlich 60.000 Juden, wobei sich die 60,000 nur auf North und South Miami Beach beziehen, die je 30,000 Juden haben. Das Stadtzentrum und die Agglomerationsgemeinden werden erwähnt, aber nicht beziffert. Der Text:

"The trend of younger families during the 1950s and 1960s was to move to North Miami Beach and Southwest Miami, each of which numbered about 30,000 Jewish residents. There were also centers of Jewish population in the city of Miami and the surrounding communities."

(Deutsch: "Der Trend jüngerer Familien während der 1950er und 1960er Jahre war, vom nördlichen Miami Beach ins südwestliche Miami zu ziehen. Beide hatten ungefähr 30.000 jüdische Einwohner. Es gab auch Zentren mit jüdischer Bevölkerung in Miami-Stadt und in der Umgebung.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonne 1477-1480)

Los Angeles
Und Los Angeles wurde nach 1945 von Juden geradezu "überschwemmt", aber der Artikel sagt nicht genau, dass es sich auch um Flüchtlinge handelte:

"At the end of World War II 150,000 Jews lived in Greater Los Angeles, an increase of 20,000 since the war began. The major growth of the Jewish population in Los Angeles began after 1945 when thousands of war veterans and others

z.B. Flüchtlinge

moved West with their families. The city's population multiplied and the Jewish community grew apace. By 1948 the Jewish population was a quarter of a million, representing an increase of 2,000 people a month as Jews moved West in one of the great migrations in Jewish history."

(Deutsch: "Am Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs lebten in Gross-Los Angeles 150.000 Juden, eine Zunahme von 20.000 seit Kriegsbeginn. Das Hauptwachstum der jüdischen Bevölkerung in Los Angeles begann nach 1945, als 1000e Kriegsveteranen und andere

[[z.B. Flüchtlinge]]

mit ihren Familien in Richtung Westen wanderten. Die Stadtbevölkerung vervielfachte sich und die jüdische Gemeinde wuchs rasch an. Bis 1948 war die jüdische Bevölkerung auf eine Viertelmillion gewachsen, das heisst um 2000 pro Monat, als Juden westwärts wanderten. Dies war eine der grossen Wanderungen der jüdischen Geschichte.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonne 501)

Für den Oststaat Maryland wird von der Encyclopaedia Judaica eine jüdische Einwanderung ab 1933 und dann wieder nach 1945 festgestellt:

"The period of the Nazi persecutions and that of post World War II brought an additional 5,000 Jewish immigrants."

(Deutsch: "Die Nazi-Zeit der Verfolgungen und die Nachkriegszeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs brachte einen Zuwachs von 5000 jüdischen Einwanderern.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonne 1076-1077)

Diese Zahl erscheint ziemlich klein, und die "Durchwanderer" scheinen nicht erwähnt.

Der "US"-Staat Massachussets mit seiner Hauptstadt Boston an der Ostküste der "USA" hat ebenfalls eine massive jüdische Zuwanderung in der Nazi-Zeit aufzuweisen. Der Text:

"In 1917 the state's Jewish (col. 1111) population was 190,000; by 1937 it had risen to 263,000, dropping to 223,000 in 1959, and then rising over the following decade." (col.1112)

(Deutsch: "Im Jahre 1917 betrug die jüdische (Kol. 1111) Bevölkerung 190.000; bis 1937 nahm sie auf 263.000 zu, und fiel bis 1959 wieder auf 223.000 ab, um dann im folgenden Jahrzehnt wieder anzusteigen." (Kol. 1112)
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonnen 1111-1112)

Hier fehlen natürlich wichtige Angaben wie alle Zahlen während der Kriegszeit und der Nachkriegszeit zwischen 1939-1948, wo die Einwanderung noch einmal zugenommen haben dürfte. Der Artikel ist geschickt manipuliert, um die effektive Einwanderung zu vertuschen. Aber dass prinzipiell Einwanderung aus Nazi-Gebieten stattgefunden hat, kann nicht geleugnet werden.

Der Artikel über Mecklenburg verschweigt alle jüdischen Auswanderungsbewegungen 1933-1945.

New London ("USA")
In diesem Artikel werden deutsch-jüdische Auswanderer festgestellt, die von 1933 bis 1940 einwanderten:

"In 1905 there were 400 Jews in New London. In 1932 the number had increased to approximately 2,000. By 1940 the Jewish population was 2,200, augmented by a new group of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany."

(Deutsch: "Im Jahre 1950 lebten 400 Juden in Neu-London. Im Jahre 1932 war die Anzahl auf ungefähr 2000 angewachsen. Bis 1940 erhöhte sich die Anzahl auf 2200 durch eine neue Gruppe jüdischer Flüchtlinge aus Nazi-Deutschland."
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 12, Kolonne 1035)

New York City
Auch der Artikel über New York City gibt klare Indizien, dass 1933-1937 deutsche Juden eingewandert sind, und die Zuwanderung ging bis 1950 weiter:
1927: 1.765.000 Juden
1937: 2.035.000 Juden
1950: 2.100.000 Juden

"1930-1970. Demography. Following World War I the Jewish population of New York grew moderately to 1,765,000 in 1927 and 2,035,000 in 1937. It tapered off around 2,100,000 in 1950, and slowly decreased as Jews moved to the suburbs from the 1950s. By 1960 the Jewish population of the city had declined to 1,936,000, while that of the metropolitan area increased to 2,401,600."

(Deutsch: "1930-1970. Demographie. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg wuchs die jüdische Bevölkerung in New York bis 1927 auf 1.765.000 an, und bis 1937 auf 2.035.000. Die Spitze wurde 1950 mit 2.100.000 erreicht, und dann ging die Zahl ab den 1950er Jahren wieder zurück, als die Juden in die Vororte zogen. Bis 1960 waren es in der Stadt New York noch 1.936.000 Juden, während in der städtischen Umgebung die Anzahl auf 2.401.600 stieg.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: New York City; Band 12, Kolonne 1105)

New York State
Im Artikel über den Staat New York ist eine enorme jüdische Zunahme nach 1945 feststellbar, die wohl nur durch Einwanderung möglich war:

"In 1940, 90% of the state's 2,206,328 (1937 figure) Jews resided in NY City. However, the next two decades saw a flow of city dwellers, including a disproportionately large number of Jews, to the suburbs. In 1940 fewer than 100,000 Jews had lived in all the suburbs, but Nassau alone had 329,000 Jews by 1956 and 372,000 in 1968; Suffolk, 20,000 by 1956 and 42,000 in 1968; and Westchester, 116,900 by 1956 and 131,000 in 1968. The number of permanent Jewish residents in the upstate resort counties of Sullivan, Ulster, and Orange did not appreciably increase from 1940."

(Deutsch: "Im Jahre 1940 lebten 90% der Juden im Staate New York in der Stadt NY. In den beiden folgenden Jahrzehnten jedoch zogen viele in die Vororte, darunter auch eine grosse Anzahl Juden. Im Jahre 1940 hatten noch weniger als 100.000 Juden in den Vororten gelebt. Aber im Jahre 1956 lebten in Nassau alleine 329.000 Juden, 372.000 im Jahre 1968; und in Suffolk waren es 1956 20.000 und 1968 42.000 Juden; und in Westchester waren es 1956 116.900 und 1968 131.000 Juden. Die Anzahl der stetigen jüdischen Einwohner im Hinterland von Sullivan, Ulster und Orange dagegen veränderte sich ab 1940 nicht nennenswert.")
(Encyclopaedia Judaica: New York State; Band 12, Kolonne 1127)

Australien: Melbourne
Für Melbourne gibt die Encyclopaedia Judaica folgende steigende Zahlen an, die eine Einwanderung von Juden bis in die 1950er Jahre vermuten lassen:
1933: 4552 Juden
1947: 7322 Juden
1954 11.915 Juden
(Encyclopaedia Judaica, Band 11, Kolonnen 1279-1280).

Until today European justice does not accept emigration and flight movements as a part of the persecution of the Jews. Justice is committing a denial of emigration movements and in general is committing the denial of the new version of the persecution of the Jews according to new data. Because Encyclopaedia Judaica is indicating new data since 1971 already. It's an absolute scandal.

Even on many web sites the big emigration waves of Jews from 1933 to 1939 can be found. For example about the German town of Hildesheim is indicated: From about 500 Jews are about 100 yet in Hildesheim in 1939:

<After January 30, 1933 there were living about 500 Jewish citizens in Hildesheim. Until September 1939 about 400 persons of them could emigrate or were shifted.>

(orig. German:
<Nach dem 30. Januar 1933 lebten in Hildesheim ca. 500 jüdische Bürger, von denen bis September 1939 etwa 400 Personen auswanderten bzw. abgeschoben wurden.>

So there is the question: How long justice wants to lie about Jewish emigration during the persecution of the Jews yet?

36. Secret "Shift of Jews" from Nazi Europe to Stalin's Russia 1941-1943

According to indicatinos of Gulag survivor, journalist and computer scientist Jurij Below (Frankfort) millions of Jews were "shifted" between 1941 and 1943 over Polish camps (Sobibor, Treblinka, Auschwitz) to Russia in coordination between Hitler and Stalin. Of these secretly "shifted" Jews Stalin let shoot 1.5 mio. Jews as "agents" by NKWD. In 1944 the archives were confiscated and kept secret to protect Stalin and to blame Germany alone for all losses of Jews.

                      oben / vers le haut / arriba / topnach oben / vers le haut /
                      arriba / top