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Polen / Poland. Index

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Der Flugzeugabsturz in Smolensk vom 10.4.2010 (Meldungen)

Konzentrationslager in Polen (Meldungen)


Juden in Polen / Jews in Poland

1. Jews in Poland 01: colonization of Poland-Lithuania by Jews  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Jewish settlers - moneylending and trade with connections between Germany, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire - cultural life and disputes - Christian resistance and Jewish towns

2. Jews in Poland 02: 1684-1772  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Chmielnicki pogroms - invasions - depths and taxes - census of 1764 - partition of Poland-Lithuania in 1772

3. Jews in Poland 03: 1772-1914  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Unsuccessful reform plans - emancipation since 1862 - movements and parties with and without assimilation - anti-Semitism with boycott in 1912

4. Jews in Poland 04: 1919-1939  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Borderlines and anti-Semitic state's policy of "independent" anti-Semitic Poland in the name of "nationalism" - numerus clausus, discriminations - emigration wave - racist Zionists and anti-Zionists

5. Jews in Poland 05: Holocaust in general  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Bombings - Einsatzkommandos - deprivations - aryanizations - exercises - burnt synagogues and papers - arrests - camps - massacres - new partition of Poland - figures

5.1. Jews in Poland 05-1: Holocaust in Wartheland, Danzig, and Zichenau  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Resolutions - deportations - ghettos - massacres - Lodz ghetto in Wartheland

5.2. Jews in Poland 05-2: Holocaust in the Regierungsbezirk Kattowitz (East Upper Silesia)  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Jews working in the war industry - ghettos - "evacuations"

5.3. Jews in Poland 05-3: Holocaust in the General Government  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Restrictions - deprivations - aryanizations - Warsaw ghetto - ghettos and camps in Lublin - forced labour - Cracow district - Radom district - Galicia district

5.4. Jews in Poland 05-4: Holocaust in Bialystok district  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Sovietization 1939-1941 - Jewish refugees - Nazi administration by East Prussia 1941-1944 - massacres - overcrowded ghettos - resistance

5.5. Jews in Poland 05-5: Holocaust in Polish parts of Lithuania and Belarus  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Sovietization - Nazi rule with massacres - ghettos - deportations

5.6. Jews in Poland 05-6: Holocaust in Volhynia-Podolia  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Jewish refugees - Sovietization - Stalin deportations - Nazi occupation and collaboration - massacres - ghettos

5.7. Jews in Poland 05-7: Holocaust demography  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Numbers - and wrong numbers

5.8. Jews in Poland 05-8: Holocaust and Jewish resistance  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Self-defense - industries and smuggling - aid organizations - secret actions in the ghettos - fights and revolts

5.9. Jews in Poland 05-9: Holocaust and Jewish partisans  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Forming of groups - Jewish partisan units and leaders

5.10. Jews in Poland 05-10: Jewish-Polish relations during the Holocaust  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Anti-Semitic population - right and left political parties - exile government - Nazi German propaganda - collaboration by the Polish police - Polish help - extremization with Soviet army coming

6. Jews in Poland 06: Revival 1944-1947  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Rescue of Jewish children after 1944 - installation of new Jewish institutions - racist Zionists dominating the non-Zionists - Polish Jews coming back from central Russia or staying in Russia - cultural life

7. Jews in Poland 07: Pogroms and mass flight 1946-1947  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Anti-Jewish riots and pogroms - flight movement

8. Jews in Poland 08: Stalinization since 1948  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Foundation of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel and the reaction with prohibitions and anti-Semitism waves - emigration waves

9. Jews in Poland 09: Relations with racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
Polish goodwill - anti-Jewish change after foundation of racist Zionist Free Mason CIA Herzl Israel - Gomulka government with improved relations - cultural exchange - block after Six-Day war - trade relations with Polish depths


Juden in polnischen Städten / Jews in Polish towns
  • Jews in Bialystok  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Tykocin province - Jews in guilds - Prussian rule, then Russian rule with discrimination - textile production - cultural life - sovietization - Holocaust, ghetto production for the Wehrmacht - resistance and partisans - post-war times
  • Jews in Chelm  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Documents about Jews in Chelm since 1442 - community life - anti-Semitism and Chmielnicki massacres - criminal Church - numbers - Holocaust with withdrawal of the Soviet army with Jews - death march, Slovakian Jews - deportations - Jews of Chelm in the Soviet and Polish army - Jews from Chelm in the whole world since 1945
  • Jews in Chmielnik  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Anti-Trinitarians - Swedes and Polish massacre - community life - flight in WW I - flight in 1939 to eastern Soviet Poland - resistance, ghetto and deportations - Chmielnik Jews in Soviet and Polish army - anti-Semitism and emigration waves 1945-1970

Cracow
  • Jews in Cracow 01: settlement and Kazimierz  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish settlement in strategical important Cracow - competition with German trade - university in Jewish houses in 1469 - expulsion to Kazimierz in 1495 - unification of Cracow with Kazimierz
  • Jews in Cracow 02: 16th and 17th century  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Jewish influx from Bohemia-Moravia, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Portugal - estate and trade regulations - schooling, rabbis, Shabbateans, and reform movement - invasions and taxes
  • Jews in Cracow 03: 18th century to 1848  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    "Christian" pressure - professions - inner split - Polish partitions - Austrian and Polish rule - Orthodox and Enlightenment movements - tax questions - Cracow republic and refirms 1815-1846 - revolution and reforms in 1848
  • Jews in Cracow 05: Holocaust and post-war times  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Flight movement to eastern Poland - Holocaust with actions, deportations, ghetto - resistance groups - returning Jews from central Russia - anti-Semitism since 1945 - exodus
Weitere Städte / Further towns
  • Jews in Dzialoszyce  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Numbers - professions - Holocaust with deported Polish Jews coming to Dzialoszyce - massacres and resistance - post-war times
  • Jews in Gdansk (Danzig)  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    German rule and Jewish Lane - Polish law and restrictions - Northern wars and expulsion of 1748 - Prussian "liberation decree" of 1814 - Free City 1920-1938 - discriminations and emigration waves since 1937 - pogroms and more emigration in 1938 - Holocaust deportations - some Jews since 1945 - emigration waves


Warsaw
  • Jews in Warsaw 01: Middle Ages to 1939  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Expulsions and restrictions - Sejm since 1572 - "daily tickets" - massacre of 1772 by the Russian army - Prussian rule - Napoleon rule - Orthodox, opponents and enlightenment Jews - emancipations since 1862 - professions, careers - Polish anti-Semitism since 1881 - racist Zionism and Socialist Bund
  • Jews in Warsaw 02: Holocaust and post-war times  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Discriminations - Warsaw ghetto - underground work - underground institutions and secret Jewish religious services - deportations - armed resistance and Warsaw ghetto uprising 1943 - Warsaw uprising 1944 - Jews coming back from central Russia 1945-1946 - emigration waves 1946-1970

Kleine Städte / Little towns
  • Jews in Poland: Little towns A-K  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Chortkov - Chryzanow - Gabin - Gniezno (Gnesen) - Gostynin - Hrubieszow - Inowroclaw (Hohensalza)
Weitere Städte / further towns
  • Jews in Zamosc  (Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  English
    Settling Jews - Chmielnicki massacres - Enlightenment , authors, Orthodox movement - flight movement in WW I - numbers - withdrawal of the Soviet army with approx. 5,000 Jews - Holocaust - post-war emigration waves


Begriffe / expressions

Sejm: Parliament
Sejmik: small parliament