-- Migration; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16
-- Israel, State of; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 9
-- History; in: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 8
(from: Migration; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16)
<From May 1948
[Migration waves to Israel - blocked Jews in the "Soviet Union" and in Arab states]
This latest period is dominated by large-scale migration to the State of Israel
[[provoked by Arab and Zionist escalation and wars]].
Whereas in the previous period the desire of Jews to migrate to their homeland was largely thwarted by curbs on immigration, no such, obstacles existed to Jewish immigration to the new State of Israel (except for temporary slowdowns, because of economic reasons, in the organized transfer of would-be settlers). The emergence of the Jewish state was in itself a great incentive for Jews to leave other countries and resettle there.
The situation in respect to potential Jewish emigration is more complex, for the Soviet Union has mostly barred exit and in other states of Eastern Europe, as well as in the Islamic countries of Asia and North Africa, changing political conditions have cause marked vicissitudes in the opportunities for Jewish emigration.
[[Supplement: Reasons for the blocking of Jewish emigration to Israel in "SU" and in the Arab states
As the racist Zionist Jewish Free Mason State of Israel was found in May 1948 by Ben Gurion without any definition of any border lines, and as the Ben Gurion regime was collaborating with criminal CIA of criminal Free Mason racist "USA", criminal Communist mass murderer Stalin felt encircled by the "USA". So Stalin and the Arab states close their borders to the Jews in order that Israel would not be too strong. We see, the Jews are victims of criminal world policy. Add to this there is the Theodor Herzl booklet "The Jewish State" as the Zionist danger for all Arabs maintaining to drive all Arabs away like the natives in the "USA", and there is the Torah First Book Mose chapter 15 phrase 18 that Israel would go to the Euphrates for a Great Israel. Until today Herzl and Mose phrases are legal, because it's "religion". Add to this the big part of the Jews don't want to be victim of the Herzl and Zionism and Mose policy, but the Free Masonry government in Jerusalem is not taking measures to forbid Herzl and to adapt Mose to the Human Rights...]]
[1947-1967: The new migration waves: Jews from Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa coming to Israel]
A comparison of Jewish intercontinental migration in the period under discussion and over the same number of years preceding World War I reveals that the total number of Jewish migrants is similar in both absolute numbers and per 1,000 of Jewish world population. There are, however, profound differences in the direction of the streams of Jewish migration and in the relative size of Jewish intercontinental migration per 1,000 Jews in the main emigration regions (see Tables 6 and 7).
The most recent period in Jewish migrations is characterized by the following features:
In addition to the traditional tendency of Jewish emigration from Europe, the Islamic countries of Asia and Africa turned into a major source of Jewish emigration.
There was some emigration from all over Europe - except the U.S.S.R. - to Israel in the first years after the establishment of the state; the main source of emigration continued to be, as in the interwar period, Eastern Europe.
The main emigration regions, i.e., Eastern Europe (excluding U.S.S.R.), and the Islamic states of Asia and Africa, were drained of most of their Jews; there was therefore a virtual liquidation of age-old Jewish Diaspora groups due directly to the great intensity of emigration.
[[These migration waves were all provoked and organized by Zionist organizations working in the underground. The governments in Africa and in Asia did not want the Jews to leave the country at all. But Israel needed people of "second class" for the working (bad) jobs, and that's why the Jews from Asia and Africa, the "sephardim", were now the victims of the Zionist fantasy propaganda of a "Holy Land". This racism within Jewry has only partly overcome by the children of the immigrants in the 1990s, and the existence in a war country like Israel was in many cases not at all comfortable]].
[Low birthrate of East European Jews]
In Eastern Europe the preceding impact of the Holocaust and the recent low fertility of the Jews were also contributory factors.
[[Jewish women who had suffered hunger for years and had had no menstruation and no activity of the ovaries for years lost their fertility for life, so the Jewish birthrate after 1945 was reduced. This indirect murder of the Jews is never mentioned in the Holocaust statistics]].
In demographic terms the situation was quite different from that before World War I, when the great natural increase of the Jews could make up, numerically, for very heavy emigration. (col. 1526)
[1948-1951: Migration waves to Israel - the sephardim]
Since 1948, Israel has been the destination for the great majority of Jewish intercontinental migrants. Other major centers of attraction were the U.S. and Canada, especially in the first part of this period, and France, especially in the 1960s. The considerable movement of Jews to Europe - especially from formerly French North Africa, but also from Middle Eastern countries (including some emigrants from Israel) - is a novel feature in this period.
The rapid transplantation of large Diaspora populations, almost in their entirety, to Israel was a remarkable phenomenon. Within the short span of one to two years, the overwhelming majority of the Jews from the following countries were transferred to Israel:
-- Iraq: 123,000 (during 1948-51)
-- Yemen and Aden: 48,000
-- Libya: 31,000
-- and Bulgaria: 37,000 (during 1948-51).
Jewish intercontinental movements during this period have been marked by large-scale public efforts to organize, implement, and finance both the actual migration and the absorption of the new immigrants. In Israel, these functions were exercised by the *Jewish Agency and by the government of the new state.
[[The big part of the "second class" Jews from Asia and Africa (sephardim) had to live in desert camps for years. The Free Mason Zionist Ben Gurion regime was busy more with wars than with social policy...]]
Migration in other directions was mainly assisted by the *United (col. 1527)
HIAS Service (since 1954) and its predecessor organizations.
The most momentous time in the history of modern Jewish migration was the three and a half years from mid-1948 to the end of 1951, when close to 700,000 Jews migrated to Israel and over 100,000 elsewhere overseas. Israel received about 340,000 immigrants during the period from May 1948 to the end of 1949 and again during 1950-51. Whereas during the whole of the Mandatory period nearly 90% of the immigrants to Palestine had come from Europe, the respective figures for the period under discussion were about 50% from May 1948 to the end of 1949 and only 40% in 1950-51. During the time of "mass immigration" from May 1948 to the end of 1951, most refugees in the D.P. camps, as well as those interned in Cyprus, were taken to Israel. In addition, the overwhelming majority of Jews of the Arabic-speaking countries in Asia, of Libya, and of Bulgaria were brought to the new Jewish state.
[1955-1957: Migration waves: Jews from Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Poland, and Hungary]
Since 1951, Jewish migration to Israel and total Jewish world migration have proceeded according to a wave-like pattern. After a relative lull during 1952-54, there was another intensification of migration in 1955-57, when nearly a quarter of a million Jews participated in intercontinental movements, two-thirds of whom went to Israel. The main countries of emigration in this period were Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt (after the *Suez Campaign of 1956), Poland, and Hungary (during and after the uprising of 1956).
[1961-1964: Migration waves: Jews from Morocco and Romania - Jews from Algeria going to France]
Another ebb occurred in 1958-60, followed by a rise in 1961-64. In the latter four years, about 450,000 Jews took part in intercontinental migrations, of whom half went to Israel and a third to France. The main countries of emigration of those going to Israel were Morocco and Romania. In 1961-62 the exodus of French citizens from Algeria to France occurred, including virtually all the Jews of Algeria.
[[The sephardim who were immigrating to Israel did NOT know about racism of ashkenazim against sephardim, and had NO idea of criminal Zionist Free Masonry and their war attitudes. So many sephardim were not at all happy in Israel, but they did neither return to their home country. Their children are obligatorily in the Jewish army for 3 years for Free Mason's strategical war games for a Great Israel with the border on the Euphrates...]].
By the mid-1960s, a turning point had been approached not only in the movement of immigration to Israel initiated by the establishment of the state, but also in the entire process of modern Jewish intercontinental migration. Ever since the 1880s, when this process assumed great dimensions, the prime moving force of Jewish migration was distress in one form or another (this can be stated without any disregard of the idealistic factors operative in the aliyah of many Jews to Erez Israel). By the mid-1960s the emigration of distress had come near to completing its function. Except where the gates of exit were closed, the regions of discrimination or hardship had been emptied of the overwhelming majority of the Jews who were willing to emigrate.
[since 1967: Migration waves after Six-Day War with more Arab Jews and from Poland]
Since then, the Six-Day War of 1967 and its repercussions have given an additional boost to departures of remaining Jews from Arabic-speaking countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Libya) and from Eastern Europe (col. 1528)
(Poland). Consequently and in the long-range view, either the overall volume of Jewish world migration will be small in the future, or new sources of emigration will have to open up, e.g., the Soviet Union or now-affluent Jewries of the Western world.
[[Since 1986 there is a constant emigration stream from Russia to Israel]].
[Characters of the emigrating Jews between ashkenazim and sephardim]
The Jewish emigrants from Europe and from Asia-Africa since 1948 reflected the main demographic characteristics of their respective communities, as can be seen from the data available in the Israel immigration statistics (Table 8). Because of their higher rate of fertility, Jews emigrating from Asia-Africa had a "younger" age composition and larger families; because of the educational differential [[and Jews from Asia and Africa had not suffered hunger for years under NS regime and had no fertile damage]]; they had a smaller proportion of people engaged in liberal professions.
[Migrations waves within Europe - and within the "USA"]
Since 1948, the major international migrations of Jews within continents have been movements from Eastern Europe to countries in Western Europe, often in the wake of some crisis in a Communist-ruled country. In America , there has been some tendency for Jews to move to the U.S. from other countries of that continent. Important streams of internal Jewish migration that exceeded in distance many international migrations were:
-- in the U.S.S.R. from European to the Asian territories;
-- and in the U.S. - from east coast to west coast.
The urbanization of the Jews and particularly their concentration in the main metropolitan centers of each country have made further progress. Among residential changes within a metropolitan area, those connected with upward social mobility and suburbanization have been prominent. See also *Refugees.> (col. 1529)
[[There were coming many Jews to the "USA", but there was never a Jewish voice fighting for the rights of the natives in the "USA" that they would get a representation in the White House at Washington...]]
Table 6. Jewish Intercontinental Migrations*, May 1948-1964 (rough estimates) [[in Thousands]]
*includes migrants from Asian countries to Erez Israel; excludes internal migration between the European and Asian parts of the U.S.S.R. and remigration to region of origin
Total (May 1948-1964)
May 1948- 1951xxxx in % 1952-1954
in % 1955-1957
in % 1958-1960
in % 1961-1964
in % Total
Country of destination
USA, Canada 240
39% thereof: Europe
Yearly average (Thousands)
Per 1,000 of Jewish population
in whole world
8.6‰ in main emigration regions**
144.9‰ ** May 1948-1951: total Europe (excluding U.S.S.R.), Asia (excluding Israel and U.S.S.R.), North Africa. 1952-1964: Eastern Europe (excluding U.S.S.R.), Asia (excluding Israel and U.S.S.R.), North Africa
from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16, col. 1527-1528
Table 7. Jewish Immigrants to Israel by Origin, May 1948-1967
(including tourists settling)
Percent born in Europe, America, or Oceania [[ashkenazim]]
[[sephardim from Asia and Africa, Jews of "second class" for the Jewish Army]]
1,270,075xxxxxxx 44.1% (880.2) 55.93% (1117)]]
from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16, col. 1527
Table 8. Jewish Immigration to Israel by Origin and Some Demographic Characteristics, May 1948-1967
Europe, America, Oceania [[ashkenazim]]
Asia, Africa [[sephardim, Jews of "second class" for the Jewish Army]]
65 and over
Average Number of Persons per Family Unit, 1952-1967
Occupational distribution of earners, 1955-1967
Industrial, building, transport, and services
Managerial, administrative, and clerical
Professional and technical
from: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16, col. 1529
-- M. Wischnitzer: To Dwell in Safety ... (1948)
-- I. M. Dijour, in: JJSO, 4 (1962), 72-81
-- L. Hersch, in: The Jewish People - Past and Present, I (1948), 407-30
-- J. Lestchinsky, in: L. Finkelstein (ed.): The Jews (1960), 1536-96
-- M. Sicron: Ha-Aliyah le-Yisrael, 1948-1953 (1957)
[U.O.S.]> (col. 1529)
Sources from the article "Migrations"
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Migrations, vol. 16, col. 1525-1526
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Migrations, vol. 16, col. 1527-1528
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Migrations, vol. 16, col. 1529
About Migration 1948-1970 in the article "Israel, State of"
(from: Israel, State of; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 9)
[1948-1970: Immigration figures]
<Between May 15, 1948, and the end of 1970, over 1,300,000 Jews - twice as many as the Jewish population at the end of the Mandate - settled in Israel. They started coming as soon as the State was established. First to arrive were the 25,000 "illegal" immigrants detained by the British in Cyprus: within a few short weeks, they were all brought over. During May-August 1948, while the War of Liberation was raging, 33,000 immigrants came in; then the pace quickened and 70,000 arrived in the first year of independence. This mass immigration continued until the end of 1951.
During this period entire Jewish communities were transplanted to Israel, producing drastic changes in the map of Diaspora Jewry. More than 37,000 of Bulgaria's 45,000 Jews came; 30,500 of Libya's 35,000; all but about 1,000 of the 45,000 in Yemen; 121,512 of the 130,000 in Iraq; two-thirds (103,732) of Polish Jewry; and one-third (118,940) of the Jews in Rumania [[Romania]].
The D.P. camps in Europe could be closed because their inmates had gone to Israel. This mass immigration was marked by unexpected and dramatic events, when the Jewish Agency had to improvise the movement of tens of thousands of people within a very short time and in adverse conditions. These migrations were organized as special operations, planned and executed by special emissaries. The most dramatic were Operation Magic Carpet, for the Yemenite Jews, and Operation Ezra and Nehemiah, which brought over Iraqi Jewry.> (col. 534)
Table 4. Immigrants by Countries of Origin, May 15, 1948-Dec. 31, 1970
Israel, State of; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 9, col. 541
[Jews coming from ex NS territories and from Arab and Muslim countries]
<The overwhelming majority of the immigrants in the mass-immigration period came from what have been called "lands of stress", who were motivated not only by the positive pull of the free, sovereign Jewish State, but also by the push of various negative factors. Such were the survivors of the Holocaust who wished to have nothing more to do with Europe, the Jews in certain countries where the defeat of Nazism had failed to stamp out traditional, endemic anti-Semitism, and the Jews in the Arab and Muslim countries.
By the early 1970s, in addition to the 3,000,000-4,000,000 Jews of Soviet Russia, from which there had never ben more than a small trickle of Jewish immigration for family reunion, only about a quarter of a million Jews remained in the "lands of stress".
[1965-1967: Little immigration with Jews from Latin America - returning Jews]
From 1965 to 1967 there was a decline in the rate of immigration: in 1965 the total fell to 33,098; in 1966 there were only 18,510, and in 1967, 18,065. Many came from *Latin America at that period.
A number of these people found it hard to settle, in view of the economic recession and other causes, and went back.
The Jewish Agency devoted much thought and resources to the requirements of "free" immigration - that is, the immigration of Jews who are free to leave, if they wish, and settle in Israel out of positive motives. The small numbers who came from the "lands of stress" during this period also required, and received, individual treatment.
[since 1965: Immigrant's hotels]
A first step in this direction was taken in 1965, when the Agency started setting up hostels - actually small-scale hotels - where newcomers could stay for six months, or even a year, while they studied Hebrew at special ulpanim, looked for jobs, decided where they wanted to live, explored possibilities, and became familiar with the conditions of life. Now more of these hostels were set up and the existing ones improved and enlarged. Then the concept was broadened and "absorption centers" were established, each containing all the services and facilities - residential, social, and cultural - that the new immigrants required until they could move into permanent housing. Special personnel helped them to adjust to the new environment, choose schools, and find employment and housing.
[Motives for immigration to Israel (aliyah)]
To encourage immigration from the free countries it was necessary not only to "process" immigration, but also to further the idea of aliyah and encourage prospective immigrants by facilitating their absorption. This kind of immigration was marked by its individualistic character. Each immigrant was moved to aliyah by his own reasons and each had his specific potentialities and needs.
In addition to his positive inner motivations, he also had to know that he could find in Israel a job in keeping with his training and experience, housing that reasonably approximated what he was used to, and suitable schooling for his children. Immigrants of this type were easily discouraged by bureaucratic inefficiency and the need to make the rounds of Agency and government offices. Those who gave up the struggle and went back deterred others from making the attempt. Most newcomers from the West came in the first place as "temporary residents", changing their status to that of immigrants only when they were assured of successful integration.
The government and the Jewish Agency, therefore, had to make special efforts to provide suitable facilities and minimize the "run-around" to which the immigrants objected. Various schemes were initiated by groups of immigrants who set up housing estates in Israel with the Agency's assistance. Some of these were organized by hasidic rabbis who lived in the United States and wished to transplant their communities to Israel. The first, Kiryat Tsanz, near Netanyah, was the blueprint for similar projects in other parts of the country (see also Religious Life, col. 899).> (col. 542)
[Immigration to Israel after Six-Day War: Jewish youths helping for Zionist Free Mason Israel]
<AFTER SIX-DAY WAR.
A significant breakthrough in immigration from the West came after the Six-Day War in 1967. The unprecedented rallying of material and moral support for Israel during the crisis embraced many Jews in the Diaspora who had long since renounced any interest in and concern for things Jewish. It had a particularly cathartic effect on Jewish youth, and over five thousand volunteers went to Israel during May-June 1967 to help in any way they could.
By the beginning of 1968, the total number of volunteers from abroad was 7,500, of whom 4,500 went for short periods of up to four months and the rest for six months to a year. They hailed from 40 countries, mainly from Britain (1,900), Latin America (1,500), South Africa (850), France (800), the United States (750), Canada (300), and Australia and New Zealand (275).
More than 4,700 worked in kibbutzim; 450 in moshavim; 1,200 as civilian auxiliaries attached to the Israel Defense Forces; more than 200 in the reconstruction of the University and Hadassah Hospital buildings on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem, and 150 in archaeological excavations; others worked in their own professions, including 225 doctors and nurses, and 100 teachers, youth-group leaders, and social workers, or in land reclamation. The majority received instruction in Hebrew.
[[It can be admitted that the Jewish youths had no idea of the criminal intention of the Zionist Free Mason government at Jerusalem. They were naïve]].
About 1,800 remained - as students, or working in their professions or in kibbutzim with a view to permanent settlement. From 1968 volunteers came at a steady annual rate of about 1,800 under various schemes. The largest was Sherut la-Am ("Service to the People") - a year's voluntary service in kibbutzim and development areas. It was estimated that about a third of the volunteers remained in Israel after their year's service, while many of the others eventually returned as immigrants. (col. 543)
[10 July 1967: Appeal of the Zionist Free Mason government to "build the land"]
There was also a considerable overall increase in aliyah from western countries. On July 10, 1967, the Israel government and the executive of the Zionist Organization and the Jewish Agency issued a "Call to Aliyah" appealing to the Jewish people the world over to come to Israel and build the land. During the second half of 1967 there was a visible rise in the rate of immigration; in 1968 the total increased to over 30,000 and in each of the years 1969 and 1970 to over 40,000.
To cope with the new mood and the new absorption requirements it was necessary to introduce radical changes in the immigration machinery. Thus, in 1967, the three Agency departments involved - Immigration, Absorption, and Economic - were merged into one and a joint Government-Agency Authority on Immigration and Absorption was set up to centralize planning and execution of policy. The Authority worked out various proposals, later passed into law, for special facilities for new immigrants in the spheres of customs, taxation, housing, school and university tuition fees, etc. New absorption centers, hostels, and kibbutz ulpanim were set up all over the country.
At the beginning of 1970 there were 14 absorption centers, with a capacity of 4,000 beds; 13 hostels, with 2,500 beds; 6 students' hostels, with 1,700; and 64 kibbutz ulpanim with 2,250. Since these facilities were intended for half-yearly periods, their annual capacity was double these figures.> (col. 544)
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Israel, State of, vol. 9, col. 533-534
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Israel, State of, vol. 9, col. 541-542
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: Israel, State of, vol. 9, col. 543-544
[The Jewish populations in 1970]
<Among approximately 14 million Jews in the world in 1970, about 6 million were living in North America, predominantly in the [[criminal racist]] United States. About 2 1/2 million were living in the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel. There were about three-quarters of a million in Southern and Central America, and about 200,000 in South Africa and *Australia. The majority of Jews living in France in 1970 arrived there through very recent emigration, mainly from North Africa, and the majority of Jews in England and *Switzerland were the result of immigrations from 1880. The distribution and concentration of Jews in various parts of the [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union was the result both of movements toward the east after 1917 and of movements even farther east during World War II [[with the Big Flight from Barbarossa of 1941-1943]].
The emerging pattern therefore reveals that the vast majority of Jews live in new surroundings, though for a considerable number this change was ardently wished by them (in the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel for historical and ideological reasons [[against the Arabs]], and in the [[criminal racist]] United States because of its attitude toward them).
Western Europe in 1970 numbered more than one million Jews, of whom about half a million were living in France and about 450,000 in Great Britain. The [[criminal Gulag]] Soviet Union numbered approximately three million Jews; (col. 733)
The number of Jews in other communist countries was contracting steadily; they had reached a vanishing point in Poland, because of its current virulent anti-Semitism. Jews had also left most Arab and Muslim states. The history of the Jewish population between 1880 and 1970 shows great vitality in movement, in adjustment to new environments and patterns of living, and in the creation of a state. Its present ecology makes the problems of western urban civilization paramount in Jewish life. Their location and numbers have changed through their own dynamics as well as through the forces of human cruelty, of racism, and *anti-Semitism.> (col. 734)
[[The Arabs and the Palestinians who were driven away in Palestine by the racist Zionist Jewish army are not mentioned...]]
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): History, vol. 8, col. 733-734