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Geschichte des Judentums: Die Aktenlage

von Michael Palomino

Synagoge,
                Beispiel Budapest     Weltlich orientierte Juden: Strand von Tel Aviv


Wenn alle Religionen die Menschenrechte unterschreiben, dann wird Frieden sein.

Die vorliegenden Werke sind keine Verschwörungstheorie, sondern über mehrere Jahre gesammelte Fakten.


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Fälschung und Wahrheit im Alten Testament (AT). Index (Chronologie von "Keine Posaunen vor Jericho" von Silberman / Finkelstein)   deutsch

Fake and truth in Old Testament (OT). Index (chronology of "Bible Unearthed" by Silberman / Finkelstein)
   englisch

Falsificaciones y verdades en el Antiguo Testamento (AT). Índice (cronología de "La Biblia desenterrada" de Silberman / Finkelstein)
  spanisch

xxxxxDer Holocaust u.a. gemäss Gorbatschow-Akten. Index (neue Daten)

Holocaust-Gulag-Index (Vergleich und neue Daten)

xxxxxxxxxxIsrael-Palästina - Frieden wo? Index  Mauer

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxAntisemisismus / anti-Semitism index

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxDiskriminierung - Emanzipation, Index / discrimination - emancipation, index

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxNumerus Clausus. Index

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxMigration. Index / migration. index

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxZionismus. Index / Zionism. index

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxKulturbeitrag / cultural contribution index


Anti-Zionismus

http://elproyectomatriz.wordpress.com/2009/02/01/red-judia-anti-sionista-internacional/#comment-42375



Bildernachweis
-- Synagoge Budapest: http://www.reisealbum.de/englisch/budapest_e.htm (2005)
-- Strand von Tel Aviv: http://www.fotoagentur-wenzel-orf.de/agentur/details.php?image_id=181&mode=search



Hebrew-English
Achgaha: congregation
admor: chasidic rabbi
Agudat Israel: Orthodox political party in racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel
agunah: deserted wife
aliyah, pl. aliyot: emigration movement to Jewish parts of Palestine before 1948 into the eternal war trap against the Arabs (Middle East Conflict), emigration to the war trap of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel after 1948
alluf: chief judge in the Babylonian colleges
Arenda: Jewish leasing system
arukh: Shulkhan Aruk: collection of the law of Rabbi Karo [[?]] (in: EncJud: Italy01):
av bet din: eldest court chairman

bar mitzvah
: day of religious maturity of Jewish boys and girls
battei din: house of the court
battei midrash
, sg. beth midrash: "Houses [of] Interpretation" or "Houses [of] Lecturing" or "Houses [of] Learning"
Benei Akiva: racist Zionist youth group of racist Zionist women's organization
benei Massada: sons of Massadah (youth group of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
benei midbar: sons of the desert (youth group of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
Berihah (Beriḥah): flight (also: organization of illegal immigration 1944-1948 from Europe to Palestine)
Beth midrash / Beit Midrash / Bais Medrash / Bais Medrish (pl.
battei midrash): "House [of] Interpretation" or "House [of] Lecturing" or "House [of] Learning"
berurim: inspectors
bet din: ecclesiastical court
Betar: racist Zionist youth pioneer organization of the Revisionists, racist Zionist youth fight organization, first founded in 1923 in Riga
bikkur holim: "visiting of the sick"
bimah: platform with Torah stands
B'nai B'rith: Sons of the Covenant, Söhne des Bundes
bogerim: adults (youth group of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)

chasidim = hasidim
chabad (auch: habad): Akronym der 3 Worte: Chochma (חכמה, „Weisheit“), Bina (בינה, „Einsicht“) und Daat (דעת, „Wissen“), von Rabbi Schneor Salman von Ljadi begründete Untergruppe der Chasidim, also: Chabad-Chasidim
CISHO: Central Organization of Jewish Education
CYSHO: Central Yiddish School Organization

dayyan, pl. dayyanim: judge
din shamayim: Heavenly Law
domus judaeorum: community house or synagogue
Dor de'ah: generation of wisdom

Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel)
: Land of Israel
Ezra: book Ezra (Esra)

FAZ: Federation of [[racist]] American Zionists

gabbai: treasurer
gabba'im: tax collectors, directors
galil: provincial council, province
galut: exile
gaon, pl. geonim: Talmud interpreters of the Jewish academies, religious leaders (dt. Talmudinterpreten der jüdischen Akademien, religiöse Führer)
gedud: batallion
gemilut hasadim ("benevolent society")
Genizah: store-room / depository in a synagogue for worn-out / used religious books and texts (in: EncJud: Hebron, Cologne, Yemen):
geonim, sg. gaon: Talmud interpreters of the Jewish academies, religious leaders (dt. Talmudinterpreten der jüdischen Akademien, religiöse Führer)
gezerot tatnav: the massacres of 4856=1096 (First Crusade)

habad, also: chabad: Akronym der 3 Worte: Chochma (חכמה, „Weisheit“), Bina (בינה, „Einsicht“) und Daat (דעת, „Wissen“), von Rabbi Schneor Salman von Ljadi begründete Untergruppe der Chasidim, also: Chabad-Chasidim
habad yeshivah (auch: chabad yeshivah): college of Jewish studies
hadarim (ḥadarim), also chadarim, sg. cheder, heder (ḥeder), Engl.: "room", small Jewish schools, Jewish religious school to the age of 13
habimah: the stage
Hadassah: (EncJud: Zionist organization in "USA")
Haderah (Ḥaderah): racist Zionist Jewish settlement in racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel
hadith literature: oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad
haftarot: 7 Prophet books sung in the service
ha-galil: district branch (of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
ha-hanhagah ha-elyonah: "supreme leadership" of a national federation (of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
ha-hanhagah ha-rashit: "chief leadership" of a national federation (of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
hakham (pl. hakhamim): spiritual leader
hakham-khane nizam namesi ("Organizational Regulations of the Rabbinate")
hakhsharah: "pioneer training", active training, preparation for emigration to Palestine (aliyah) (dt. Pionierausbildung)
("Pioneers" can be turned into soldiers easily...)
hakhsharot: training farms, agricultural training centers
hakhsharot: agricultural training centers
halakhah: Jewish law
halizah: levirate marriage
halutz (ḥalutz), pl. halutzim (ḥalutzim): pioneer, pl. pioneers (he-halutz (he-ḥalutz): the pioneer)
halutziyyut (ḥalutziyyut): pioneering
Ha-Mahpekhah: the Revolution
hanhagat ha-ken: ken leadership, leadership of a local branch (of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
hanhagat ha-gallil: ha-galil leadership, leadership of a district branch (of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
Ha-Po'el ha-Mizrachi: labour wing of the racist Zionist religious party Mizrachi
Harat al-Yahud (Ḥarat al-Yahūd): "Jewish quarter"
hasidim (ḥasidim),  sg. hasid (ḥasid): pious, rightous, orthodox Jewish movement, term used by the rabbis to describe those Jews who maintained the highest standard of religious observance and moral action
hasidism (ḥasidism): conservative, orthodox Jewry with highest standard of religious observance and moral action, pietistic movement
haskalah: enlightenment
hazzan (ḥazzan): cantor
hazzanut (azzanut): cantorial performance
ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir): jung, der / die / das junge
ha-zedakah ha-gedolah: charitable fund
heder (ḥeder): Jewish religious school to age of 13
heder metukkan (ḥeder metukkan): modern heder
He-Atid: The Future
He-Halutz ha-Za'ir (He-Ḥalutz ha-Ẓa'ir): "The Young Pioneer"
herem: highest ecclesiastical censure (critical comment) in the Jewish community
herem (ḥerem): excommunication, ban
hetter iskah, heter 'iskah: part of Jewish law
hevrah (ḥevrah), pl. hevrot (ḥevrot): society, confraternity
hevra kaddisha: Jewish burial society
Hevrah (Ḥevrah) Ivrit le-Tarbut: "Hebrew Society for Culture"
hevrat no'ar (ḥevrat no'ar): youth community
Hevrat (Ḥevrat) Yishuv Erez (Ereẓ) Israel al yedei Avodat Adamah: Society to Settle Erez (Ereẓ) Israel by Working the Land
hevrot (ḥevrot), sg. hevrah (ḥevrah): confraternities, societies
HIAS: Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society
Hibbat Zion (Ḥibbat Zion): "Love of Zion"
HICEM: is the composition of HIAS (Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society), ICA (Jewish Colonization Association, and Emigdirect
Histadrut: Worker's Union of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel
holkhei Rusyah: Jewish merchants named "Russian travelers"
Horev (Ḥorev): Winter
Hovevei (Ḥovevei) Zion: those in favour of going to "the land of our fathers", "to which we have historical rights"
huppah (ḥuppah): Jewish Wedding canopy

iggerot: letters
ikkurim: alternates

JDC: Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Kaddish: central Jewish prayer for the Lord
kahal: assembly, community board
kahal: "community council" members
Kakhya: leader
kashrut: Jewish nutrition rules (jüdische Speisegetze)
kazyonny ravvin: government-appointed rabbi
kefirim: cubs (youth group of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
kehalim: congregations
kehillot (sg. kehillah): congregations, community councils
kehillot hadarim: small congregations in small rooms
ken: nest (local branch of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
Keren Hayesod: = United Israel Appeal: the central fundraising organization for racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel
kesherim: "like gentiles"
keshishim oldsters (adult people from youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
kevuzah: kibbutz (dt. Kibbuz)
Khakhomim: wise men
kiddush ha-Shem: martyr's death
kinah / qinah, pl. kinoth: dirges (sad poems) or elegies, recited on Tisha B'Av, contemplating the destruction of the Temple of 70
Kitab al-Haqa'iq (Kitāb al-Ḥaqā'iq): "Book of the Truth"
kohanim: priestly families
kolel, also: kollel, pl. kolelim, also: kollelim: advanced Talmud and rabbinic literature institute for men; community (EncJud: Hebron, Lithuania, Novogrudok):

livot: ungrateful

ma'ariv, also: maariw: Abendgebet
Macabi: Jewish sport
madrikh, pl. madrikhim: "guide", counsellor, or [[racist Zionist]] youth leader
magid, also: maggid, pl. maggidim: traditional Eastern European Jewish religious itinerant preacher, skilled as a narrator of Torah and religious stories
magshimim: implementers, those who fulfill (adult people from youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)
mahala: quarter
mahamad: executive committee
mahpekhah: the Revolution
maskil: enlightener, follower of the Haskalah, enlightenment Jew, secularist
maskilim: followers of the Haskalah, enlightenment Jews, secularists
mahzor (maḥzor), pl. mahzorim: prayer book for high holidays
maqamat (maqāmāt): speches in rhymed prose
mazzah (maẓẓah), mazzot (maẓẓot): unleavened bread
megillat: = megillah = Buch Esther, word for word: the document roll
melammedim: teachers of Hebrew, teachers of elementary religious studies (dt. Hebräischlehrer, Religionslehrer der Grundstufe)
meldar: school building
mellah: Jewish quarter
memunim, sg. minumeh: appointed officials
menorot: lights, lamps
Merkaz la-Golah: Center for the Diaspora
metappelet: house mother
meturgeman: interpreter
mi she-berakh: complimentary benedictions during the reading of the Torah
midrash: interpretation of religious texts in rabbinical Jewry
mikvah, mikveh: ritual bath (dt. rituelles Tauchbad)
Mikveh Israel: congregation "The Hope of Israel"
millet system: Ottoman minority protection system
Minhah: afternoon prayer
minyan: 10 or more Jews needed for a worship service
mitnaggedim, also: misnagdim, mitnagdim:"opponents"
mitzvot / mitzvos: 613 commandments of the Torah
mizrachi movement: religious racist Zionist movement
Mizrachi ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir): racist Zionist youth group of racist Zionist women's organization
mohal, mohel pl. mohalim: ritual expert in circumcision
morei horah'ah: decisors on law
moshavot, pl. moshavim: settlement, pl. settlements
moshav ovedim: workers' settlement (dt. Arbeitersiedlung)
musar: literature of medieval Jewish moralistic and ethical teachings, ethical literature

nagid: prince, leader
nasi: patriarch
ne'eman: (EncJud: Poland, Celm)
Nekamah: "Revenge"
neogolists: reformers
niddui: ecclestiastical ban resolutions, bans

ohel: tomb
olim: Jews willing to migrate to Palestine
ORT: initials of Rus. Obshchestvo Rasprostraneniya Truda sredi Yevreyev, originally meaning: "Society for Manual and Agricultural Work among Jews"
OSE / OZE: Obshchestvo Zdravookhraneniya Yevreyev (founded in 1912 in Russia), Engl.: Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jews, Germ.: Schutz- und Gesundheitsgesellschaft für die Juden
"OZET": "Land Cultivation Company"

parnas: president, communal leader
parnas ha-hodesh (ḥodesh): "leader for the month"
parnasim: communal leaders
paytan: cantor
PEC: Palestine Economic Corporation
peluggah: company
pe'ot: sidelocks
perutah: small silber coin
pilpul: casuistic leading case methods
pinkas: minute book (dt. Protokollbuch)
pittum haketoret: incense formula of a prayer
piyyut, pl: piyyutim: poetry for worship service, liturgical poems
Po'alei Zion: "Zion Workers", racist Zionist Labour party

rashei yeshivah:
heads of academies
rashei ha-medinah: member of the governing body
rashim: "heads"
rav ha-manhig, ha-rav ha-manhig: "the leading rabbi"
rav medinah: chief rabbi (dt. Landesrabbiner)
rav akçesi: "tax of the rabbis"
rebbe, pl. rebbes: private teacher
reis ul-Ulema: chief scholar
Rosh Ha-Shanah: holiday "Head of the year" (Jewish New Year)
rosh medinah: head of the region
rosh yeshiva (pl. rashei yeshivot): dean of a Talmudical academy

sanhedrin: four rashim ("heads"), five tovim ("boni vires" or "notables"), and 14 kahal ("community council") members, a total of 23 leaders, i.e., the number constituting a "minor Sanhedrin".
sedaca: charity
seder: Passah festival
Sefer Yezirah: book of creation, book of formation (dt. Schöpfungsbuch)
Selihot (Seliḥot): penitential prayers
semikhah: rabbinical ordination
sezon: hunting season
shaliach, pl. shelihim: emissaries (dt. Botschafter)
shai takkanot: ordinances
shammash: salaried servant in a synagogue
Shavuot festival: holiday on sixth of Sivan commemorating the Ten Commandments given from God to Moses on Sinai according to 1st Mose
shehitah (sheḥitah) (ritual slaughtering)
shekel:  the due paid for membership in the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization
shelihim (sheliḥim): emissaries, missionary teachers
shohet (shoḥet), pl. shohatim (shoḥatim): ritual slaughterer, ritual slaughterers
shomer: guard, watchman
shtadlan: interceder
shtadlanim: Jewish representatives
shtibl: small room, Germ. Stübchen
siddur (pl. siddurim): Jewish prayer book
Siddur ha-Shalom: "peace prayer book"
S.S.: Zionist-Socialist Workers' Party of Russia (Russian: "Sionisty Sotsialisty")

Tahkemoni (Taḥkemoni) school: name in refence to the book of Tahkemoni with Jewish Tales from Medieval Spain by judah Ben Solomon Harizi
takkanah, pl. takkanot: major legislative enactment within halakha (Jewish law), the normative system of Judaism's laws.
tallit / tallis, pl. taleysm (Yidd.): prayer shawl for morning service
talmid hakham (talmid ḥakham): disciple of the the wise, scholar
talmud torah: afternoon Hebrew school
tarbut: culture
sg. tefila, pl. tefillin: a pair of black leatherboxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with biblical verses
Tehiyah (Ha-Teḥiyah): the renewal
tevah: ark (in a synagogue)
tosefet ketubbah: marriage certificate
tovim: optimates
tovim: "boni vires" or "notables"
Turim: Code of Jacob Asher (EncJud: Warsaw col. 341)

UJA: United Jewish Appeal, union of UPA and JDC since 1939-40
ulpan, pl. ulpanim: instruction, mostly: instruction in Hebrew for emigration to Herzl Israel
UPA: United Palestine Appeal (fund rising organization)

Va'ad Hazzalah (Haẓẓalah): Rescue Council
vishuv / yishuv: Jews in Palestine before Herzl Israel foundation, before 1948

wakil (wakīl): representative
WIZO: Women's International Zionist Organisation

Yavneh school: school for Judaic studies (EncJud BSSR Volkovysk, Zelva)
yehidim (yeḥedim): first-class member of the community
yekum purkan: prayer for the long defunct Babylonian academies
yeshivah, pl. yeshivot: religious Torah school
yishuv / vishuv: Jews in Palestine before racist Herzl Israel foundation, before 1948
yiskor: memorial; yiskor books: memorial books
YIVO: Yidisher Visenshaftlekher Institut: YIVO-Institite for Jewish Research

zaddikim (ẓaddikim): The Righteous Ones, the Most Perfect," the name of a splinter cult of ultra-radical Jews

zedakah: Gerechtigkeit, Wohltätigkeit
Ze'irei Zion: Youth of Zion
ZOA: racist Zionist Organization of criminal racist America
zofim (ẓofim): scouts (youth group of youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir)

Organisationen / Organizations

-- Tarbut: organization for Hebrew education and culture


Türkisch / Turk
akçe: Ottoman silver coin unit
balukçis, fishermen
Kaïkçis: ship owners
manafis, fruiterers
mayahaneçis, wine merchants
parà: 40th part of an akçe
perutah: small silver coin

Arabisch / Arab
sayyid: patron
qa' (qā'): Jewish quarter

Polnisch

miasteczki: townships

szlachta: nobility

<Bibliography: Article "History" (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

-- Baron, Social, 3 (1937), 177-304
-- idem, in: JSOS, 2 (1940), 305-88, 481-605
-- Shunami, Bibl. index.

PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY:

-- S. Dubnow: Nationalism and History (1958)
-- F. Baer: Galut (Eng., 1947)
-- idem: Yisrael ba-Ammim (1955)
-- Dinur, Gloah, I (1960), 5-50 (introd.)
-- M. Kaznelson: Probleme der juedischen Geschichte und Geschichtsphilosophie (1929)
-- Y. Kaufmann: Golah ve-Nekhar, 4 vols. (1929-32)
-- H. Graetz: Darkhei ha-Historyah ha-Yehudit, ed. by S. Ettinger (1969)
-- H. H. Ben-Sasson (ed.); In: Toledot Am Yisrael, I (1969), 11-30 (gen. introd.)

GENERAL HISTORIES:

-- Baron, Social;
-- Baron, Community
-- Graetz, hist;
-- M. L. Margolis and A. Marx: A History of the Jewish People (1927)
-- C. Roth: A Short History of the Jewish People (1938)
-- L. Finkelstein (ed.): The Jews (1950)
-- A. L. Sachar: A History of the Jews (1953)
-- S. Grayzel: A History of the Jews (1953)
-- A. Eban: My People: A History of the JEws (1968)
-- Dinur, Golah;
-- Dubnow, Weltgesch;
-- Graetz, Gesch;
-- H.H. Ben-Sasson (ed.): Toledot Am Yisrael, 3 vols. (1969)
Zion, quarterly (Heb., 1936-  )

ANCIENT PERIOD:

-- Bright, Hist
-- Kaufmann, Y., Religion
-- Neusner, Babylonia
-- Noth, Hist Isr
-- Olmstead, Hist;
-- de Vaux, Anc Isr;
-- H. Orlinsky: Ancient Israel (1954)
-- J. Pedersen: Israel, Its Life and Culture, 4 vols. (1959)
-- H. W. Robinson: The History of Israel. Its Facts and Factors (1964)
-- World History of the Jewish People, ser. 1 vol. 1 (1964)
-- Alon, Toledot
-- Juster, Julfs
-- Kaufmann Y., Toledot
-- Kittel, Geschich;
-- Schuerer, Geschich
-- M. Noth: Das System der zwoelf Staemme Israels (1930)
-- M. Avi-Yonah: Bi-Ymei Roma u-Vizantiyon (1946)
-- idem: Geschichte der Juden im Zeitalter des Talmuds (1962)
-- Y. Guttmann: Ha-Sifrut ha-vol. 2, Ha-Avot ve-ha-Shofetim (1967)

MIDDLE AGES:

-- Roth, Dark Ages;
-- I. Abrahams: Jewish Life in the Middle Ages (1932)
J. R. Marcus: The Jew in the Medieval World (1938)

MODERN PERIOD:

-- Elbogen, Century
-- M. Raisin: History of the Jews in Modern Times (1949)
-- H.M. Sacher: The Course of Modern Jewish History (1958)> (col. 780)



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