The racist Zionist organization in general
Programs - shekel payers - bank, fund, newspaper Die Welt - splits - changing capital towns - changes of constitutions - racist governing bodies - racist congresses - racist council - racist executive - racist president - racist judicial organs - racist comptroller - racist organization and Jewish Agency - racist Zionist domination of the Jewish Agency since 1947
from: Zionism; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 16
presented by Michael Palomino (2008)
[Racist Zionist program - shekel - "democratic mass movement" - Zionist bank, "National Fund", Die Welt]
The Zionist Organization was founded at the First Zionist Congress (convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, 1897) as the structural framework of the organized [[racist]] Zionist movement, "comprising all Jews who accept the [[racist]] Zionist program and pay the shekel."
The biblical name (col. 1096)
*shekel was given to the membership fee of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization.
Though a rudimentary framework of a popular movement had been established by the Hibbat (Ḥibbat) Zion, it was only through the foundation of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization that [[racist]] Zionism became a modern, democratic [[!?]], mass movement, based on a worldwide interterritorial organization and equipped with instruments for political, settlement, and educational activities on a large scale. The most important of these instruments were created during Herzl's presidency (1897-1904): the Jewish Colonial Trust, to serve as the Zionist bank (1899); the Jewish National Fund (1901), for the acquisition of land as the inalienable property of the Jewish people; and Die Welt [[The World]] (1897), as the official organ of the organization. Herzl died in 1904 before attaining his primary political aim, the Charter, i.e., the grant by the Ottoman authorities of political autonomy in, and the right of settlement of, Erez (Ereẓ) Israel.
[Uganda Scheme splits the Zionists 1903 - Israel Zionists dominating since Balfour Declaration of 1917]
The conflict over the Uganda Scheme at the Sixth [[racist]] Zionist Congress (1903) led to a split in the [[racist]] Zionist Organization. When the Seventh [[racist]] Congress (1905) rejected any settlement activities outside the Land of Israel, the Territorialists seceded from the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and founded the Jewish Territorial Organization, which, however, failed to play a significant part in Jewish life and, after the Balfour Declaration [], disappeared form the public scene.
The growth of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization is best illustrated by the increase in the total number of shekels distributed: in the two-year period ending with the Eighth Zionist Congress (1907; for the former period, only the sums of the shekel revenues are available) there were 164,333; at the 11th [[racist]] Congress (1913) the number of shekels was 217,231; it steeply rose to 855,590 at the next [[racist]] Congress in 1921, the first to be held after World War I and the Balfour Declaration (although at that time most of Russian Jewry, the mainstay of [[racist]] Zionism, had already been cut off from the main body of the movement); at the 21st [[racist]] Congress, on the eve of World War II (1939), the number of shekel holders exceeded 1,000,000; and at the first postwar and last pre-state gathering, the 22nd [[racist]] Congress in 1946, the shekel figures indicated that 2,159,840 Jews were organized in the [[racist]] Zionist Organization.
[Zionist capital: Vienna - Cologne - Berlin - Copenhagen - London]
After Herzl's death, the seat of the organization was transferred from Vienna to Cologne, the residence of Herzl's successor, David Wolffsohn (1905-11). When Otto Warburg headed the organization (1911-20), Berlin became the Zionist capital, but World War I isolated it from the [[racist]] Zionists in the Allied countries, whose activities were centered in London. The purpose of the [[racist]] Zionist Liaison Office set up in 1915 in neutral Copenhagen was to facilitate the contact across the war fronts between the two sections of the organization. London was the capital of the (col. 1097)
[[racist]] Zionist world during the presidencies of [[racist Zionist leader]] Chaim Weizmann (1920-31 and 1935-46) and of [[racist Zionist leader]] Nahum Sokolow (1931-35), but in 1936 the center was transferred to Jerusalem, although London remained the seat of its president and of some members of the Executive.
[Split of racist Zionist Revisionists under Jabotinsky 1933-1946]
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1098: [[Radical racist Zionist]] Vladimir Jabotinsky, head of Betar, presenting the flag to the Kovno unit of the [[radical racist Zionist]] Revisionist youth movement, 1933. Courtesy Jabotinsky Institute in Israel, Tel Aviv
When the 18th [[racist]] Congress (1933) had resolved that "in all Zionist matters the duty of discipline in regard of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization must take precedence over the discipline to any other body", the majority of the [[racist]] Zionist Revisionists, led by Vladimir Jabotinsky, seceded from the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and set up the New Zionist Organization, while a minority of Revisionists, under Meir *Grossman, remained in the ranks as the *Jewish State Party. The split lasted until 1946, when the Revisionists returned to the parent body and renewed their participation in the [[racist]] Zionist Congresses.
[Changes of racist Zionist constitutions]
The First [[racist]] Congress laid down only a rough outline of a few organizational rules. It was the Third [[racist]] Congress (1899) that adopted the first complete [[racist]] constitution (Organisations-Statut) which, substituted by a more elaborated text adopted by the Fifth (1907) and the Tenth Congresses (1911), remained in force until 1921, when a thorough revision of the text and its adaptation to the changed conditions was effected by the 12th [[racist]] Congress. Minor amendments were adopted by each of the subsequent Congresses.
In 1960 an entirely new Constitution came into force and thoroughly changed its structure (see below). The 25th and 26th [[racist]] Congresses (1960, 1964) made efforts to broaden the basis of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization by the admission of associate members, i.e., Jewish bodies which endorse the [[racist]] Zionist program without obliging their members to be organized Zionists. These efforts were initiated and supported by the fifth president of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization, Nahum Goldmann (1956-68), who assumed the presidency after the office had been vacant for ten years.
The 27th [[racist]] Congress (1968) adopted the greater part of the recommendations submitted by the Commission on Reorganization, which had been set up by the preceding Congress, and resolved to amend the Constitution accordingly. These amendments, however, affected details like Congress elections or the participation of youth in [[racist]] Zionist territorial organizations, rather than the general pattern and basic provisions of the Constitution.
[Countrywide territorial unions - separate unions and splits]
Before the [[racist]] Zionist Organization was divided into parties, it had been organized on a purely territorial basis. According to its early Constitution, the member were organized in local societies that were grouped into regional units, which were in turn subordinated to territorial committees in charge of [[racist]] Zionist affairs in the country concerned. With the emergence of ideological trends and groupings, a type of dualism became characteristic of the (col. 1098)
structure of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization. According to the Constitution of 1921, the [[racist]] Zionist Organization was structured both horizontally and vertically: on the one hand, there were countrywide organizations comprising all [[racist]] Zionists without regard to their views on special issues - [[racist]] Zionist territorial unions with local branches; on the other, [[racist]] ZIonists subscribing to a certain ideology, or, as the Constitution put it, "representing a special point of view", were, under certain conditions, given the privilege of forming a separate union (Sonderverband) which set up territorial branches. The first separate union was the Mizrachi (1902);
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1099-1100: [[Racist Zionist religious patriarchal]] Mizrachi conference in Lida, Poland, 1903
Among those [[racist Zionist religious leaders]] present are: 1) Isaac Rabinowitz, 2) Jacob Moreno, 3) Mordecai Dov Judilovitz, 4) Moses Cohen, 5) Zisel Rubinstein, 6) Jacob Berman, 7) Rabbi Esterson, 8) Rabbi Stern, 9) Nahum Greenhaus, 10) Judah Leib (Fishman) Maimon, 11) Rabbi Bramson, 12) Joseph Lamdan, 13) S.J. Drozed, 14) Isaac Jacob Reines, 15) Pinhas (Pinḥas) Rosovsky,16) Rabbi Bernstein,17) Rabbi Amitin, 18) Jacob Greenberg, 19) Samuel Alexandrov, 20) Samuel Waltesman, 21) Pesah (Pesaḥ) Friedland, 22) Abraham Saul Gusman, 23) Abraham Jacob Slutzky, 24) Ephraim Moshevitsky, 25) Zalman Kleinman, 26) Rabbi Melamed. Courtesy A. Rafaeli-Zenziper, Archive for Russian [[racist]] Zionism, Tel Aviv.
the *Po'alei Zion followed in 1907; Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir (ha-Ẓa'ir) and the Jewish State Party were founded as separate unions after World War I. The Ancient Order of *Maccabeans, established in Britain at an early stage of the movement, soon became defunct.
During the first decades of activity, the separate unions represented only a small minority of the membership. At the 12th [[racist]] Congress (1921) the delegates affiliated with the territorial unions numbered 376, while those of all separate unions totaled only 136. The membership and strength of the separate unions steadily grew, however, and at the last [[racist]] Congress before World War II (1939) the proportion was reversed: the delegates of the territorial unions numbered 171 and those of the separate unions 386. Furthermore, at the beginning the member of the [[racist]] Zionist territorial unions were called *General Zionists, simply denoting all those who did not belong to any separate union; but a tendency rose and finally prevailed within the [[racist]] General Zionists to adopt an ideology of their own and to transform themselves into a party like the others. Furthermore, this group often split into two wings, at first called Groups A and B, and since the 24th [[racist Zionist]] Congress (1956) known as the Union and the Confederation of [[racist]] General Zionists, respectively.
On the other hand, the difference between the separate unions and parties not registered as such became blurred and, apart from a few purely formal privileges of the former, ceased to exist for all practical purposes. Because of this differentiation between territorial and separate unions, the [[racist]] Zionist movement in some countries almost disintegrated into several independent parties without common framework, (col. 1099)
apart from joint committees established for special purposes like the shekel and election boards. As a reaction to this "atomization", several Congresses declared that a [[racist]] United Zionist Federation, based on individual membership and comprising all parties and groups, be compulsory in every country. These and later resolutions, which again made the establishment of a joint territorial framework obligatory, but were content with the collective membership of parties in so-called [[racist]] Zionist Federations, largely remained unimplemented.
The structure of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization underwent a profound change with the promulgation of a new Constitution in 1960. It introduced a new official name, the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization (although the traditional one, [[racist]] Zionist Organization, is still more frequently used); the shekel remained in existence as a token of [[racist]] Zionist allegiance and voting card, but members of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization were no longer individual shekel-payers but collective bodies only, namely [[racist]] Zionist territorial organizations and [[racist]] Zionist territorial and interterritorial associations. The former are either [[racist]] Zionist unions based on the membership of individual [[racist]] Zionists (like that of the Netherlands), or [[racist]] Zionist federations based on the collective membership of [[racist]] Zionist bodies (like that of Belgium), or mixed [[racist]] Zionist federations based on the membership both of bodies and individuals (like that of France). Examples of [[racist]] Zionist territorial and interterritorial associations are *Hadassah and *WIZO (incidentally, the two largest [[racist]] Zionist bodies in the world).
[Constitution of 1960]
The Constitution of 1960 introduced a far-reaching reform of decentralization. According to the legal construction underlying the Constitution, the [[racist]] Zionist Organization is the "body authorized by its members to act for and on behalf of the movement and all the members for the implementation of the [[racist]] Zionist program". Emphasis is placed on the autonomy of the members:
"Every member shall determine the conduct of his affairs, the form of his organization and procedure."
Bodies that were affiliated with the [[racist]] Zionist Organization when the new Constitution came into force were considered members under its provisions. New members may be admitted by the [[racist Zionist]] Congress or General Council, provided they comply with a number (col. 1100)
of condition laid down in the Constitution. One of these provisions is that the body "has regard to the protection of the requirements of all its members and to the fundamental principles of justice." (On the membership of national and international Jewish bodies, see above).
The pattern of internal organization very much resembles that of a sovereign state: the shekel payers are comparable to citizens, the Congress elected by them - and to a certain degree also the General Council - is similar to a parliament, the Executive resembles the government or administration of a country, and the Congress Tribunal and the attorney of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization are its "judicial branch". On the other hand, the [[racist]] Zionist Organization differs from a state in two important respects: it is an interterritorial body and not limited by national frontiers; and it is built on a purely voluntary basis, with no means of enforcing its decisions. The ultimate and gravest sanction it may impose is expulsion from its ranks.
THE [racist] ZIONIST CONGRESS
The Congress is the supreme organ of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization . It legislates, receives and considers reports from other organs, determined the financial policy, and elects the president, Executive, General Council, Congress Tribunal, attorney, and comptroller. Until the 26th [[racist Zionist]] Congress (1964) the shekel payers chose the Congress either by direct elections or by "unopposed elections", by means of a "unite slate" arrived at through interparty agreements. The 27th [[racist Zionist]] Congress (1968) was not based on elections but, in accordance with special regulations enacted after the Six-Day War (1967), had the same composition as its predecessor. It decided that future Congresses should not be elected according to a uniform election system, but that each country should itself determine the method of elections of its Congress delegates, provided it does not conflict with generally accepted democratic [[!?]] principles.
Until the 24th [[racist Zionist]] Congress (1956) the number of delegates allotted to an election area (country) was in direct proportion to the number of shekels sold there. Under the Constitution of 1960, however, the size of the representation is fixed by a special commission "having regard to the size of the Jewish population and the totality of the conditions and activities of the [[racist]] Zionist movement in the country concerned."
In Herzl's time Congress met every year (apart from 1902); until 1939 it convened once every two years (with the exception of World War I). The Constitution of 1960 legalized the practice of a four-year inter-Congress period. See also *[[racist]] Zionist Congresses. (col. 1101)
THE [racist Zionist] GENERAL COUNCIL
The longer the intervals between Congresses, the greater the importance attaching to the [[racist]] Zionist General Council, also known by its original name of [[racist]] Herzl's times as Actions Committee. During the inter-Congress period, it has not only legislative functions, but "shall consider and decide upon all matters relating to the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and its institutions". The number of Council members with voting rights in 1968 was 129 compared with 25 in 1921. The Council meets at least once a year no later than March, since the budgetary year of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization terminates on March 31 and one of the Council's prerogatives is to decide on the budget in years when no Congress is held. It discharges this function either itself or through its Permanent Budget and Finance Committee. It has become general practice that the Congress or the Council fixes the framework of the budget, while the details are determined by the committee acting upon the proposals of the Executive. In the course of years the importance of the Council has grown because "delegated legislation" has become increasingly frequent, i.e., the Congress has authorized the Council to make decisions or take steps within the jurisdiction of the Congress. Thus, even the Constitution of 1960 was adopted by the Council and not by the Congress. The Council's membership exactly reflects the composition of the Congress, each grouping being represented by a number of members equal to a fifth of its Congress delegation. Apart from these members with full rights, the Constitution provides for members in an advisory capacity who are entitled to speak but not to vote in the Council's sessions, such as the members of the Executive or [[racist]] Zionist personalities who have been granted seats as "virilists" (i.e., veteran [[racist]] Zionists who are given a seat for their personal merits).
During World War II and up to the 22nd [[racist]] Congress (1946), an Inner General Council in Jerusalem composed of 31 members exercised all functions of the full Council, which could not meet. The presidium of the General Council, consisting of its chairman and 18 members, conducts the meetings of the Council, represents it in external and internal matters, and discharges various duties "imposed by law or referred to by Congress or Council."
THE [racist Zionist] EXECUTIVE
According to the Constitution of 1960, the Executive, elected by the Congress, is "its executive organ charged with the implementation of the decisions of Congress and Council and responsible to these bodies". Its seat and head office is in Jerusalem, but the Executive may "establish one or more divisions abroad". The branch in London was abolished shortly after the proclamation of the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel [[without borderline definition]] (1948), but there is a New York section whose members join their Jerusalem colleagues several times a year for plenary sessions at which general policy is formulated. Day-to-day matters are handled in the almost weekly meetings of the Jerusalem Executive. The Executive acts through its departments, generally headed by one or more of its members.
In 1970 the following main departments were in existence:
-- Immigration and Absorption,
-- Youth Aliyah,
-- Youth and He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz),
-- External Relations,
-- Education and Culture - and
-- Torah Education and Culture - in the Diaspora,
-- and Administration.
Over the years no other governing body of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization has grown in size as much as the Executive, which, originally called the Small Actions Committee, initially numbered five and after Herzl's death seven members. The Executive elected at the first [[racist Zionist]] post-World War I Congress (1921) had only 15 members, but that appointed by the 23rd [[racist Zionist]] Congress (1951) numbered 19 members and two deputies, while that elected in 1966 included 26 regular members (one without voting rights - WIZO) and one deputy. The 27th [[racist Zionist]] Congress (col. 1102)
(1968) reversed this trend, reducing the number of the Executive members to 14 (among them one representative each of the WIZO and the Sephardim) and empowering the General Council to co-opt up to 5 nonparty [[racist]] Zionist personalities.
THE [racist Zionist] PRESIDENT
The president elected by the Congress is "the head and chief representative" of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization. He has the full rights of an Executive member. The actual standing of the president is determined less by his constitutional status than by his personality and activities. No president was elected at the 22nd Congress (1946) and until 1956 [[racist Zionist leader]] Nahum Goldmann and Berl *Locker co-chaired the Executive. IN 1956 Goldmann was elected president of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization until 1968, when, at the 27th [[racist Zionist]] Congress no president was elected, but Louis Aryeh *Pincus was chairman of the Executive from 1965.
THE [racist Zionist] JUDICIAL ORGANS.
The judicial organs of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization are the Congress Tribunal and the attorney. According to the Constitution of 1960, the Congress Tribunal combines the functions of the former Congress Court and Court of Honor. It consists of a maximum of 25 members including the chairman and up to five deputy-chairmen. The Congress Tribunal had jurisdiction to interpret the Constitution; to examine the legality of decisions of central [[racist]] Zionist bodies; to determine disputes between one central [[racist]] Zionist body and another or an individual - except in financial matters; to deal with objections to a postponement of the Congress or a Council session; to verify Congress elections; to deal with appeals from territorial judicial bodies and against decisions of the committees determining the number of Congress delegates and the system of Congress elections; to deal with complaints that the Constitution was infringed or that the interest and prestige of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization damaged.
The attorney of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization (formerly Congress Attorney) is charged with representing the interests of the organization before the Congress Tribunal and advising central [[racist]] Zionist bodies in legal matters.
THE [racist] COMPTROLLER
The comptroller and his office are a counterpart to the state comptroller of [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel or the comptroller and auditor general of Great Britain. The comptroller's task is to "inspect the financial and economic activities of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and its institutions and officers of every kind."
[Racist] ZIONIST ORGANIZATION AND THE JEWISH AGENCY
[The last non-Zionist leaving in 1947 - racist Zionist dominance since 1947]
The term Jewish Agency for Palestine was coined by the Mandate for Palestine promulgated by the League of Nations in 1922, whose article 4 made provision for "the recognition of an appropriate Jewish Agency as a public body for the purpose of advising and cooperating with the Administration of Palestine in such economic, social, and other matters as may affect the establishment of the Jewish National Home and the interests of the Jewish population of Palestine". The Mandate designated the [[racist]] Zionist Organization as the Jewish Agency it envisioned, and until 1929 it functioned in that capacity, i.e., the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and the Jewish Agency were one and the same body. The position changed when at [[racist Zionist leader]] Weizmann's initiative the enlarged Jewish Agency was established at the 26th [[racist]] Zionist Congress (1929) "for discharging the functions of the Jewish Agency asset forth in the Mandate", on the principle of parity between [[racist]] Zionists and "non-Zionists", i.e., Jewish persons and bodies supporting the building of the National Home, without identifying themselves with the political aspirations of [[racist]] Zionism.
Thereafter the [[racist]] Zionist Organization and the Jewish Agency were two different bodies, though headed by the same president. When the last "non-Zionist" member of the Jewish Agency Executive, Werner *Senator, resigned in 1947, the complete identity (col. 1103)
between the Executives of the two institutions was reestablished. This identity existed until 1971. It was confirmed and stressed in the Israel Law on the Status (see below). In that period the difference between the two bodies was one of terminology rather than substance. In practice the name Zionist Organization indicated the activities and functions in respect to the Diaspora, while the designation Jewish Agency was mostly used in connection with work in and for [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel.
After the Six-Day War, when formerly uncommitted sections of the Jewish people identified themselves with the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel to an unprecedented extent, the proposition to enlarge the Jewish Agency and reinstate its separation from the [[racist]] Zionist Organization was again put forward. The 27th [[racist]] Zionist Congress in 1968 authorized the Executive to initiate negotiations with "fund-raising instruments for Israel" with a view to "establishing a direct relationship between the Jewish Agency and such bodies". A year later the General Council approved the principles of the enlargement; in August 1970 the "Agreement on the Reconstitution of the Jewish Agency" was initialed, and on June 21, 1971, it was signed. Since then the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization and the Jewish Agency have again been two independent and separate bodies, although - similar to the pattern of 1929 - 50% of the members of the governing bodies of the Jewish Agency are designated by the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization, the chairman of the [[racist]] Zionist Executive is chairman of the Assembly and of the Executive of the Jewish Agency, and they have in common a treasurer and comptroller. The agreement included a division of functions between the Jewish Agency and the [[racist]] Zionist Organization, according to which the latter will "continue as the organ of the [[racist]] Zionist movement for the fulfillment of [[racist]] Zionist programs and ideals". Its main field of activity is the Diaspora, and it deals with [[racist]] Zionist organization, information, youth and He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz) (pioneering movements), education and culture, external relations, and the activities of the Jewish National Fund, and also encourages and promotes aliyah from free countries.
[Racist] ZIONIST ORGANIZATION AND [racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl] THE STATE OF ISRAEL
In April 1948, one month before the proclamation of the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel [[without definition of borderlines]], the [[racist]] Zionist General Council resolved that after the establishment of the Provisional Government of [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel, "the jurisdiction of the [[racist]] Zionist Executive should comprise settlement, immigration, and all related matters including Youth Aliyah, [[racist]] Zionist information, organization, propaganda and culture, education in the Diaspora, youth and He-Halutz (He-Ḥalutz), the development of Jerusalem and the National Funds." This principle of separation of functions was confirmed in a somewhat modified form by the resolution of the subsequent session of the General Council in August / September 1948 and of the 23rd [[racist]] Congress in 1951. Accordingly, while some functions previously exercised by the [[racist]] Zionist Organization have naturally devolved on the government, other functions remained the sole responsibility of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization-Jewish Agency. In [[racist]] Israel law the mutual relations between the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel and the [[racist]] Zionist Organization-Jewish Agency were put on a firm legal basis by the Law on the Status of the [[racist]] World Zionist Organization-The Jewish Agency-5713 (1952), article 4 of which declares:
"The [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel recognizes the World Zionist Organization as the authorized agency which will continue to operate in the [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] State of Israel for the development and settlement of the country, the absorption of immigrants from the Diaspora and the coordination of activities in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel of Jewish institutions and organizations active in those fields."
The details of this status and the forms of collaboration between the [[racist]] Zionist Organization-Jewish Agency Executive and the (col. 1104)
government of [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel were, as foreseen in article 7 of the law, determined by a "covenant" entered into by them in 1954. A special committee consisting of an equal number of government ministers and [[racist]Zionist Executive members was set up to coordinate activities, but in practice the delineation of the functions of the [[racist]] Zionist Organization-Jewish Agency has remained in a state of flux.
After the Six-Day War proposals were made to increase the government's responsibility for the integration of the immigrants and were widely discussed in [[racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl]] Israel and the Diaspora. In June 1968 the government decided to create a special Ministry for Absorption, with the understanding that even after its establishment, certain aspects of absorption of immigrants would remain in the domain of the Executive of the Zionist Organization-Jewish Agency.
[A.Z.]> (col. 1105)
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1096
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1097-1098
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1099-1100
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1101-1102
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1103-1104
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Zionism, vol. 16, col. 1105-1106
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