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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Zionism 5: Zionists in Palestine (Zionist yishuv) 1919-1945

Zionist dominance in Palestine in Jewish settlements - "overnight settlements" against the Arabs - militarism and eternal war against Arabs

from: History; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 8

presented by Michael Palomino (2007)

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): History, vol. 8, col.
                757-758: The "tower and stockade" settlement
                of Tirat-Zevi in the Beth-Shean Valley, established in
                1938. Courtesy Jewish National Fund
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): History, vol. 8, col. 757-758: The "tower and stockade" settlement of Tirat-Zevi in the Beth-Shean Valley, established in 1938. Courtesy Jewish National Fund

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<THE YISHUV IN EREZ ISRAEL.

[since 1919: Zionists are now dominant in Jewish settlements in Palestine because of war experience]

The impetus of Zionist successes brought the quick reorganization of Jews in Erez Israel, under patterns suggested by Zionism, in the Keneset Yisrael all-country structure, through the *Va'ad Le'ummi, and the Chief Rabbinate, which had as its first head the leading spiritual personality of Abraham Isaac *Kook.

Circles of the "old yishuv" opposed this development and refused to participate in the common organization, basing their argument partly on their opposition to voting rights for women. They appealed to the *League of Nations and obtained the right of secession. They were supported by the Agudat Israel. Though unpleasant, their secession and opposition could not hinder Zionist and yishuv activity in Erez Israel.

Life and development in Erez Israel between the two world wars were influenced by and decided through a number of processes and events. Arab national opposition within the country to the Jews and their enterprise hardened with every success attained by other Arab countries to achieve independence or to approach it, and with every success attained by Jewish settlement and society in Erez Israel.

[[And since that time all books only speak of the Zionists in Palestine, and the non-Zionists which want peace and no Jewish state are never mentioned]].


[Arab resistance against racist Herzl Zionists - British "diplomacy"]

In a series of violent and cruel outbursts in the years (col. 757)

1921, 1929, 1933, and 1936-38, the Arabs tried to break Jewish morale and enterprise. The 1921 excesses achieved for them the Churchill *White Paper (1922), which gave a restrictive definition for the concept of the Jewish National Home, after the closure of Transjordan to Jewish settlement through the creation of a separate Arab emirate (later kingdom), there.

Later outbursts brought in their wake commissions of inquiry, and diplomatic activity which in one way or another brought proposals of concessions to the Arab cause.

The history of relationships in the triangle between the Jews, Arabs, and British authorities in Erez Israel is a long succession of flat Arab no's to a series of compromises loaded heavily in their favor. It is also a chapter in the history of colonial British officials the majority of whom were drawn to the romantic Arab against the ordinary European Jew.

Jewish immigration to Erez Israel was limited by various criteria and formalities; Jewish land acquisition was hindered in many ways. Only a minority of the British officials, and only in a limited number of cases and actions, did fulfill the mandatory power's obligation of furthering the "Jewish National Home".

[[Supplement: Jewish and Arab intentions for a "National Home" - coward British policy
But also the Arabs want a "National Home". So the Zionists are stuck in the Herzl idea against the Arabs and with First Mose chapter 15, phrase 18 (Great Israel with the borderline at the Euphrates). And the British are coward and are never leading the conflict into a solution though a big part of the Jews is non-Zionist at this time and the opportunity for a Jewish province within a big confederation would be good, but not a Zionist Jewish state with imperial intentions]].

[Jewry in Palestine is split: Orthodox - secularists]

Jews were divided among themselves as to the best ways of furthering their enterprise. In the dispute between Weizmann and Judge Louis D. *Brandeis there came to the fore the question of reference for individual initiative on accepted economic lines or preference for national and collectivist enterprises, sound from a social and ideological viewpoint more than an economic one, which began to occupy Zionist attention from the time of this quarrel.

Religious *Mizrachi circles complained about the secular and often anti-religious character of many of the settlers and settlements. The educational system set up by the new yishuv was divided between two networks:

a modern Orthodox one and a "general" one with secularist leanings.

The ultra-Orthodox circles maintained a network of their own. The readiness of Jews to come to Erez Israel was often dependent on the political climate in the Diaspora. Thus the (col. 758)

great immigration of Jews from Poland in the mid-1920s was nicknamed the "Grabski aliyah" after the Polish finance minister who through his discriminatory taxation policy influenced many to make aliyah.

[1920-1939: Jewish colonization settlements and industrialization in Palestine]

Despite these hindrances and vacillations, progress continued unbroken throughout the period. The number of Jews in Erez Israel grew in the 1920s about threefold, reaching 160,000. At the end of this decade there were 110 agricultural settlements (against 50 in 1920), cultivating 700,000 dunams of land. The electrification project of Rutenberg progressed, and the Potash Company successfully exploited the resources of the Dead Sea. The Plain of Jezreel became Jewish; irrigation for Jewish agriculture was swiftly developed. The new forms of the kibbutz and moshav proved themselves viable and were much admired by Jewish and general public opinion.

[[Partly the land was won by drying marshes or cultivating the desert. The Arabs had nothing to say and were never integrated in the work]].

In 1925 the first secular Jewish university was founded, the *Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

[[The name "Hebrew University" is a war declaration against the Arabs]].

This progress continued in the 1930s, accelerated by the needs and plight of German Jewry. In 1933 there were one quarter of a million Jews in Erez Israel, and by 1939 half a million, 120,000 of whom lived in 252 agricultural settlements. These included 68 kibbutzim and 71 moshavim. Mixed agriculture became the main basis of the Jewish settlements' economy, freeing them from dependence on one source of income only, though citrus plantations were very successful. The skills, abilities, and money of German Jews did much to develop industry and advance technology.

[[Hitler let the German Jews go to Palestine 1933-1939, and German Jews could establish industry and technology, but at the end Palestine should be occupied by NS forces after 1941, and all the work should fall into NS hands]].

[Jewish overnight settlements against the Arabs - and illegal immigration]

Even the Arab revolt and frequent attacks on Jewish settlements and traffic on the road did not succeed in halting progress. The method of "*tower and stockade" (homah u-migdal) was invented to erect, overnight settlements capable of defense. Fifty-five new settlements were founded between 1936 and 1939. World War II found the Jewish settlement in Erez Israel strong, active, and alert socially and economically. By 1939 many were embittered against the mandatory government which prevented Jews, then in mortal danger in Europe, from reaching haven in Erez Israel.

[[But also in Palestine Jews are in mortal danger. So the Jews were lured from one trap to the next trap, and Israel was not at all a safe haven because of the Zionist Herzl policy against any Arab, and racist Herzl is not prohibited...]]

As other states had already raised barriers in the 1920s against immigration (e.g., the quota of 1924 in the United States whose terms prevented the entry of many Jews there), Erez Israel was at that time the only society willing and eager to receive them, but for the refusal of the British. Jews developed a network of "*illegal" immigration which smuggled tens of thousands of Jews into the country. Measures taken by the mandatory authorities to suppress this immigration caused further clashes.

[Jewish Zionist defense system against the Arabs]

The defense system, strategy, and tactics of the Jews in Erez Israel were based from 1921 on the underground mass organization of the Haganah. It had to develop its training and arms supplies clandestinely. Up to 1945 strategically always on the defensive against the Arabs, it had to develop under pressure of attack new tactics to respond to different challenges.

In the meantime there were differences of opinion over the share of various social circles in the leadership of the Haganah, expressed mainly in terms of right-wing and left-wing, different policies as to the methods and timing of reaction to individual acts of terror, and from the late 1930s also differences over the question if and to what degree to oppose by armed force the British anti-Zionist legislation and measures.

[Right wing Jewish Zionist guerrilla groups: "Irgun Bet", "Irgun Zeva'i Le'ummi" - "Lohamei Herut Israel"]

These led to splits in the Jewish forces. A group of the minority right wing advocating an activist response to Arab terrorization formed a separate armed underground, generally named the "Irgun Bet" in the 1930s. In 1937, after two splits, the *Irgun Zeva'i Le'ummi (I.Z.L.) emerged and, in 1940, the *Lohamei Herut Israel (Lehi). From many aspects these were more extreme developments of the former right-wing "Irgun Bet". (col. 759)

[Rights wing Jewish Zionist Haganah army against Arabs - and then in the British army in World War II - militarism and "the new Jewish society" in Palestine - admiration for militarism: Maccabees, uprising against the Romans etc.]

The Haganah attempted with considerable success to form legal Jewish militia and defense units in cooperation with the mandatory government. In the personality of Orde Charles *Wingate it found a devoted British officer who identified himself with the Jewish cause. On the eve of World War II a large number of the Jewish youth in Erez Israel were organized one way or another for defense, and ready to serve. They supplied the volunteers for the various Jewish units, and later on the *Jewish Brigade Group in the British army of World War II was formed.

In this unit, in turn, many who were later to be commanders of the Israel Defense Forces gained experience of large-scale training and operations. In the *Palmah, the Haganah created a striking force of youth trained in commando style who through close links with social life in the kibbutzim were emotionally and ideologically devoted to the new Jewish society.

Consciously and subconsciously all these various military and para-military organizations and units drew their inspiration from the conviction, crystallized in Russia at the time of the pogroms, that human stature demanded active armed defense by the Jews of their honor and their life. They were also inspired by historical memories revived on the soil of Erez Israel: the acts of the Maccabees, the example of the great revolt against the Romans (66-70), and the deeply implanted readiness for kiddush-ha-Shem, which had already assumed a secularist form in sacrifice for an ideal in the activities of Jewish revolutionaries in Europe from the second half of the 19th century.> (col. 760)

[[So the racist Herzl Zionism is tearing all Jews in Palestine into a militarism spirit against the Arabs. Life together with the Arabs is not foreseen. That's the trap: eternal war against Arabs. And rich Zionist groups in "USA" are financing it. A discussion about a middle course seems never have been organized...]]

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Sources
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol.
                          8, col. 757-758
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol. 8, col. 757-758
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol.
                          8, col. 759-760
Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971: History, vol. 8, col. 759-760

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