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Encyclopaedia Judaica

5  Numerus clausus against the Jews in Romania (Rumania)

How national policies wanted quotas according to the population proportion - and the effects
from: Numerus clausus; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 12

presented by Michael Palomino (2007)

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Numerus clausus against Jews in Romania / Rumania

[since 1922: Numerus clausus with remembrance day and restrictions in medical studies]

<In Romania. In Romania in 1922 a numerus clausus of the admission of Jewish students was advocated by Romanian students in the University of *Cluj. These were members of the Association of Christian Students, founded by adherents of A.C. *Cuza in Jassy earlier that year. It was adopted also by the students in the universities of Jassy, Bucharest, and Cernauti (Chernovtsy).

December 10, the day of its announcement by the students in Cluj, was declared a holiday throughout Romania by the students, who every year took the opportunity to attack Jewish students on that day.

The numerus clausus in Romania was not introduced by law. However, in practice the Christian students, by using force, prevented the Jewish students from regular studies. The position of the science and medical students was especially serious since they were prevented from using the laboratories, taking part in autopsies, etc. In the late 1920s Jewish students in this sphere were forced to go abroad, especially to France and Italy, in order to complete their studies.

[since 1933: Entrance examinations at the universities - discrimination of Jews down to 0%]

At first the majority of teachers in the universities were opposed to the students' anti-Semitic activities, but with the rise of National Socialism in Germany many professors supported the numerus clausus movement. In 1933 special entrance examinations were introduced and Jewish candidates were deliberately failed. The few who were accepted were prevented by the Christian students from taking part in the studies, and in some faculties there were no Jewish students at all. Thus the numerus clausus became a numerus nullus. The Association of Christian Students was subsidized by all ministers of the interior throughout this period.

[1935: Numerus Valahicus]

In 1935 the Romanian statesmen A. Vaida-Voevod declared a "numerus valahicus", (a "Walachian numerus"), a disguised form of the numerus clausus. The head of the Orthodox Church  in Romania, the patriarch Miron Cristea, declared his support of the numerus valahicus in the Romanian senate.

[1934: Quota law for Romanian companies: 80% Romanian workers - 50% Romanians in the management]

A law on the employment of Romanian employees was passed in 1934, which fixed a proportion of 80% for Romanian workers in every place of employment, and 50% for Romanians in their management. This law was felt especially in the textile industry, banking, and commerce, where a large number of Jews was employed. Professional and trade unions, such as the lawyers', accountants', clerical workers', etc., began to evict the Jews from their membership and refused to accept new Jewish members.

[1940: Jewish student quota 0%]

At the beginning of the pro-Nazi regime of Ion Antonescu in 1940, all Jewish students were officially expelled from the schools and universities. This was also the fate of the Jewish workers in the private economic sector.

[TH.L.]> (col. 1268)

<Bibliography>
(col. 1270)

[[no indication]]
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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica: Numerus clausus, vol.
                      12, col. 1267-1268
vergrössernEncyclopaedia Judaica: Numerus clausus, vol. 12, col. 1267-1268


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