1 Numerus clausus against the Jews
How national policies wanted
quotas according to the population proportion - and the
Numerus clausus; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12
presented by Michael Palomino (2007)
("closed number"), amount fixed as maximal number in the
admission of persons (or certain groups of persons) to
specific professions (in particular the liberal
professions), institutions of higher learning, professional
associations, positions of public office, etc.; frequently
applied to Jews.
The numerus clausus on the admission of Jews to institutions
of higher learning was applied in the 19th century, and
extended in the 20th century, in particular in the countries
of Eastern Europe, but also in others. It assumed its most
characteristic form in czarist Russia (see below) as the protsentnaya norma
where the restrictions and limitations on the admission of
Jews were established by special legislation. In countries
such as Poland and Romania (see below) the numerus clausus
was introduced as a quasi-legal means, or was applied in
practice, as part of an anti-Semitic policy.
However, in democratic countries the numerus clausus was
also tacitly applied, at least in some institutions of
higher learning, for social or prestige reasons. A numerus
clausus of this type was applied not only to students but
also (sometimes principally) to teaching staff in the
universities or in admission to the civil or public services
where higher professional qualifications were required.
It was also applied in admission to positions (col. 1263)
which carried a special status, as in the higher ranks of
the civil service, the diplomatic service, army, etc.
[ED.]> (col. 1264)
clausus, vol. 12, col. 1263-1264